Topic 4 MRP

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					Operations Management (2)

Material Requirements Planning
Topic 4
Prof. Upendra Kachru

Prof. Upendra Kachru

Operations Management

MASTER PRODUCTION SCHEDULE (MPS)

The MPS is an authoritative statement translating the aggregate plan into how many (and how), items are to be produced, and when. A trial MPS schedule is developed from the aggregate plan. This is called the Master Schedule or the rough-cut capacity planning process.

Prof. Upendra Kachru

Operations Management

Rough-cut capacity planning is converted into the Master Production Schedule (MPS). The MPS represents the most important plan in the resource-management system. It provides details about the quantities and delivery timings of a product, but not the production plan.

Master Production Schedule (MPS)
Operations Management

Prof. Upendra Kachru

The MPS process deals with more detailed information than the aggregate plan. It is a time-phased plan specifying how many and when the firm plans to build each end item.

Aggregate Plan (Product Groups)

MPS (Specific End Items)

MASTER PRODUCTION SCHEDULE (MPS)

Prof. Upendra Kachru

Operations Management

5

From the point of quantity and timing related production planning systems, four categories of systems are possible to manage and control inventories.
• Statistical Order Point; • Lot Requirement Planning; • Time Phased Order Point, • Material Requirements Planning (MRP).

We will limit our discussions to MRP as it is probably the most comprehensive approach to manufacturing inventory and other dependents demand inventory management systems.
Prof. Upendra Kachru

Operations Management

MATERIAL PLANNING
Master Production Schedule (MPS)
(what we plan)

Inventory Status Records

(what we have)

Material Requirements Planning (MRP)

(what we require)

Product Structure Records

(what we need)

Purchasing
Prof. Upendra Kachru

Manufacturing
Operations Management

A MRP system, narrowly defined, consists of a set of logically related procedures, decision rules and records designed to translate a master production schedule into net requirements and the planned coverage of such requirements, for each component inventory item needed to implement the schedule.

MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS PLANNING (MRP)
Prof. Upendra Kachru

Operations Management

Material Requirement Planning (MRP) is a process that enables continuous planning based on re-evaluation of demand and on changing planning parameters (lead time determination, make or buy decisions, lot sizing).
MRP uses bill of material, master production schedules, and inventories for identifying the amounts and types of material required for future manufacturing projects. Dependent demand drives MRP
Prof. Upendra Kachru

WHAT DOES IT DO?

Operations Management

Material Requirement Planning has as it's objectives ensuring that we can have the: Right Material, The Right Amount, At the Right Time and Right Place.

WHAT ARE THE OBJECTIVES OF MRP?

Prof. Upendra Kachru

Operations Management

The main function of Material Requirements Planning is to guarantee material availability. It is used to procure or produce the requirement quantities on time both for internal purposes and for sales and distribution. This process involves the monitoring of stocks and, in particular, the creation of procurement proposals for purchasing and production.

WHAT ARE THE FUNCTIONS OF MRP?

Prof. Upendra Kachru

Operations Management

Based on a master production schedule, a material requirements planning system:


Creates schedules identifying the specific parts and materials required to produce end items Determines exact unit numbers needed Determines the dates when orders for those materials should be released, based on lead times



Material Requirements Planning System



Prof. Upendra Kachru

Operations Management

The bill of materials is a materials list that provides information useful to reconstruct the manufacturing process. It is the master product definition that contains „asdesigned‟ information. The information includes product description:
    Materials Parts Components Production sequence

Bill of Materials

Prof. Upendra Kachru

Operations Management

The bill of material file provides complete information on:
 Raw materials in stock  Semi finished component parts in stock  Finished component parts in stock  Sub-assemblies in stock  Component parts in process  Sub-assemblies in process

Bill Of Materials (BOM) File:

Prof. Upendra Kachru

Operations Management

15

Typical Product Structure
P A

A

H

N

Z

Level 1

B

I

X

R G X

Q

X

Level 2

D
E

F

Q

R

S

Level 3

The bill of material file guides the explosion process.
Prof. Upendra Kachru

Operations Management

A typical Engineering Bill of Materials
Level Part1 16844-23003 16844-23003 16844-23003 16844-23003 16844-23003 16844-23003 16844-23003 16844-23003 16844-23003

