CAHSEE Grammar 1 by n3NYd0M

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									Name _____________________________________________________________ Date __________________________________ Period ______________

                               GRAMMAR REVIEW: WRITTEN AND ORAL ENGLISH LANGUAGE CONVENTIONS
                                               CAHSEE PREPARATION: UNIT ONE
Standard(s) Addressed:
Grade 7 Review WOC: 1.2 Identify and use infinitives and participles and make clear references between pronouns and antecedents; 1.3 Identify all parts of
speech and types and structure of sentences; 1.4 Demonstrate the mechanics of writing (e.g., quotation marks, commas at end of dependent clauses) and
appropriate English usage (e.g., pronoun reference).
ESLR:
Reflective Communicators: Think, read, write, listen, speak well

Directions: At the start of class each day you are to have this paper on your desk. When the bell rings you are to
begin working on the activity. Each of these activities is designed to prepare you for the CAHSEE on March 13th, so
pay attention!

Grammar Activity (Tuesday, January 10, 2012): “Using the Right Word”
Each of the following sentences contains commonly confused words (they’re underlined so they’ll stand out). If an
underlined word is used incorrectly, write the correct word. If it’s correct as is, write “OK.”
     1. It’s an uncomfortable situation when someone’s personnel hygiene leaves a little to be desired.
          (OK, personal)

     2. I haven’t been feeling well for the past few days, but I’m sure its just a miner bug.
     3. “Gee, your swell,” said Biff to Bunny.
     4. Kirk, whose a volunteer firefighter, was able to help when Dylan fainted.
     5. Alot of British people live on the Isle of Man, but about half of the population is native, known as
        Manx.
     6. Current unemployment is only one percent, so a growing population of foreigners except jobs on
        the Isle of Man to take advantage of the economic possibilities.
     7. Soon, they adopt the island as they’re home—and adopt to the damp climate.
     8. I’ll give you $12 for that CD, and not one scent more.
     9. Everyone was surprised at Cruz’s rapid assent to a leadership position in student government.
     10. A typical business start-up needs a capitol infusion of several thousand dollars.
     11. Last week, she sought the council of a trusted hair stylist.
     12. The stylist encouraged Rae not to die her hair.


Grammar Activity (Wednesday, January 11, 2012): “Punctuation”
When it comes to punctuation marks, your main options are the period, question mark, exclamation point, comma,
semicolon, colon, apostrophe, quotation, and ellipsis points. It may sound like a lot, but it’s really not. Everything you
can (or need) to say can be said using only these marks! Today we will practice using end marks (period, question
mark, exclamation point) and commas.


                                                                                                                 See chart on next page.




End Marks                                     Commas
 A period is used at the end    Separate items in a series
  of a statement, request, a     Separate two or more adjectives before a noun
  mild command, and most         Are used before for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so (FANBOYS) when the
  abbreviations.                  conjunction joins independent clauses
                                 Set off subordinate clauses (i.e., Unless Sarah finishes her Geometry
 A question mark is used at
                                  homework, Ms. Nguyen will give her a homework card tomorrow.) and
  the end of a direct question.
                                  nonessential phrases and clauses (def: provide extra information or
 An exclamation point is used    clarification) (i.e., Mrs. DeVries’s sister, who is eight years old, knows the
  at the end of an                difference between a metaphor and simile.)
  exclamation, a strong          After introductory elements (i.e., Finally, Winter Break is over and I can
  interjection, and a strong      return to my favorite class.)
  command.                       Set off an expression that interrupts a sentence (i.e., Students, agendas in
                                  hand, sat waiting to see Dr. Avina.)
                                 Separate items in dates and addresses

