LUIGI GALLEANI and the PALMER RAIDS

Luigi Galleani, b. Italy 1861; dropped out of law school to become a full-time anarchist
       propagandist; fled Italy for France, expelled; went to Switzerland and was kicked
       out for organizing celebration of Haymarket riots; returned to Italy and spent 5
       years in prison for conspiracy; escaped, fled to USA via Egypt and UK, 1901

       charismatic orator urging revolution, indicted for starting riot in NY
       fled to Canada and was expelled, sneaked into VT, founded and edited Italian newsletter
        Subversive Chronicle, devoted to:
                free love, atheism, tirades vs capitalism and “tyranny,” arguments vs Socialists for
                being passive and cowardly, lists of names and addresses of capitalists,
                strikebreakers, and other “enemies of the people”
        46-page pamphlet Health is In You! (bomb-making manual)
        attracted friends and followers known as Galleanists, involved in:
                speeches, printed propaganda, labor agitation, acts of violence or “propaganda of
                the deed,” e.g.

                      bombed several NY police stations in 1914
                      chef poisoned 200 guests at banquet for Chicago archbishop
                      plot to blow up St. Patrick’s cathedral in NY was exposed ahead of time

Anarchist Act passed by Congress led to declaration of war by Galleanists:
       “Deportation will not stop the storm from reaching these shores. The storm is within and
very soon will leap and crash and annihilate you in blood and fire . . . . We will dynamite you!”

       Feb 1919—4 Galleanists were killed by a bomb they were trying to place in a
        Massachusetts textile mill; it exploded in their faces
       Apr 1919—30 mail bombs were sent to businessmen (including Rockefeller), politicians,
        judges to be delivered on May Day; insufficient postage led to some being discovered at
        the post office; few were delivered and only one person killed
       June 1919—8 bombs placed in or near homes of politicians, judges, and the Attorney
        General of the US, A. Mitchell Palmer. A nightwatchman, a passerby, and a Galleanist
        bomber, Carlo Valdinocci, were killed. Palmer’s home was badly damaged, but he was
        not hurt

Palmer Raids ensued, leading to arrest of over 6000 radicals and deportation of 300
           agreement between Justice Dept and Immigration Dept
           many names and addresses were gathered from subscription lists of radical
              newsletters and magazines, such as Emma Goldman’s Mother Earth
           many were questioned and released; a few were prosecuted
           Galleani deported to Italy; Goldman deported to Russia, 1919
           Wall St. bomb killed 33 people, 1920; no one convicted, but was probably the
              work of Galleanists
           Galleani himself died of natural causes in Italy, 1931

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