Revision Quantity
B J C B B D F AA E 1 1 3 2 1 2 3 4 5

Description Make/buy
Adapter Control Unit Moisture Tester Enclosure Enclosure Machine Screw Cover Make Buy Make Buy Buy Buy Buy

Precipitator Make y Assy. Element Buy

16844-23003
16844-23003 16844-23003
Prof. Upendra Kachru

E
D G

6
4 3

Housing
Machine

Buy
Buy

Precipitator Buy Operations Management

Each inventory item is carried as a separate file The inventory record divides the future into time periods called time buckets. The bill of materials pegs materials i.e. lists components of each assembly and subassembly linking of individual item bills which from the product, resulting in a hierarchical, and pyramid like structure with different levels. It Identifies each parent item that created demand
Prof. Upendra Kachru

BOM File

Operations Management

It is an artificial grouping of items in bill of materials format, which expresses the relationship of multiple product features, variants and options, where inventory items are arranged in terms of product modules each of which can be planned as a group. Modular bill kept for each major subassembly Simplifies forecasting and planning

Modular Bill of Materials
Operations Management

Prof. Upendra Kachru

Modular BOM Modular BOMs
X10 Automobile

Engines (1 of 3)

Exterior color (1 of 8)

Interior (1 of 3)

Interior color (1 of 8)

Body (1 of 4)

4-Cylinder (.40) 6-Cylinder (.50) 8-Cylinder (.10)

Bright red (.10) White linen (.10) Sulphur yellow (.10)

Leather (.20) Tweed (.40) Plush (.40)

Grey (.10) Light blue (.10) Rose (.10)

Sports coupe (.20) Two-door (.20) Four-door (.30)

Neon orange (.10)
Metallic blue (.10) Emerald green (.10) Jet black (.20) Champagne (.20)

Off-white (.20)
Cool green (.10) Black (.20) Brown (.10) B/W checked (.10)

Station wagon (.30)

Combinations = 3 x 8 x 3 x 8 x 4 = 2,304 configurations Combinations = 3 + 8 + 3 + 8 + 4 = 26 modular bills
Operations Management

There are two somewhat different objectives, in modularization.
 To disentangle combination of optimal product features.  To segregate common from unique, or peculiar parts.

Objectives of Modularization

The first is required to facilitate forecasting. The second is aimed at minimizing inventories in components that are common to option alternatives

Prof. Upendra Kachru

Operations Management

Primary Prerequisites For MRP
1. A Master Production Schedule exists and can be stated in bill of materials form; 2. All inventory items are uniquely identified; 3. A bill of material exists at the time of planning 4. Inventory records contain data on the status of every item; 5. There is integrity of file data.

Prof. Upendra Kachru

Operations Management

1. Individual item lead times are known; 2. Every inventory item goes into and out of stock 3. All of the components of an assembly are needed at the time of release of assembly orders; 4. There is discrete disbursement and usage of component materials 5. Process independence of manufactured items is ensured.
Prof. Upendra Kachru

Assumptions

Operations Management

Process Independence

 The process is independent means that a manufacturing order for any given inventory item can be started and completed on its own and not be contingent on the existence or progress of some other order for completing the process.  Thus, „mating part‟ relationships and set up dependencies do not fit the scheme of MRP.
Prof. Upendra Kachru

Operations Management

It is the difference between the inventory available from the previous period and the customer orders booked; the maximum commitment to customers in a given time period. Apart from the first period in which the initial inventory is available from previous week, available-to-promise inventory is found for only those periods in which an MPS value is scheduled.
Prof. Upendra Kachru

Available-toPromise Inventory

Operations Management

Operations managers set various time intervals called time fences to regulate changes in the MPS. Generally at least three time fences are fixed.
The first fence before actual production takes place is strictly frozen, i.e., no changes are allowed during this time. (Frozen)

Time fences

During the second time fence, changes are avoided though minor changes may still be permitted. (Moderately Firm)
The third time fence permits product model changes provided the required components are available. (Flexible)
Prof. Upendra Kachru

Operations Management

Example Of Time Fences
Frozen
Capacity

Moderately Firm

Flexible Forecast and available capacity

Firm Customer Orders

8

15
Weeks

26

Prof. Upendra Kachru

Operations Management

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 The MPS expresses the overall production plan and the span of time covered by it is termed the planning horizon.  Time Fences are given  BOM, its data integrity is ascertained  Orders for components originating from sources external to the plant using the system, and  The forecasts for items subject to independent demand.

