Organelle PP by 72b3i16T

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									ORGANELLES
                  Organelles
• Cell membrane        • Mitochondria
• Cell Wall            • Chloroplast
• Nucleus              • Golgi Apparatus
• Nucleolus            • Lysosomes
• Endoplasmic          • Vacuole
  reticulum(ER)        • Centrioles
• Ribosomes
            CELL MEMBRANE
 Holds the cell together


 Keeps all of the pieces inside the cell
          (like the organelles and the cytoplasm)


 Controls what goes in and out of the cell
      How does the cell membrane work?

Has 2 layers of MOLECULES = BILAYER

Bi means two

The layers are made up of molecules called
phospholipids
Cell Membrane: PHOSPHOLIPIDS
            Each phospholipids
            has a HYDROPHOBIC
            and HYDROPHILIC
            end




          •HYDRO = means water
          •PHOBIC = means afraid
          •PHILIC = means loving
     Cell Membrane: PHOSPHOLIPIDS

 One end of the molecule is “afraid” of the
water and one end “loves” being in the water.

 Proteins are stuck inside the membrane


 Proteins are across the bi-layer and make the
holes that let ions and molecules in and out of
the cell

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    Cell Wall
• Rigid Structure that gives support to cells.
• The outermost structure

• What types of cells have cell walls?
  – Plants : Cellulose
  – Fungi: Chitin
     Nucleus
The “brain” of the cell

Controls all of the
    cellular activities

DNA is inside the nucleus
                  Nucleus
CHROMOSOMES-        are found inside
                    the nucleus
              carry the information that
Chromosomes – determines what traits a living
              thing will have




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 NUCLEOLUS
The dark area in
          the nucleus

Like a tiny nucleus
   inside the nucleus.

Where the cell begins to make
ribosomes
     Endoplasmic Reticulum
Endoplasmic Reticulum
        -Nickname: The “ER”

There are two different
 Smooth ER
 Rough ER
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                 Smooth ER

 Main function is to collect, maintain, & transport
things


 Creates steroids
Rough ER
It has bumps all over it giving it a “rough”
appearance

Bumps are called RIBOSOMES


ER collects the proteins (built by the ribosomes)
and creates a bubble around them
                    Ribosomes
• Small dot-like structures found in cells.
• There are two kinds of ribosomes
•    1) Attached to the rough ER
•    2) floating in the cell cytoplasm

• Ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis
  in cells
• Made in the nucleus of the cell
          Mitochondria
 Mito = Mighty / Power

 The Power-House of the cell

 They break down food molecules so the cell has
the energy to live

Have 2 membranes and their own DNA

 If a cell needs a lot of energy…it will have more
mitochondria
       The Mitochondria structure has
             three main parts:
• OUTER MEMBRANE: covers the
  mitochondria



• INNER MEMBRANE: folds many
  times to increase the surface area
  because chemical reactions
  (glycolysis) occur here



• MATRIX: a fluid that has water
  and proteins all mixed together
• (like a solution)
                             Chloroplast
• Found in Plant cells and Algae
• Site of photosynthesis in
  eukaryotic cells
• Have 2 membranes and their
  own DNA
• The food made by chloroplasts
  are used by mitochondria

• Photosynthesis : the process in which plant use
  water, carbon dioxide, and energy form the sun to
  make food (glucose)
Think about building a model of a ship (that's the
molecule). Then take that model and put it in a
bottle (that's the vesicle).
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                            Golgi Complex
• Looks like the Smooth “ER”
• Lipids and proteins from the ER are
  delivered to the Golgi complex.
• Modifies and packages different lipids and
  proteins
• Products are enclosed in a piece of the
  Golgi complex’s membrane
                VESICLES
• The bubble that forms from the Golgi
  complex’s membrane is a vesicle.



• A small sac that surrounds material to be
  moved into or out of a cell




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 LYSOSOMES (primarily animal)

•They combine with the food taken in by the cell

•The enzymes in the lysosome bond to food &
digest it (acidic interior)

• Next…smaller molecules are released which
  are absorbed by the mitochondria
                  Lysosomes
• Vesicles that are
  responsible for
  digestion inside a cell.
• Contain digestive
  enzymes
• Primarily found in
  animal cells
• Means “kill body” in
  Latin
                Vacuoles
• Some vacuoles act like lysosomes and aid in
  digestion within the cell.
• The large central vacuole in plant cells
  stores water and other liquids.
When a plant's vacuoles are empty, the plant
will begin to droop over and wilt

When vacuoles are full they are called turgid
               Centrioles
• Found mainly in animal cells
• Involved in cell division (mitosis)
• Help pull chromosomes to the opposite ends
  of the cell.

								
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