"Guidelines for Sound Nutrition & Health"
Guidelines for Sound Nutrition & Health The Bad News…. Leading causes of death (80% of all deaths): Diseases of the heart Cancer Stroke Chronic lung diseases Diabetes Chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis Very expensive to treat chronic diseases health care crisis in near future The Good News… May be preventable with: Change of lifestyle behaviors Eliminating some risk factors Can help lower health care costs if we “prevent” rather than “treat” “Exercise is medicine”; “food is medicine” Genetics vs. Lifestyle (nature vs nurture) Genetics- Lifestyle choices and environmental factors Diet (35% of Calories in US diet come from solid fats and added sugars!!!) Physical activity Medicine Smoking Risk Factors: “health behaviors associated with a given disease” Those we can Those we can’t change: change: Cigarette gender smoking age Excessive alcohol family history consumption race Poor dietary habits Physical inactivity Nutrition Defined Definition of nutrition: Sum total of processes involved in intake and utilization of food substances by living organisms, including ingestion, digestion, absorption, transport, and metabolism of nutrients in food Translation: “what we eat and how we use it”! The 6 Major Classes of Nutrients: MACROnutrients Carbohydrates Protein Fats Water What do MICROnutrients Nutrients Vitamins do? Minerals Major functions of nutrients in food What are Essential Nutrients? Essential nutrients cannot be produced in adequate quantities in the body and must be consumed in the diet. > 40 specific essential nutrients in various amounts Essential Nutrients Carbohydrates Fiber and sugar and starches Fats Essential fatty acids (Linoleic and alpha-linolenic) Protein 9 essential amino acids Vitamins 9 water soluble and 4 fat soluble Minerals Over 20 minerals Water Proposed health roles of nutrients Inactivate carcinogens Inhibit blood clotting or kill bacteria that Enhance immune cause cancer system functions Increase insulin Speed up digestive sensitivity processes Relax blood vessels Prevent damaging and improve blood oxidative processes flow Reduce body fat Reduce blood pressure Optimize serum lipid levels Reduce inflammation Other Nutrients Nonessential nutrients (Dispensable nutrients) Found in food but may also be formed in the body Creatine is an example Needed for one form of energy production Found in food, mainly animal foods Produced in the body from amino acids Other substances – additives, phytochemicals, extracts, etc Many non-essential or other substances are marketed by supplement companies to enhance health or sports performance. Purpose of DRIs (Dietary Reference Intakes) DRIs-umbrella term for various reference intakes of essential nutrients. RDA, AI, AMDR, UL, EAR, EER Used to assess adequacy of dietary intake Used to plan diets for individuals and groups Designed to ensure adequate nutrition for most people in a population Diet on any day is not necessarily deficient if RDA is not obtained Intake should be averaged over a 5-8 day period Does not inform us of what specific foods to eat The Balanced Diet The balanced diet Variety Moderation Concept A balanced diet will provide the required amounts of essential nutrients Based on Food Groups Nutrients in Different Food Groups Grains (Bread, cereal, rice, pasta) B vitamins Iron Fiber White flour is Vegetables “enriched” with: Vitamin A (beta-carotene) thiamin, niacin, Vitamin C riboflavin, folic acid, and iron Iron Fiber Fruits Vitamin A (beta-carotene) Vitamin C Fiber Nutrients in Different Food Groups Milk group (milk, yogurt, cheese) Calcium Protein Riboflavin Vitamins A, D Meat & Beans (beef, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs, nuts) Protein B vitamins Iron Zinc Fats, oils Vitamin A Vitamin D Vitamin E Nutrient Density Foods that contain a high amount of a specific nutrient compared to its caloric content have a high nutrient density. i.e. Quality calories i.e. getting more bang for your calorie buck! VS. Illustration of Nutrient Density MyPlate As a Nation….Do we eat right? NO!!!! Too many Calories Too much fat and saturated fat Too much sugar and other sweeteners Too much salt Too much meat and cheese Too few fruits and vegetables Too few fiber-rich foods Result = ↑↑Obesity The Prudent Diet for Health Twelve Guidelines for Reducing the Risk of Chronic Disease. 1. Balance the food you eat with physical activity to maintain or achieve a healthy body weight. 2. Eat a nutritiously adequate diet consisting of a wide variety of nutrient-rich foods. 3. Choose a diet moderate in total fat, but low in saturated and trans fats and cholesterol. Broil, bake or microwave instead of cooking in fat If cooking with fat, choose plant oils and specialty margarines instead of butter or lard Choose lean poultry and lean beef Eat more fish Eat only several eggs per week Choose non-fat or low-fat dairy products Eat fewer commercial baked goods Limit fast foods 4. Choose a plant-rich diet with plenty of fruits and vegetables, whole-grain products, and legumes, foods which are rich in complex carbohydrates, phytochemicals, and fiber. 5. Choose beverages and foods to moderate your intake of added sugars. Moderate intake Sodas Juice drinks Fruit juices Drink more Water 6. Choose and prepare foods with less salt and sodium. Get rid of your salt shaker Reduce the consumption of convenience, packaged or canned foods. Check food labels for low-sodium options Eat more fresh fruits and vegetables Use fresh herbs or spices that do not contain sodium Watch use of excess condiments 7. If you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation. Alcoholic Drink Calories Beer, lite, 12 oz. 100 Beer, regular, 12 oz. 150 Frozen daiquiri, 4 oz. 216 Gin, 1.5 oz. 110 Mai tai, 4 oz. 310 Margarita, 4 oz. 270 Rum, 1.5 oz. 96 Vodka, 1.5 oz. 96 Whiskey, 1.5 oz. 105 Wine spritzer, 4 oz. 49 Wine, dessert, 4 oz. 180 8. Keep protein intake at a moderate, yet adequate levels. Consume more plant proteins with moderate animal protein intake. Good sources of plant protein Nuts and seeds Legumes Soybeans 9. Choose a diet adequate in calcium and iron. Individuals susceptible to tooth decay should obtain adequate fluoride 10. Practice food safety, including proper food preservation and preparation. foods Store Wash hands properly thoroughly “If in doubt, 20 seconds with throw it out” warm soapy water. 11. Consider the benefits and risks of food additives and dietary supplements. Excellent website for information on supplements: http://ods.od.nih.gov/ Office of Dietary Supplements 12. Enjoy your food! Eat what you like, but balance it within your overall healthy diet and exercise.