MRP Inputs

Prof. Upendra Kachru

Operations Management

MRP INPUTS
Forecasts Customer orders

Inventory transactions

MASTER PRODUCTION SCHEDULE (MPS)
(Indicates products to produce and when they are needed)

Engineering changes

INVENTORY STATUS RECORDS
(Contains on-hand balances, open orders, lot sizes, lead times, and safety stock)

PRODUCT STRUCTURE RECORDS
(Contains bills of materials and shows how product is produced)

MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS PLANNING
(Explodes BOM per MPS requirements, nets out
inventory levels, offsets lead times, and issues reports on:

1. what to order and how many 2. when to order 3. what orders to expedite, deexpedite, or cancel)
Prof. Upendra Kachru

Operations Management

MRP Logic
The basis for MRP design is based on a concept of dependent demand and a time phasing approach. The approach combines three principles:
1. The inventory system deals with dependent demand. 2. Component demand can be precisely determined from the master schedule. 3. The optimum levels of inventory can be determined by time phasing, i.e., segmenting inventory status data by time.

Prof. Upendra Kachru

Operations Management

In determining net requirements for a low-level inventory item, the quantity that exists under its own identity, as well as any quantities existing as (consumed) components of parent items must be accounted for. Net requirements are developed by allocating (reallocating) quantities in inventory to the quantities of gross requirements, in a level-by-level process. The downward progression from one product level to another is called an explosion.

MRP Logic

Prof. Upendra Kachru

Operations Management

MRP Logic and Product Structure Tree
Given the product structure tree for “A” and the lead time and demand information below, provide a materials requirements plan that defines the number of units of each component and when they will be needed Lead Times A 1 day B 2 days C 1 day D 3 days E 4 days F 1 day Total Unit Demand Day 10 50 A Day 8 20 B (Spares) Day 6 15 D (Spares)
Operations Management
32

Product Structure Tree for Assembly A

A B(4) D(2) E(1) D(3) C(2) F(2)

Prof. Upendra Kachru

First, the number of units of “A” are scheduled backwards to allow for their lead time. So, in the materials requirement plan below, we have to place an order for 50 units of “A” on the 9th day to receive them on day 10.
Day: A Required Order Placem ent 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 50 10 50

LT = 1 day

Prof. Upendra Kachru

Operations Management

33

Next, we need to start scheduling the components that make up “A”. In the case of component “B” we need 4 B‟s for each A. Since we need 50 A‟s, that means 200 B‟s. And again, we back the schedule up for the necessary 2 days of lead time.
Day: A B R e q u ire d O rd e r P la c e m e n t R e q u ire d O rd e r P la c e m e n t 20 200 20 50 200 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 50

LT = 2 A B(4) D(2) E(1) D(3) C(2) F(2)

Spares
4x50=20 0

Prof. Upendra Kachru

Operations Management

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35

Finally, repeating the process for all components, we have the final materials requirements plan:
Day: A LT=1 B LT=2 C LT=1 D LT=3 E LT=4 F LT=1 Required Order Placement Required Order Placement Required Order Placement Required Order Placement Required Order Placement Required Order Placement 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 50 200 100 55 55 20 200 200 200 400 300 20 200 400 100 300 10 50

20 20 200

A B(4) D(2) E(1) D(3) C(2) F(2)
Operations Management
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Part D: Day 6
40 + 15 spares

Prof. Upendra Kachru

For an MRP to be able to carry out a complete explosion, lotsizing algorithms must be incorporated into the computer program that controls the requirement computation. Lot sizing techniques can be categorized into those that:
 Generate fixed, repetitively ordered quantities, and  Those that generate varying order quantities.

Lot Sizing
Prof. Upendra Kachru

Operations Management

The fixed order quantity policy maintains the same order quantity each time an order is issued. This may be specified for any item under an MRP system, but in practice is limited to a few items with high ordering cost. However, this rule is also used when suppliers specify:
Quantity discounts, Truckload capacity, or Minimum purchase quantities

Fixed Order Quantity (FOQ):

Prof. Upendra Kachru

Operations Management

This model has been discussed in detail in the lesson on Inventory Management. This technique is unsuited to discrete, discontinuous, nonuniform demand situations. It is generally used for continuous and assemblyline type operations only.

