ORGANELLES Organelles • Cell membrane • Mitochondria • Cell Wall • Chloroplast • Nucleus • Golgi Apparatus • Nucleolus • Lysosomes • Endoplasmic • Vacuole reticulum(ER) • Centrioles • Ribosomes CELL MEMBRANE Holds the cell together Keeps all of the pieces inside the cell (like the organelles and the cytoplasm) Controls what goes in and out of the cell How does the cell membrane work? Has 2 layers of MOLECULES = BILAYER Bi means two The layers are made up of molecules called phospholipids Cell Membrane: PHOSPHOLIPIDS Each phospholipids has a HYDROPHOBIC and HYDROPHILIC end •HYDRO = means water •PHOBIC = means afraid •PHILIC = means loving Cell Membrane: PHOSPHOLIPIDS One end of the molecule is “afraid” of the water and one end “loves” being in the water. Proteins are stuck inside the membrane Proteins are across the bi-layer and make the holes that let ions and molecules in and out of the cell 6 7 Cell Wall • Rigid Structure that gives support to cells. • The outermost structure • What types of cells have cell walls? – Plants : Cellulose – Fungi: Chitin Nucleus The “brain” of the cell Controls all of the cellular activities DNA is inside the nucleus Nucleus CHROMOSOMES- are found inside the nucleus carry the information that Chromosomes – determines what traits a living thing will have 10 NUCLEOLUS The dark area in the nucleus Like a tiny nucleus inside the nucleus. Where the cell begins to make ribosomes Endoplasmic Reticulum Endoplasmic Reticulum -Nickname: The “ER” There are two different Smooth ER Rough ER 14 Smooth ER Main function is to collect, maintain, & transport things Creates steroids Rough ER It has bumps all over it giving it a “rough” appearance Bumps are called RIBOSOMES ER collects the proteins (built by the ribosomes) and creates a bubble around them Ribosomes • Small dot-like structures found in cells. • There are two kinds of ribosomes • 1) Attached to the rough ER • 2) floating in the cell cytoplasm • Ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis in cells • Made in the nucleus of the cell Mitochondria Mito = Mighty / Power The Power-House of the cell They break down food molecules so the cell has the energy to live Have 2 membranes and their own DNA If a cell needs a lot of energy…it will have more mitochondria The Mitochondria structure has three main parts: • OUTER MEMBRANE: covers the mitochondria • INNER MEMBRANE: folds many times to increase the surface area because chemical reactions (glycolysis) occur here • MATRIX: a fluid that has water and proteins all mixed together • (like a solution) Chloroplast • Found in Plant cells and Algae • Site of photosynthesis in eukaryotic cells • Have 2 membranes and their own DNA • The food made by chloroplasts are used by mitochondria • Photosynthesis : the process in which plant use water, carbon dioxide, and energy form the sun to make food (glucose) Think about building a model of a ship (that's the molecule). Then take that model and put it in a bottle (that's the vesicle). 21 Golgi Complex • Looks like the Smooth “ER” • Lipids and proteins from the ER are delivered to the Golgi complex. • Modifies and packages different lipids and proteins • Products are enclosed in a piece of the Golgi complex’s membrane VESICLES • The bubble that forms from the Golgi complex’s membrane is a vesicle. • A small sac that surrounds material to be moved into or out of a cell 23 LYSOSOMES (primarily animal) •They combine with the food taken in by the cell •The enzymes in the lysosome bond to food & digest it (acidic interior) • Next…smaller molecules are released which are absorbed by the mitochondria Lysosomes • Vesicles that are responsible for digestion inside a cell. • Contain digestive enzymes • Primarily found in animal cells • Means “kill body” in Latin Vacuoles • Some vacuoles act like lysosomes and aid in digestion within the cell. • The large central vacuole in plant cells stores water and other liquids. When a plant's vacuoles are empty, the plant will begin to droop over and wilt When vacuoles are full they are called turgid Centrioles • Found mainly in animal cells • Involved in cell division (mitosis) • Help pull chromosomes to the opposite ends of the cell.
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