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					International Credentials
       Workshop
  International Credentials
         Workshop

Credentials 801: Basics for the Non-specialist



                           Douglas Dombrosky
                           SESD/CGSR
                           January, 2007
                          Overview
1. Basic Document procedures
2. Basic Transcripts: the B side
3. Basic Systems:
   a) United States
                                   Coffee Breaks!!
   b) British
   c) French (20 point)
   d) Russia

4. Basic Credit Units
5. Basic Calculations
6. Awards
Basic Document Procedures
        Basic Document Procedures
•   Admission Average
•   Official or Attested Academic Credentials
•   Acceptable Translations
•   Final Academic Credentials
•   Comparable Degrees
•   Credentials Required
•
                              Source: Academic Credential Basics Workshop
    Fraudulent Credentials    Retreived from:
                              http://www.grad.uiuc.edu/admissions/workshops/2006/a
                              cademic_credential_files/v3_document.htm
                              Date: January 10, 2007
        Official or Attested Academic
                  Credentials
• Official Letterhead / Transcript Paper
• Seal or Stamp and Signature of Registrar
• Received in sealed envelopes – directly from the
  Institution
• Both Original and English versions are required.
• Recognized institution
         Official or Attested Academic
                   Credentials
• If original language credential received directly
  from Institution. English translations may be
  accepted from:
   – Applicant’s institution
   – Government agency in institution’s country
   – U of S Faculty member or staff (but not student)
• Copies from a Notary Public are not acceptable
• Copies of international credentials from other
  North American institutions are not acceptable.
          Final Academic Credential

• Degree conferred listed on transcript or
  certificate of degree.
• Degree date listed on transcript or certificate of
  degree
              Things to look for
• Does the biographical information match?
• Do the pictures match?
• Do the timelines agree?
• Does the translation agree with original
  language.
   – Should be a translation not an interpretation.
• Do referees exist and are not related?
• White out?
End of Basic Documents
Basic Transcripts: the B side
           Grading Systems
• Grade interpretation is no more objective
  than grading.
• Fairness is more important than accuracy.
• Grade categories/classes convey core
  information.
• Average grades mean more than
  individual grades.
                     Capturing the Message Conveyed by Grades: interpreting
                     Foreign Grades by Guy Haug, Word Education News and
                     Reviews 12,2:12-17, 1997
Everything is changing …

    … all the time …

   … continuously …

      … quickly …
University of Saskatchewan
     Grading system
UofS Transcript B side
Current Grading Practice Table
      Ontario Grading system: 2001

•Level 4 = A or excellent (exceeds provincial standard, 80%-100%)
•Level 3 = B or good (meets provincial standard, 70%-79%)
•Level 2 = C or average (approaches provincial standard, 60%-69%)
•Level 1 = D or poor (well below provincial standard, 50%-59%)
•Level 0 = F or failing (remedial action necessary, 0%-49%)




                             Retrieved frrom: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grading_in_the_United_States
                             January 08, 2007
Example: Mount Royal College
End of Basic Transcripts
International Systems
Four Grading Systems
• United States

• British

• French (20 point)

• Russian         From: International Educator, Credentials
                  Evaluation for the Nonspecialist, Volume Xi,
                  Number 3, Summer 2002, p. 18-23. by Foley, C.
                  & McKown II, R.
United States Pattern
 Grading scales include: Letter (alpha), 4 point, and
 descriptions
 Example countries: United States, South Korea,
 Taiwan
 Variations: Mexico, People’s Republic of China,
 United Arab Emirates

   Letter   Point   Description     Percentage
   A        4.0     Excellent       90-100
   B        3.0     Above Average   80-89
   C        2.0     Average         70-79
   D        1.0     Below Average   60-69
   F        0.0     Failure         0-59
                         China
• Universities in China are rapidly improving.
• Key Institutions and now 211 Institutions are receiving large
  amounts of Government money.
• The new Admission & Recruitment Committee will be looking at
  specific Institutions.

       Letter   Percentage   Description
       A        90-100       Excellent
       B        80-89        Good
       C        70-79        Average / Fair


       F        0-59         Fail
China
    British Pattern
A United Kingdom 3 year degree is accepted for
entrance into Graduate Studies. (Except India, Sri
Lanka)

Exams play an important part of the process.

Typically do not use credit units - but that is changing.

Example countries: Britain, Uganda, Kenya, Nigeria.

Variations: India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Singapore
                      British Pattern
Degree Designation *                      Percentage       Designation
First-Class Honours (First or 1st)        70 - 100         A
Upper Second-Class Honours (2:1)          60 - 69          B
Lower Second-Class Honours (2:2)          50 - 59          C
Third-Class Honours (Third or 3rd)        40 - 49          D
Ordinary degree (Pass)                    40 - 49          D
Fail (no degree is awarded)                                F
* Bold designates Honours degrees
                                     Country         Designation
                                     Britain         2:1
                                     Nigeria         2:1
                                     Uganda          2:1
                                     Kenya           2:1
                                     Sri Lanka       2:1
                                     Bangladesh      1st
                                     India           1st
 Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and
            Wizardry
Passing grades:
•O for Outstanding
•E for Exceeds Expectations
•A for Acceptable