Economic Order Quantity (EOQ):

Prof. Upendra Kachru

Operations Management

The common objective of all MRP systems is to determine (gross and Lot Sizing net) requirements, so as to be able to generate information needed for correct action in ordering inventory, i.e., relating to procurement and production.
In addition to the techniques discussed earlier, lot sizing techniques in MRP programs may include the following:
 Fixed Order Quantity (FOQ)  Period Order Quantity (POQ)  Lot for Lot Ordering (L4L)

 Least Unit Cost (LUC)
 Least Total Cost (LTC)
Prof. Upendra Kachru

Operations Management

The factors that are generally considered in the design of such techniques include:
 Variability of demand;  Length of the planning horizon;  Size of the planning period; and  Ratio of setup and unit costs.

Factors to Consider
Operations Management

Prof. Upendra Kachru

Firm orders from known customers

Aggregate product plan

Forecasts of demand from random customers

Engineering design changes

Master production Schedule (MPS)

Inventory transactions

Bill of material file

Material planning (MRP computer program)

Inventory record file

Secondary reports
Primary reports Planned order schedule for inventory and production control
Prof. Upendra Kachru

Exception reports Planning reports Reports for performance control
Operations Management ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004
41

Planned orders to be released at a future time Order release notices to execute the planned orders Changes in due dates of open orders due to rescheduling Cancellations or suspensions of open orders due to cancellation or suspension of orders on the master production schedule
Inventory status data

Prof. Upendra Kachru

Primary MRP Reports
Operations Management

Conti.
Each MRP record has the following information:
1.Item Identity (part number) 2.Order Quantity 3.Date of Order Release 4.Date of Order Completion (due date)

Prof. Upendra Kachru

Operations Management

MRP Record of Rubber Hose
Item: ANX-123 Description: Rubber Hose Week Gross Requirements Scheduled Receipts Projected on-hand Inventory Planned Receipts Planned Order Releases 1 150 2 3 Size: 100 units Lead Time: 2 Weeks 4 100
100

5

6 120

7

8 150

200
50

150
50 80 150 80

70
0 70

Planned Orders & Order Release Prof. Upendra Kachru

Inventory

50
100

100

150
Due dates

70

Operations Management

Once the order has been Conti. placed, the types of order action that are required when revising an action taken previously, are limited to the following:
Increase in Order Quantity Decrease in Order Quantity Order cancellation Advancement of Order Due Date 5. Deferment of Order Due Date 6. Order suspension (indefinite deferment) 1. 2. 3. 4.

Prof. Upendra Kachru

Operations Management

Planning Reports, for example, forecasting inventory requirements over a period of time
Performance Reports used to determine agreement between actual and programmed usage and costs Exception Reports used to point out serious discrepancies, such as late or overdue orders
Prof. Upendra Kachru

Secondary MRP Reports

Operations Management

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MRP Example
X A(2) B(1)
Item X A B C D On-Hand Lead Time (Weeks) 50 2 75 3 25 1 10 2 20 2

C(3)

C(2)

D(5)

Requirements include 95 units (80 firm orders and 15 forecast) of X in week 10

Prof. Upendra Kachru

Operations Management

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X

X LT=2 Onhand 50 A LT=3 Onhand 75 B LT=1 Onhand 25 C LT=2 Onhand 10 D LT=2 Onhand 20

A(2)

It takes 2 A‟s for each X

Day: Gross requirements Scheduled receipts Proj. avail. balance Net requirements Planned order receipt Planner order release Gross requirements Scheduled receipts Proj. avail. balance Net requirements Planned order receipt Planner order release Gross requirements Scheduled receipts Proj. avail. balance Net requirements Planned order receipt Planner order release Gross requirements Scheduled receipts Proj. avail. balance Net requirements Planned order receipt Planner order release Gross requirements Scheduled receipts Proj. avail. balance Net requirements Planned order receipt Planner order release

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10 95 50 45 45

50 50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

45 90 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 15 15 45 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 20 20

15

45 10 10 10 10 10 35 35 40

20 40

40 40 100

35

20 20

20

20

20

20

20 80 80

80

Prof. Upendra Kachru

Operations Management

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X

X LT=2 Onhand 50 A LT=3 Onhand 75 B LT=1 Onhand 25 C LT=2 Onhand 10 D LT=2 Onhand 20

