World War II on the Homefront by M6Fyt1u

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									World War II on the
   Homefront
      US History
      Ms. Weston
        3/1/07
Race in World War II
   Racism in military
        Soldiers of color enlisted, but
         in segregated units
        Many of these units were the
         most decorated of the war
             African-Americans: Tuskegee
              Airmen
             Mexican-Americans:
              Company E of the 141st
              Regiment
             Japanese Americans: 442nd
              Regimental Combat Team
             Native-Americans: Served in
              Marine Corps as Navajo
              Code Talkers
African-Americans During War
   Double Victory campaign: Victory against
    dictators abroad, and racism at home
   Some victories: more job opportunities,
    increased migration to North and West
    (esp. CA)
   Still, much racism: blacks paid less,
    discriminated in housing, in public facilities
African-American Resistance
   Blacks begin organizing:
        1941: Blacks threatened to march
         on Washington to protest prejudice
         against African-American workers
        In response to threat, Roosevelt
         banned discrimination in
         government agencies.
        Established the Fair Employment
         Practices Commission to insure
         equal treatment for African-
         Americans and other minorities in
         war industries.
        Still, results limited. When GIs
         returned, blacks still first to lose
         jobs.
        All of this is an important precedent
         to Civil Rights movement.
Racial Tensions in LA during WWII
   Racism against Mexican Americans and
    the fear of teen crime
   Mexican American teenagers who wore
    “zoot suits” were targeted.
   June 1943: 2500 soldiers and sailors
    attacked Mexican American neighborhoods
    in LA
Mobilizing the Economy for the War
   Government played a huge role in
    monitoring production, the
    economy, and communication.
        War Production Board—converted
         factories to military production.
        Rationed manufacturing materials
         such as rubber and tin.
        National War Labor Board—to settle
         labor disputes through mediation.
         Also, required unions to give 30 days
         notice if were going to strike.
        Government raised money through
         taxes and heavy borrowing.
Mobilizing the economy ctnd.
   Office of Price
    Administration: To help
    control inflation.
       Set price ceilings,
        instituted rent control
       RATIONING—gasoline,
        tires, coffee, canned food
        and meat.
            Consumers given coupon
             books and stamps so
             could only get certain
             amount of products.
Public Information in WWII
   Office of Censorship
        Censored all communication
         between the United States
         and other nations
             Letters from soldiers to family
              often censored if felt it
              violated military security
   Office of War Information
        To keep the public informed
         on the progress of the war
         and policies and aims of
         government
        Created propaganda
        Also, because of censorship,
         information was often not
         made available.
Women in WWII
   Benefited from huge demand
    for labor because of wartime
    production
   Many American women
    entered workforce for first time
        “Rosie the Riveter”—icon of
         women worker
        Women told it was their
         patriotic duty to work
        Over 6 million women entered
         the workforce
        Women who worked before
         the war were able to get
         better paying jobs when war
         began
Women in WWII ctnd.
   Women in military
       For first time, women
        could go overseas for
        non-combat duty
       Ex. Women flew as
        civilians in the Women’s
        Air Force Service
       More than 200,000
        women served in armed
        forces
Did Women’s Roles Really Change?
   Men continued to dominate supervisory
    positions
   Women still paid less
   WOMEN FORCED OUT OF THE
    WORKFORCE AT THE END OF THE
    WAR!
   Women veterans were not recognized for
    benefits until 1979.

								
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