Second Semester Study Guide

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					Second Semester Study Guide
Respiration and Photosynthesis chapters 8 and 9
1. What is ATP?
2. What is the equation for photosynthesis and the equation for respiration?
3. What are the two steps in photosynthesis, where do they occur, what goes in and what
comes out?
4. What are the three steps in respiration, where do they occur, what goes in and what
comes out?
5. How many ATP’s are made from one molecule of glucose?

Genetics chapters 10-14
6. Define Mendel’s law of segregation
7. List some dominant traits in Humans
8. Know how to use Punnett Squares for both monohybrid and dihybrid genetic problems
9. Draw out the Cell Cycle
10. Meiosis – Know the stages and terms haploid, diploid and triploid
11. List, define and give examples of the different inheritance patterns such as incomplete
dominance, multiple alleles, codominance, polygenic and sex-linked inheritance.
12. Know how to read karyotypes of an individual with Kleinsfelters, Down’s or Turner’s
13. What is a nucleotide?
14. Who discovered DNA?
15. What is stated in the Central Dogma?
16. Know replication, transcription and translation – where and what happens
17. What are proteins made of? What makes proteins different?
18. What is a mutagen? What kind of mutations are there?
19. What is PCR and what is it used for?
20. Explain Gel Electrophoresis.
21. What are restriction enzymes? What do they “look” for to make sticky ends?
22. What is a plasmid?
23. What is gene therapy?
24. HGP – How many genes, base pairs, chromosomes in human DNA?
25. Give examples of biological versus mechanical vectors.
26. Define transgenic organisms.
27. How can you make recombinant DNA?

Evolution chapters 15, 16, 17.4, some 18
34. Define Natural Selection.
35. Stabilizing, Directional and disruptive selection – graphs and examples
36. Give examples of physiological adaptations.
37. Define and give examples of homologous, analogous and vestigial structures.
38. Define an allelic frequency.
39. Patterns of evolution – convergent versus divergent
40. Speciation – How can a population instantly become reproductively isolated?
Phylogenetic Trees?
Chapter 40 Immunity
42. Why is skin so important in terms of protecting us from infection?
46. What is a pathogen? Give examples.
47. What is an epidemic? Give an example.
48. How do diseases stay dormant or hidden in a population?
49. Bacteria and Viruses – How are they different and how can you treat them?
50. Vaccines – How are they made and why are they effective?
51. Innate Immunity Give some examples of body secretions and how they help in our
innate defense.
52. What WBC’s are responsible for inflammation and what are the symptoms of
53. What do phagocytes do? Which ones are in the tissues for immediate defense?
54. How do interferons provide defense against viral infections?
55. Explain the two ways that we can get acquired immunity.
56. HIV – infects what type of cells and why does it turn into AIDS?

Review for Nervous system (chapter 35) Draw and label a neuron.
   1. What is the direction of an impulse?
   2. What causes an action potential?
   3. What happens at a synapse?
   4. What is a threshold?
   5. List the parts of the central nervous system.
   6. What is the pathway of a reflex action?
   7. What makes up the peripheral nervous system?
   8. What are the 5 types of sensory receptors and how do they work?
   10. Study the eye and the ear.
   11. What is the definition of a drug?
   12. How do stimulants work? How do depressants work?
Endocrine system (39-1 and 39-2)
   13. What is a hormone?
   14. What happens when a hormone meets its target cell?
   15. How do insulin and glucagon regulate blood sugar levels?
   16. How are diabetes I and II different? How are they the same?
   17. What is the pituitary gland and what does it do?
   18. Know the glands and what they regulate.
   19. What is feedback inhibition or negative feedback and how does it help maintain

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