A(2)

B(1)

It takes 1 B for each X

Day: Gross requirements Scheduled receipts Proj. avail. balance Net requirements Planned order receipt Planner order release Gross requirements Scheduled receipts Proj. avail. balance Net requirements Planned order receipt Planner order release Gross requirements Scheduled receipts Proj. avail. balance Net requirements Planned order receipt Planner order release Gross requirements Scheduled receipts Proj. avail. balance Net requirements Planned order receipt Planner order release Gross requirements Scheduled receipts Proj. avail. balance Net requirements Planned order receipt Planner order release

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10 95 50 45 45

50 50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

45 90 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 15 15 45 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 20 20

15

45 10 10 10 10 10 35 35 40

20 40

40 40 100

35

20 20

20

20

20

20

20 80 80

80

Prof. Upendra Kachru

Operations Management

49

X

X LT=2 Onhand 50 A LT=3 Onhand 75 B LT=1 Onhand 25 C LT=2 Onhand 10 D LT=2 Onhand 20

A(2)

B(1)

C(3)

It takes 3 C‟s for each A

Day: Gross requirements Scheduled receipts Proj. avail. balance Net requirements Planned order receipt Planner order release Gross requirements Scheduled receipts Proj. avail. balance Net requirements Planned order receipt Planner order release Gross requirements Scheduled receipts Proj. avail. balance Net requirements Planned order receipt Planner order release Gross requirements Scheduled receipts Proj. avail. balance Net requirements Planned order receipt Planner order release Gross requirements Scheduled receipts Proj. avail. balance Net requirements Planned order receipt Planner order release

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10 95 50 45 45

50 50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

45 90 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 15 15 45 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 20 20

15

45 10 10 10 10 10 35 35

20 40

35 100 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 80 80

80

Prof. Upendra Kachru

Operations Management

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X

X LT=2 Onhand 50 A LT=3 Onhand 75 B LT=1 Onhand 25 C LT=2 Onhand 10 D LT=2 Onhand 20

A(2)

B(1)

C(3)

C(2)

It takes 2 C‟s for each B

Day: Gross requirements Scheduled receipts Proj. avail. balance Net requirements Planned order receipt Planner order release Gross requirements Scheduled receipts Proj. avail. balance Net requirements Planned order receipt Planner order release Gross requirements Scheduled receipts Proj. avail. balance Net requirements Planned order receipt Planner order release Gross requirements Scheduled receipts Proj. avail. balance Net requirements Planned order receipt Planner order release Gross requirements Scheduled receipts Proj. avail. balance Net requirements Planned order receipt Planner order release

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10 95 50 45 45

50 50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

45 90 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 15 15 45 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 20 20

15

45 10 10 10 10 10 35 35 40

20 40

40 40 100

35

20 20

20

20

20

20

20 80 80

80

Prof. Upendra Kachru

Operations Management

51

X

X LT=2 Onhand 50 A LT=3 Onhand 75 B LT=1 Onhand 25 C LT=2 Onhand 10 D LT=2 Onhand 20

A(2)

B(1)

C(3)

C(2)

D(5)

It takes 5 D‟s for each B

Day: Gross requirements Scheduled receipts Proj. avail. balance Net requirements Planned order receipt Planner order release Gross requirements Scheduled receipts Proj. avail. balance Net requirements Planned order receipt Planner order release Gross requirements Scheduled receipts Proj. avail. balance Net requirements Planned order receipt Planner order release Gross requirements Scheduled receipts Proj. avail. balance Net requirements Planned order receipt Planner order release Gross requirements Scheduled receipts Proj. avail. balance Net requirements Planned order receipt Planner order release

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10 95 50 45 45

50 50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

45 90 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 15 15 45 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 20 20

15

45 10 10 10 10 10 35 35 40

20 40

40 40 100

35

20 20

20

20

20

20

20 80 80

80

Prof. Upendra Kachru

Operations Management

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Capacity Requirement Planning
The master schedule check capacity requirements against capacity availability, but does not take into account lead time off setting, or the amount ahead of time component parts must be made to meet the master schedule for the end items. MRP forms the basis for detailed capacity calculations. The output of the MRP system indicates what component items will have to be produced and when, and this output can therefore be converted into the capacities required to produce these items.

