F09 chapter 9 Sculpture

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					Chapter 9 Sculpture Three-Dimensional Art
      · Sculpture
      · Architecture
      · Craft & Design
      A sculptor is a person obsessed with the form and shape of things, and it’s not just the shape of one
thing, but the shape of anything and everything: the hard, tense strength, although delicate form of a
bone; the strong, solid fleshiness of a beech tree trunk.
                  –Henry Moore Sculpture
      · The art of carving, casting, modeling, or assembling materials into three-dimensional figures or
      1. Relief sculpture
         - Bas-Relief
         - High Relief
      2. Freestanding sculpture
      Relief Sculpture
      - Bas-Relief - High Relief
      Freestanding sculpture
      · Subtractive and Additive Types of Sculpture
      · Subtractive process A process in which a sculpture is created by the removal of material, as in
      · Additive process A process in which a sculpture is created by adding or assembling materials, as
in modeling and constructing.
      · Subtractive and Additive Types of Sculpture
      · Carving
      · Modeling
      · Casting
      · Construction
      - Carving
      · In sculpture, the process of cutting away material, such as wood or stone.
      · Carving materials
         - stone, wood, ivory, bone
      · The result is a figure or form to transcend its origins
      - Modeling
      · Hand manipulating the material
      · Manipulating the material with tools
      - Casting
      The Lost-Wax Technique
      - Casting of Human Models
      - Construction
      · Forms are built from materials
      · Discuss some of the materials
         - wood, paper, sheet metal,and wire
      · Techniques such as pasting and welding
      · Types of Materials
      · Stone
      · Wood
      · Clay
      · Metal
      - Stone
      · Stone is extremely hard
      · It is also very durable
      · Appropriate for monuments and statues
      · Stone tools such as the chisel,mallet, and rasp
      · Contemporary power tools
      “A Closer Look”
      The Vietnam Veterans Memorial
      - Wood
      · Wood can be carved, scraped, drilled, and polished
      · Under heat, wood can be bent
      · Certain woods have a variety of hardness
      · It is more readily carved than stone
      - Clay
      · Clay is more pliable than stone or wood
      · Clay is more personal when modeled because our fingerprints are left on its surface
      · Clay has little strength and must be used in different ways than stone or wood
      - Metal
      · Metals are cast, extruded, forged, scraped, drilled, filed, and burnished
      · Cast bronze sculptures
      · Direct-metal sculptures
      · Chemical treatments and patinas
      · Modern and Contemporary
      · Materials and Methods
      · Constructed sculpture
      · Assemblage
      · Readymades
      · Mixed media
      · Kinetic sculpture
      · Light sculpture
      · Land art
      - Constructed sculpture
      · The artist “builds” the sculpture
      · Materials could include, sheet metal, cardboard, celluloid, or wire
      · Some artworks are lighter than those from stone or wood
      · Unorthodox materials can also be used
      Pablo Picasso’s
      Mandolin and Clarinet (1913)
      - Assemblage
      · A form of constructed sculpture
      · Pre-existing or found objects take on a new form as artworks
      · Novel combinations that take on a new life and meaning
      · One of the best-known examples is Picasso’s Bull’s Head
      - Readymades
      · Found objects (readymades) can be elevated to works of art on pedestals, such as Duchamp’s
urinal, turned upside down
      · This is a 20th-century artistic trend
      · No assembly is needed for this artform
      - Readymades
      - Mixed Media
      · Sculptors use materials and ready- made or found objects that are not normally elements of a
work of art
      · Artists, such as Rauschenberg (see      Ch. 20), may attach other materials to their canvasses
      - Kinetic Sculpture
      · Sculptures that move
      · Art and action
      · Some forms of movement: intensity of light, or human manipulations
      · Calder Mobiles(Ch. 2)
      Kinetic Sculpture Sculpture that moves George Rickey’s stainless-steel sculpture
      Cluster of Four Cubes (1992)
      - Light Sculpture
      · Light and its reflections have always been an important elements in sculpture
   · However, “light sculpture” is a 20th-century artform
   · Creates physical psychological and physical effects of color and the creation of illusion
   - Land Art
   · Land art is site-specific
   · Some of these earthwork art- forms are temporary
   - Land Art
   Robert Smithson’s Spiral Jetty Great Salt Lake, Utah (1970)
   “A Closer Look”Christo and Jeanne-Claude
   The Gates, Central Park, New York City, 1979-2005
   A Portfolio of
   More Recent Sculpture
   JANINE ANTONI. Chocolate Gnaw (1992
   SYLVIE FLEURY. Dog Toy 3 (Crazy Bird) (2000
   RICHARD SERRA. Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, Spain.
End Chapter 9 Sculpture Three-Dimensional Art

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