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									            Intelligence
            Psychology 1107




11/3/2012
              Intelligence
 Do we all have some in born intellectual
  capacity, or does our environment shape
  our intelligence?
 Huge issue
 Perhaps a waste of time




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                A Little History
   Galton
   Darwin’s cousin
   Started eugenics
   ‘Hereditary genius’
   Found that genius ran in
    families
   Never occurred to him
    that rich families had rich
    environments!

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             More Galton
 Tested and measured various qualities
 Set up booths, got people to pay to be
  measured!
 Found little
 But, RT does correlate with IQ




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                    Binet
 Wanted to spot kids
  that needed special
  attention in school
 Well, you have to
  measure intelligence
  then
 Along with Simon, he
  assumed we all follow
  the same path, but
  some kids were
  slower than others
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            Binet and Simon
 Not that simon….
 Anyway, they
  measured mental age
 Mental aptitude
  should show up in
  many ways
 Found questions that
  predicted
  achievement

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                    Terman
   Stanford-Binet
   IQ = (Mental age /
    chronological age)
   Doesn’t work for
    adults
   Believed IQ was
    inherited
   Racist?
   Terman’s Termites

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    What actually is intelligence?
 To  study something we must know how to
  measure it
 ‘I know what it means’ is not good enough
 ‘Goal directed adaptive behaviour?’
 General agreement, but…..
 Culture
 Many abilities or one
 Can you measure it neurologically?


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                         Culture
 Is intelligence the same here as
  anywhere?
 Some say no and believe a culture free
  intelligence test is impossible
 Others believe that general problem
  solving ability is culture free
        Abstract, novel questions
        Digit spam, stuff like that

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       General or specific abilities
 Me  words together put bad paper on and
  spel not good
 However, I am good at other stuff
 Maybe find out how different abilities are
  related to each other
 Best way to do this is by collecting a ton of
  data and analyzing it using fancy statistical
  techniques

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                Factor analysis
            technique
 Statistical
 Find out what goes with what
 Spearman thought there was also a
  general factor that underlies specific
  abilities
g
 There may be something to this


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            Abilities g and everything
 So there is something to g
 Hmmm
 What about say brain injuries
 Or savants?
 Well, intelligence is mental ability
 What does being able to count the number of
  toothpicks from a box have to do with it?
 Indeed, the mental and physical seem to go
  together
 Forrest Gump was just a story


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  More abilities, more factors, more
                names
 Sternberg  et al talk about 3 types of
  intelligence
 Academic
        School, IQ tests etc
 Practical
        Everyday, ill defined tasks
 Creative
        Novel situations

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  Emotional or social intelligence
 You  know, like getting along with others
 Understanding
 Regulating emotions
 No mild mood swings, that sort of thing
 Hmm, umm, well, errr
 Jury is still out




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Neurological measurement of brain
              size
 Brain size?
 Crazy as it sounds,
  there may be
  something to this
 Brain is altered due to
  experience
 Pretty crude measure
  though


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                     Brain function
 May be more telling
 PET scans show that good scores on cognitive
  tasks relate to LESS glucose uptake
 Higher IQ, faster perceptual processing
        Related to brain function
   Why should this have anything at all to do with
    complex tasks?
        Get more stuff in?
        We are still pretty far awy (?) best bet is still paper
         and pencil tests


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            Assessing Intelligence
 Have      to operationally define intelligence
 So,
 Intelligenceis your score on an IQ test
 Aptitude tests predict ability to learn new
  skill
 Achievement tests reflect stuff already
  learned
 Most good IQ tests do both

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                  Modern IQ tests
   Wechsler adult Intelligence Scale is pretty
    common
   WAIS
   WISC too
   2 scores, verbal and performance, should be
    close
   Modern tests are standardized
        If you answer the same number of questions correct
         as the average person, you are given a score of 100


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            A little bit of statistics




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    Just a bit of scary math type stuff
 So, IQ is normally distributed with a mean of 100
  and a standard deviation of 15
 They (the tests) are constructed that way
 Test must be reliable and valid
 Reliability -> stable measurement
        Test retest
        Split half
   Validity -> measure what it is supposed to
        Predictive
        Face
        Criterion related

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              More testing stuff
 Aptitude tests lose some
  predictive ability as time
  goes by
 Truncated sample
 Reliability and validity are
  measure using a
  correlation coefficient
 -1.00 <= r <= +1.00
 Sign indicates direction
 Size indicated by
  absolute value

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      The extremes of intelligence
 The  ‘challenged’
 IQ < 70 and cannot live independently
 Most of these folks can, with some
  training, hold down jobs etc
 Down’s syndrome is a big cause
        Extra chromosome
        Various levels of retardation
        Not violent
        Not communicable!
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            The extremes
 The   ‘gifted’
 Terman’s Termites again
 IQ > 150
 Better at everything
 Still, really extreme may MAY have
  problems
 Should the gifted be tracked?


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                     Creativity
 What      is it?
        Dunno
 How       do you measure it
        Ummm not sure
 Does      it correlate with IQ?
        Maybe….




11/3/2012
        Genetics and environment
 Just because something is genetic does
  not make it unchangeable
 If something is genetic it is niether right
  nor wrong
 Genetics do play a role in IQ
 Identical twins have the same IQ, indeed,
  they look like the same person has taken
  the test!

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                  Genetics
 Even  twins raised apart have the same IQ
 Adopted kids’ IQs do not correlate with their
  parents’!
 Heritability of IQ is about .50
 Environmental effects are there too
 However, you cannot teach someone
  something that is beyond them


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             Group differences
   No doubt they exist
   Remember, GROUPS not individuals
   Remember, individual variation greater than
    group
   Looks aren’t everything
   Sex differences too
   spatial/math
   Verbal ability
   Emotion detection
   bias

11/3/2012

								
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