Grammar Memory Check: An independent clause contains a __________________ and a _________________ and expresses
a complete __________________.
Practice: The following paragraphs have all the punctuation (end marks and commas) removed. Add them back in
where appropriate.
       When television news started out in the 1950s it occupied less than a thirty-minute time slot. ten
or fifteen minutes would be granted to local stations for their news and then the networks would discuss
national and world news in the remaining fifteen to twenty minutes there were very few advertisements
during the news; it wasn't regarded as appropriate to sponsor news about floods fires and political
disasters was the world a simpler place then
       Today many television stations schedule ninety minutes for local news alone and that's just for the
early evening news show on March 17 1998 we watched a local news show in Hartford Connecticut for
one hour from 5 pm to 6 pm and kept track of what seemed to be really news and what was—well not
news
       First of all during this one-hour of news there were 35 advertisements among other things
advertised were ads for cars fast-food chains mutual funds cheese utility companies phone service and
deodorant most of the ads were fast paced colorful slick and sometimes funny a company can sure
accomplish a lot in 30 seconds if they’ve got a couple of million bucks to spend Graphically, they were the
most interesting part of the hour in addition there were ten advertisements apparently produced by the
television station itself that advertised programs and services of the station some ads reminded viewers
about the evening’s programming while others touted (def: praised somebody or something) the virtues
of the station's news team and weather forecasters

Grammar Activity (Thursday, January 12, 2012): “Punctuation: Colons and Semicolons”
Colons are used for emphasis and to introduce a list. Semicolons, on the other hand, are used to join two
independent clauses that are related in idea.

Grammar Memory Check: A colon looks like this _______. A semicolon looks like this _________.
Practice: Each sentence contains errors that need to be corrected. In some cases you will add punctuation; in
others, you will change existing punctuation.
    1. Elaine disliked her father-in-law he smoked, he bragged, he belched, and he scratched his belly.
    2. We went to Paris we saw the Eiffel Tower.
    3. Before you leave for school, make sure you have all your supplies agenda, 3-ring binder, pen and
       pencil, and homework.
    4. There are three choices in this life be good, get good, or give up.
    5. Tuition for the music school is not high however, many scholarships are available.
    6. The shoes are too tight they just don’t fit.
    7. Defending the right to free speech, Voltaire made this statement “I may disagree with what you
       say, but I shall defend your right to say it.”
    8. Three plays by William Shakespeare will be presented this summer Julius Caesar, Othello, and A
       Midsummer’s Night Dream.
    9. Call me tomorrow I will give you my answer then.
    10. The major gave an unclear order consequently, the troops marched over the cliff.

Grammar Activity (Friday, January 13, 2012): “Punctuation: Italics, Quotation Marks, Ellipsis Points”

Type of                   Rule                                                  Special Rules
Punctuation
Italics (underlining       Titles and subtitles of books, plays, long poems,
when handwriting)           periodicals, works of art, movies, TV series,
                            long musical works
                           Names of ships, trains, aircraft, spacecraft
                           Foreign words not adopted into English (i.e.
                            tortilla is not italicized, adios is italicized)
Quotation Marks            Before and after a person’s exact words             Punctuating within quotation marks can be
                           Titles and subtitles of short stories, poems,       difficult if you don’t know the rules:
                            essays, articles, episodes of a TV series,           Place commas and periods inside closing
                            chapters and other parts of books and                   quotation marks
                            periodicals                                          Place colons and semicolons outside the
                           Slang words, technical terms, unusual uses of           closing quotation marks
                            words                                                Place a question mark or exclamation
                                                                                    point inside the closing quotation marks
                                                                                    only if the quotation is a question or
                                                                                    exclamation; otherwise, these go
                                                                                    outside.
                                                                                 Use single quotation marks for a
                                                                                    quotation within a quotation.
Ellipsis Points (. . .)    To mark omissions from quoted material: three
                            ellipsis points for part of a sentence or line of
                            poetry
                           To indicate a pause in written dialogue
Practice: The following sentences need underlining and quotation marks. Be sure to follow the special rules of
quotations when punctuating the sentences.
    1. This week we will begin reading The Tragedy of Julius Caesar Ms. Handley said.
    2. First we will read an article by Robert Anderson titled Elizabethan Stage.
    3. Twice a soothsayer (def: someone who tells the future) warned Caesar Beware the ides of March.
    4. He is a dreamer Caesar said of the soothsayer let us leave him.
   5. Brutus asked What means this shouting?
   6. When Caesar says Do this, it is performed remarked Antony.
   7. Liberty! Freedom! shouted Cinna. Tyranny is dead!
   8. In the article William Shakespeare’s Life: A Biographical Sketch, we read about Shakespeare’s
       other tragic masterpieces: Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, and Macbeth.


