Chapter 7 by 5B31i9o

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									Launching the New Republic
                1789-1800
Presidency             Congress              Judicial             Bill of Rights
People feared          Established courts    Supreme court had    Drafted by James
“king-like” powers     below Supreme Ct.     final jurisdiction   Madison
                                                                  Ratified Dec. 1781
GW’s reputation        Judiciary Act of                           1-8 guaranteed
calmed fears           1789                                       personal liberty
Had to get senate’s    Appointed Cabinet                          Not supposed to
“advice and            positions                                  impede on federal
consent” to                                                       authority
nominate
VP John Adams                                                     Chisholm v. Georgia
helped defeat                                                     1793
proposal to limit
Pres. Power
                    Cabinet:

                    Secretary of State:      Thomas Jefferson
                    Secretary of Treasury:   Alexander Hamilton
                    Secretary of War:        Henry Knox
                    Attorney General:        Edmond Randolph
 Domestic       Policy             Foreign       Policy
  Proposed few laws to                Natives
   congress                                B/w Appalachian Mts. and
  Limited public                           Mississippi River
   statements                              GW’s “patient” diplomacy
                                           Treaty of New York 1790
  Cast only two vetoes
                                           OH River Valley different story
  Tried to balance
                                       Spain
   interests between                       Expanding empire
   northern merchants and                  1769 est. New California
   southern planters
                                       French
  Whiskey Rebellion
                                           Revolution issues
  Public Land Act 1790                    Proclamation of Neutrality April
        Encourages settlement              1793
         VT, KY, and TENN added           Citizen Genet
 Britain                              Spain
   Wants no US support of                Treaty of San Lorenzo
    French                                 (Pinckney's Treaty) 1796
   Orders confiscating of US                 Won restricted duty-free
    ships and impressment                      access to Mississippi River
                                              31st parallel the boundary
   Solution: Jay’s Treaty
                                              Spain promised to stop
         Britain promises to
                                               encouraging attacks
          withdrawal troops
         Restricted trade with
          France
 In   the West
     Treaty of Greenville
         “Mad Anthony” Wayne
         Shawnees and Ft. Defiance
         Opened up Modern-day OH
   Feared                                    Compromise
     War with Britain or Spain                   Nation’s capital
     Disintegration of the Union
                                              National Bank
   Report on Public Credit                       Goals
    1790                                              Raise $10 million – stock
       Goals:                                        Cost taxpayers nothing
           Strengthen nation’s credit                Regulate business practices of
                                                       state banks
           Defer paying debt
                                                      Provide much needed credit to
           Entice wealthy investors                   expand economy
       Recommendations:                          Critics
           Raise $54 million by selling              Too much power in hands of
            securities and western land                wealthy
           Pay of state debt                         unconstitutional
            Pay of foreign debt
        
                                                  Approval
           Customs/duties tax (whiskey)
                                                      “loose” interpretation
       Critics:                                      “necessary and proper” clause
           Madison
           Thought wealthy would gain        Legacy
                                                Report on credit worked
                                                Divide between Feds and Reps
 Congress passed a
  federal excise tax on
  whiskey to fund the
  assumption of state
  debts by the nation
 Western Pennsylvania
  farmers rebel
    Attack tax collectors
 Washington     sends in
 militia
    Set severe limits on
     public opposition to
     federal policies
 Federalists                       Anti-Federalists
     Madison, Hamilton,                Thomas Jefferson, Patrick
      Washington, Jay                    Henry, later Madison
     Hamilton promoted                 Jefferson believed small,
      industrialization, capital         independent farmers the
      investment, and new                backbone of the republic,
      technology                         and wished to keep the
     Scared of “mobocracy”              U.S. agricultural
     Strong, central                   Saw elite as corrupt
      government needed                 Liberty needed to be
     Vote should be based on            diffused
      personal merits of elite          Emphasis on liberty and
      candidates                         equality
     Centered in Urban NE, VA          Supported by slaveowners
                                        Rural NE, Mid-Atlantic,
                                         Rural South
 Beginnings   1793-1796
  first societies began
   organizing
  Called “Republicans”,
   thought “Democrat” was
   too rebellious
  Mainly seaboard cities,
   south and west rural
   areas
 Success   at national
 level
  Election of 1794
  Won slight majority in
   House of Representatives
 Washington’s                 Election
 Farewell Address                 States
  Warned of partisan                 NE, NJ, SC = Federalist
   politics                           Mid-At, South = Republican
  Warned against                     Swing states: PA and NY
   “entanglement” in                  Immigrants important
   European affairs
  Sets precedent for             Electoral College
   “two term limits”                  Jefferson loses by three
                                       votes