Prof. Upendra Kachru

Operations Management

Evolution from MRP
1960‟s - Systems Just for Inventory Control 1970‟s - MRP – Material Requirement Planning (Inventory with material planning & procurement) 1980‟s - MRP II – Manufacturing Resources Planning (Extended MRP to shop floor & distribution Mgnt.) Mid 1990‟s - ERP – Enterprise Resource Planning (Covering all the activities of an Enterprise) 2000 onwards – ERP II – Collaborative Commerce (Extending ERP to external business entities)

Operations Management

Goal: Plan and monitor all resources of a manufacturing firm (closed loop):
   

Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP II)

Manufacturing Marketing Finance Engineering

Simulate the manufacturing system

Prof. Upendra Kachru

Operations Management

55

A CLOSED-LOOP SYSTEM

Prof. Upendra Kachru

Operations Management

CLOSED LOOP SYSTEM (Simplified)
Production Planning Master Production Scheduling Material Requirements Planning Capacity Requirements Planning

No

Feedback

Realistic?
Yes Execute: Capacity Plans Material Plans

Feedback

Prof. Upendra Kachru

Operations Management

57

“Software solution that addresses the Enterprise needs, taking a process view of the overall organization to meet the goals, by tightly integrating all functions and under a common software platform”

ERP - Definition
Operations Management

Integrating all the functions Integrating the systems running in all the locations Transparency of information using a single data source across the organization Software must be responsive Modular Flexible Easy to add functionalities Provide growth path

ERP I – Goals

Operations Management

Beyond ERP I

B
Operations Management

Integrating Information Islands – ERP II
Supplier Collaboration

Supply Chain Management

Key Process Integration via ERP
Product Lifecycle Management Customer Management

Design Partners

Consumers and Channels

Operations Management

Product Selection Criteria
Goal: To select the Most Suitable Software Package Solution Functionality

5 Strategic Requirement Levels

Technology

Vendor

Support

Costs
Operations Management

Forecast control

 Read Theory of Constraints.

This is a supplement to the Chapter on MRP in the text book. Also read the book, „The Goal‟ by Eliyahu M. Gladratt. It is given in your reading list.

Read at Home
Prof. Upendra Kachru

Operations Management

Operations Management (2)

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DOCUMENT INFO
Upendra Kachru Upendra Kachru Mr.
About Upendra Kachru Professor (QT and Operations) Fore School of Management, New Delhi, India Email: kachru@fsm.ac.in Background & Experience I have 38 years of work experience in industry and academics. In industry I have had multi-disciplinary exposure to the top Private & Public Sector Enterprises in the country and rose to the top. I was the first CEO of Maruti Udyog Ltd., and also Managing Director of HP Pelzer (India) Ltd. I have also worked in the field of sustainable development in energy and environment related areas. I was honored as the Environmental Fellow of “The Asia Foundation”, USA in 1994-95. I also was Member, Environmental Appraisal Committee, Ministry of Environment & Forests for new construction projects. I am on a short list of experts on Solar Passive Architecture, issued by the Ministry of Non-conventional Energy and Renewable Sources and have a number of patents to my credit in building design. I am Chairperson of TAMS, a NGO working on sustainable development. In academics, I was Senior Research fellow at the TVB School for Habitat Studies, and Professor, at IILM Institute for Higher Education. Areas of Interest & Teaching Operations Management, Supply Chain Management, Strategy & Sustainable Development Papers & Publications I have written around twenty books on topics related to Business and Management. My text books, “Strategic Management – Concepts and Cases”, “Operations and Production Management – Text and Cases”, and “Exploring the Supply Chain – Theory and Practice”, are used as standard text books in institutions all over the country. “Strategic Management – Concepts and Cases” also won a ISTD award in 2005. My book “Extreme Turbulence –India at the Crossroads”, Harper Collins, 2007, has been highly appreciated by critics. It was also listed for the Vodafone Crossword Book Award for 2008. In addition I write Custom Books for a number of universities and institutions, e.g. Yashwantrao Chavan Universty; Bharati Vidhyapeeth University; Madurai Kamaraj University; IMT, Ghaziabad; and AIMA, etc. I have published around 20 learned articles and papers in international and Indian journals related to research work carried out by me.