Grammar Activity (Tuesday, January 17, 2012): “Dangling and Misplaced Modifiers”
Dangling Modifiers: A dangling modifier appears to modify a word that isn’t in the sentence. It “dangles” because
it’s not attached to anything.
         Dangling: Fighting for breath, the finish line seemed very far away. (Who or what is fighting for breath?)
         Corrected: Fighting for breath, Juan thought the finish line seemed very far away.
Misplaced Modifiers: Misplaced modifiers are modifiers that have been placed incorrectly in a sentence. A
modifier should be as close as possible to the word it modifies.
       Misplaced: After finishing the last song, the media met with the band’s singer. (Did the media sing?)
       Corrected: After finishing the last song, the band’s singer met with the media.

Practice: Correct the following sentences to eliminate the use of unclear modifiers. Be sure to indicate whether
the modifier is dangling or misplaced.
   1. Shelby washed her hair after she finished eating with a new shampoo.
       Misplaced: After she finished eating, Shelby washed her hair with a new shampoo.
   2. While sweeping the floor, the stew boiled over on the stove.
       _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
   3. I found a hawk’s nest near the river in a tree.
       _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
   4. Flying over Orange County, the cars and houses looked like toys.
       _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
   5. Smashed beyond repair, Diane saw her watch lying on the tennis court.
       _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
   6. At the age of five, Paul’s uncle took him to the circus.
       _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
   7. While jogging down the street, a dog bit my neighbor.
       _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
   8. UPS delivered a package to our door that weighed 50 pounds.
       _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Grammar Activity (Wednesday, January 18, 2012): “Dangling and Misplaced Modifiers”
Using your knowledge from yesterday’s grammar review (take a second look at it if you need to), correct the
following sentences for dangling or misplaced modifiers. Be sure to indicate whether the modifier is dangling or
misplaced.
Grammar Memory Check: A dangling modifier modifies a word that ____________________________________. A
misplaced modifier has been placed __________________ in the sentence.
  1. I’ll check the report when you finish for accuracy.
      ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  2. Changing the oil every 3,000 miles, the car seemed to run better.
     ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  3. The directions were too small to read on the package.
     ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  4. All of the passengers were not on time for the plane.
      ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  5. I could see loons [def: a type of bird] diving for fish from the canoe.
      ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  6. Running around the block, the sidewalk seemed slicker than usual.
      ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  7. Hank nearly practices the violin every day.
      ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  8. Having recognized the mistake, the problem seemed much easier to fix.
      ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  9. The tourists photographed hang gliders flying from the cliffs while they were visiting Hawaii.
      ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  10. To end the trial, documents were signed.
      ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Grammar Activity (Thursday, January 19, 2012): “Punctuation: A Review I”
Review the punctuation rules from Wednesday 1/11, Thursday 1/12 and Friday 1/13, and then complete the
following practice exercise. If the underlined punctuation is incorrect, use editing marks to correct it. If the
underlined punctuation is correct, write “OK” above.

       What does the future hold. If you were asked this question in the mid-twentieth century here’s
what you may have envisioned, flying automobiles, space travel to distant planets, and lifelike robots
acting as servants. Movies and books of that era are fascinating to look at now.
       The 1930 movie Just Imagine depicted the future of 1980. People had numbers rather than names
and the government arranged all marriages. Several movies from the 1970s and 1980s depicted a future
world run by computers. The Mad Max series of movies on the other hand showed a bleak orderless
future. Fortunately none of these ideas has come to pass . . . yet.
       Unfortunately: some predictions have come true. Two of Aldous Huxley’s books “Brave New
World” and Ape and Essence, which were published in the 1930s and 1940s, described many of the social
problems we see today; terrorism, overpopulation, the loss of natural resources and widespread drug
use. In movies, destruction caused by huge bombs was depicted before the nuclear age was a reality.
Grammar Activity (Friday, January 20, 2012): “Punctuation: A Review II”
Review the punctuation rules from Wednesday 1/11, Thursday 1/12 and Friday 1/13, and then complete the
following practice exercise. If the underlined punctuation is incorrect, use editing marks to correct it. If the
underlined punctuation is correct, write “OK.”