 Candidates                      Problem
    Federalist: John Adams           Framers didn’t foresee
                                       party politics so runner-up
    Republican: Thomas                = vice president
     Jefferson
 French      Crisis 1798-1799         Alien        and Sedition Acts
    Problem                             Federalist’s insist on
        French mad about Jay’s           legislation to protect
         Treaty, seen as alliance         nation’s security
         with Britain                    1798 4 measure pass
        French seize US ships and
         hang US sailors of British            Alien Enemies Act
         ships                                 Alien Friends Act
    Adam’s response                           Naturalization Act
        Sends peace commission                Sedition Act
    XYZ affair                            Reaction
        Foreign Minister won’t                Republicans cry foul
         meet but sends agents                 KY and VA militias arm and
        Bribe: $250,000 + $12                  sign petitions
         million loan                          VA and KY Resolutions
        Americans outraged!                       Secretly penned by Madison
                                                    and Jefferson
        Congress responses by                     States had rights to protect
         tripling army and arming                   liberty of citizens
         ships                                     Issue of “nullification”
 Problems        for Adams          Big    Problem
    Negotiates peace with              Aaron Burr and Thomas
     France                              Jefferson TIE!!!
    But:
        Taxes high for two years    Outcome
        Added $10 million to
         national debt                  Goes to Congress
        Seen as defender of the            Led by Federalists
         wealthy                        Hamilton casts the
                                         deciding vote
 Republican        Candidates              “by far not so dangerous a
                                             man”
    Thomas Jefferson
                                        Jefferson Era begins
    Aaron Burr for Vice
     President
Election results, 1800


mage Source: Wikimedia Commons (public domain)


Which of the following is true of the presidential election of 1800?



     (A) John Adams won the popular vote, but Thomas Jefferson won the electoral vote
    (B) it marked the first transition from one political party to another for the presidency
    (C) President Washington endorsed Jefferson
    (D) it was the first time a slave-owner was elected president
    (E) it was a victory for New England vs. the southern and western states
   Households and Market                           Native Americans
    Production                                          In the East
                                                             Suffered severe population loss
       post- revolution changes                         

                                                            Loss of land
           Prosperous farms direct surplus to
            market                                          Treaties often ignored
           Less prosperous farms                           Demoralization
               Men moved west                                  Violence
               Women unmarried                                 alcohol
           Urban merchants catered to South            Crisis within Tribes
            (clothe slaves)                                 Seneca Tribe
           New industries emerged                              1799 Handsome Lake
               Shoes/ leather making                           Led spiritual revival
               Investors                                       Highlights conflict between traditional
               First private banks                              ways and embracing “new” ways
               1st cotton-spinning mill

                                                    Color Line
   White Women                                         Hesitant attempts to ensure free
       Legal position unaffected                        black’s legality
           More social “rights”                        Slavery entrenched by end of
           Republican Motherhood                        1790s
               Education emphasized
                                                        Disenfranchisement
                                                        Free African Society of
                                                         Philadelphia
                                                        1793 Fugitive Slave Law
   Artists


                                   Gilbert Stuart




       Benjamin West

                                   Charles Wilson Peale




                                   John Trumbull
       John Singleton Copley
 Literature                                Mason Weems
    Thomas Paine                               “Life of Washington”
                                                Nation’s 1st bestseller
        “The American Crisis”
         Pamphlet Series                        Read by Lincoln
            “these are the times that
             try men’s souls”


    John Filson
        Daniel Boone
        1st western
        Introduced “American”
         character

								
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