Failing grades:
•P for Poor
•D for Dreadful
•T for Troll

Fred and George Weasley once claimed that they should get at least an E on everything,
since they exceeded expectations by just showing up.
French Pattern ( 20 pt )
  The Maitrise degree is equivalent to the 4 year
  Canadian Degree – although the degree might be
  called other things in other countries.
  The “coefficients” system is similar to Credit Units.
  Example countries: France, Francophone Africa,
  Iran, Afghanistan
  Variations: Haiti

    Translation   Description   Grade
    Very Good     Trés Bien     16 - 20
    Good          Bien          14 – 15
    Good Enough   Assez Bien    12 – 13
    Pass          Passable      10 – 11
    Fail          Ajourné       Below 10
              Iran
Description    Grade
Excellent      18-20
Very Good      16-17
Good           14-15
Fair           12-13
Pass           10-11
Fail           0-9
 Russian Pattern
Countries were originally part of the old Russian
Federation
Since the original system no longer exists, every
country is developing in their own direction –
therefore least predictable
Usually contact hours are listed instead of credit
units
In the past marks and exams were hand written
books like bank pass books.
Common Countries: USSR, Russian Federation,
Mongolia,
Variations: Estonia, Latvia, Romania, Vietnam
       Russian Pattern
Translation    Grade   Description
Excellent      5       Otlichno
Good           4       Khorosho
Satisfactory   3       Udovletvoritel'no
Fail           2       Neudovletvoritel'no
End of Basic Systems
Basic Credit Units
                Credit Units
• The admission average is a weighted
  average - calculated on the last 60 credit
  units of an undergraduate program.
• 60 CUs is the last half of the usual four
  year program of 120 CUs.
• Not all countries list credit units or even
  contact hours.
                  Credit Units
• Therefore:
  – If there are CUs – use the whole term
    including the 60th cu.
  – If credit hours – about ½ of the hours.
  – If neither:
     • Use about 20 classes or
     • Use ½ the classes.
End of Basic Credit Units
Basic Calculations
              Basic Calculation
• Calculate Weighted Average
  – CUs * Grading:
    • Use original scales if possible.
    • If alpha scale (A, B, C), use middle of the range
      provided on original transcript.
    • Failed courses:
       – If retaken – use best mark and disregard first
       – Covert Failure to F grade equivalent.
            Grade Conversion
            Admission Average


• Know the minimum score acceptable out
  of the maximum.
                               Minimum
        System                 (Good, B)   Maximum
        United States (4)      3           4
        United States (%)      80          100
        British (2:1 or 1st)   60          100
        French (20)            14          20
        Russian (5)            4           5
              Grade Conversion
                    15    50%
                          15/30

U of S   70    75    80   85        90   95   100




                               30
             Grade Conversion
                 10   50%
                      10/20

China   80      85    90      95   100




                        20
             Min                                           Max
            (0%)                                         (100%)
U of S     70      75         80   85     90        95   100




China      80            85        90          95        100




                        90% (China) = 85% (UofS)
           Good
            B                 90% - 10% ≠ 85%

 80% (China) = 70% (UofS)               100% (China) = 100% (UofS)
                   ½ way (China) = ½ way (UofS)
              70+7.5=77.5%
                25% of 30      30
              7.5   ?
U of S   70    75        80   85    90        95   100




China    80         85        90         95        100




               5               20
                    5/20
                    25%
              ¼ of the way
      OR
 5          ?
      =
 20         30
5 * 30 = ? * 20
            5 * 30
  ? =
              20
      7.5
                   Formula
  Mini = Minimum of International Scale (80%)
  Mins = Minimum of UofS Scale (70%)

  Maxi = Maximum of International Scale (100%)
  Maxs = Maximum of UofS Scale (100%)

  Gradei = International Grade (85%)
  Grades = UofS grade (??)
   Maxs - Mins = 30


               (Gradei - Mini ) * 30
Grades =   (   ( Maxs – Mins )         ) + 70
                            (Gradei - Mini ) * 30
         Grades
                    =   (       ( Maxi – Mini )      ) + 70
            Gradei = 85%

    (Gradei - Mini ) = 85-80 = 5
                                                         Excel
(Gradei - Mini ) * 30 = 5*30 = 150                    Spreadsheet
  ( Maxi – Mini ) = 100 – 80 = 20




                         (Gradei -150 i ) * 30
                                   Min
         Grades =   (            i–
                            ( Max20 Mini )
                                                  ) + 70
                        77.5%
End of Basic Calculations
Awards Averages
           Award Averages

• Have different purpose than admission
  averages.
• Admission average based on minimum
  admission percentage (Good, B, 70%).
• Awards are based on excellent,
  exceptional, A, 80%, 85%????
 U of S




China     Letter   Percentage   Description
          A        90-100       Excellent
          B        80-89        Good
          C        70-79        Average / Fair


          F        0-59         Fail
What difference does it make?
Chinese student with 95% average in China?


Admission Average               Awards Average




                                  Awards Average:
        Good     Excellent

India




               Awards Average:



 Iran




               Awards Average:
End of Awards Averages
                          Review
• Basic Document procedures
• Basic Transcripts: the B side
• Basic Systems:
  –   United States
  –   British
  –   French (20 point)
  –   Russia
• Basic Credit Units
• Basic Calculations
• Awards
Questions
Thank You!!!!

				
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