The movie “You’ve Got Mail” is actually a remake of the 1940 film “The Shop Around the Corner”. While
the previous film focused on a romance conducted through the post office, the newer one made in (1998)
had the romance happening through e-mail.
Sasha asked. “Do you know whose hat this is”? She held up a red-and-white striped knit stocking cap.
Patrick said, “Its either Jacks’ or Zack’s hat,”
“The Black Eyed Peas released a new album, Kent said. Have you heard any songs from it?”
“Iv’e heard “Union” a few times,” said Fiona.
“Is this album as good as the one before it, “Elephunk”?” he asked.
“I think its the Pea’s best one,” she said.


Grammar Activity (Monday, January 23, 2012): “Punctuation: Underline and Quotes”
Review the grammar activity from Friday 1/13. After reviewing your responses, correct the following sentences by
adding the proper punctuation – either underline or quotation marks – to indicate the work of literature, art,
music, et cetera.
   1. My grandfather rarely misses an episode of the television program “Sixty Minutes.”

   2. Ray thought the setting of the poem Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening was very beautiful.

   3. The first poem in Michael’s collection is called The Mystery.

   4. Tony is writing an article for the school newspaper. School in Space? is the title.

   5. In class this year, we will read the play “Julius Caesar” and the novel To Kill a Mockingbird.

   6. Is Kendra’s favorite poem The Moon Was But a Chin of Gold?

   7. Have you read Eudora Welty’s short story A Worn Path?

   8. Donatello’s famous work of art, “Julius Caesar,” can be found in the Louvre, in Paris.

   9. Two of her favorite old-time movies are Foreign Correspondent and The Maltese Falcon.

   10. This quotation is from my English class essay entitled Understanding Me.

   11. In Silent Snow, Secret Snow, a short story by Conrad Aiken, a boy thinks he hears snow falling, but
       there is none.
   12. After discussing Anne Tyler’s short story Teenage Wasteland, we listened to The Who’s song Baba
       O’Riley.

   13. Chris and Stephen studied the imagery in the poem Ex-Basketball Player.

   14. One of my favorite poems by Langston Hughes is Dreams, which is included in his collection “The
       Dream Keeper and Other Poems.”

   15. I particularly enjoy reading the food section in the Wednesday edition of the Washington Post.


Grammar Activity (Tuesday, January 24, 2012): “Voice of a Verb”
Chances are you will not remember everything you learned (way back in Units 3 and 4) about passive and active voice,
so we’ve included a refresher here. Make sure you read this carefully and ask questions when you do not understand,
as we guarantee you will be asked questions about this on the CAHSEE!
Grammar Memory Check: The easiest way to determine whether or not a sentence is using passive voice is to
determine if a sentence uses a “be” verb + another verb. The following are examples of “be” verbs: is, am, ______,
was, _________, be, _______, and been.

Voice indicates whether the subject of a sentence is acting or being acted upon.
       Active voice indicates that the subject of the verb is, has been, or will be doing something.
         When a sentence is in the active voice, the subject performs the action.
         Active voice makes your writing more strong, direct, and lively.
            Example: For many years Lou Brock held the base-stealing record. (The subject, Lou Brock, is the one
            performing the action; it was he who held the record.)

       Passive voice indicates that the subject of the verb is being, has been, or will be acted upon.
         In passive voice, the subject is acted upon, and the performer of the action (called the agent) either is
          stated in a prepositional phrase or is missing from the sentence.
            Example: For many years the base-stealing record was held by Lou Brock. (In this example, the
            performer of the action is Lou Brock—indicated by the prepositional phrase by Lou Brock—but is being
            acted upon.
In other words, active voice emphasizes the agent of the action, whereas the passive voice emphasizes the action.
Directions: Underline the “agent of the action” (the person/thing who/that performs the action) once and
underline the verb (the action) twice. Then rewrite those sentences that are written in the passive voice. If the
sentence is already in active voice, write correct as is.
1. The statue is being visited by hundreds of tourists every year.
   Hundreds of tourists visit the statue every year.
2. Ms. Handley can read a good book in an afternoon.
   _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________




3. This stack of papers was left in the classroom by Mrs. Harkins.
   _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
4. Coffee is raised in many parts of Hawaii by plantation workers.
   _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
5. The house had been broken into by someone while the owners were on vacation.
   _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
6. A woman was being carried downstairs by a strong firefighter.
   _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
7. The violent criminal was arrested by the police.
   _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
8. Have you seen the new movie that was directed by Ron Howard?
   _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
9. A great deal of our oil will have been exported to other countries by our government.
   _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

								
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