ELA GR7 UNIT2 by x29Gd4


									                                                      Youngstown City Schools Curriculum Project

                                                 ENGLISH / LANGUAGE ARTS - - Grade 7
                         Grade 7        Unit #2 PEER PRESSURE, HAZING, AND BULLYING (4 weeks)

    SYNOPSIS: Students will consider the important topics of peer pressure, hazing, and bullying. They will read a novel about one
    of the topics and analyze how the author develops the ideas using the characters and the various events of the text to develop
    the theme. Students will also read pieces of non-fiction on the topic and view one or more films that explore it from the audio-visual
    perspective. As they complete their reading, students will maintain reading logs that capture key literal and inferential details,
    central ideas and themes, points of view, and core vocabulary to better-understand the texts and the topic. By the end of the
    Unit, each student will analyze two new pieces of literature about the topic to apply their reading and language skills, and create a
    Public Service announcement for their school.

RL 7.1 Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the past.

RL 7.2 Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary
       of the text.

RL 7.6 Analyze how an author develops and contrasts the points of view of different characters or narrators in a text.

RL 7.7 Compare and contrast a written story, drama or poem to its audio, filmed, staged or multimedia version, analyzing the effects of
       techniques unique to each medium (e.g. lighting, sound, color or camera focus and angles in film.)

RI 7.2 Determine two or more central ideas in a text and analyze their development over the course of the text; provide an objective
       summary of the text.

RI 7.9 Analyze how two or more authors writing about the same topic shape their presentations of key information by emphasizing different
       evidence or advancing different interpretations of facts.

W 7.4        Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose and
             audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1-3 above).

SL 7.1 Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-to-one, in groups, teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 7
       topics, texts and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
               b. Follow the rules of collegial discussions, track progress toward specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as

L 7.4        Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 7 reading and content,
             choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
               b. Use common grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g. belligerent, bellicose,

L 7.6        Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary
             knowledge when considering a work or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

     FICTION                    POETRY / SONG                           FILM                               SPEECHES                      NON-FICTION
The Battle of Jericho,       Sample poems written        Cipher in the Snow, Gene Mizer                                            Editorials, essays on
Susan Draper                 by students (attached)       Hhtp://cragalan.wordpress.com/ *                                         bullying located by
                                                         cipher-in-the-snow                                                        students
[ cont’d ]
                                                                                                                                   Teacher will bring in a
8/1/12                                                      YCS Grade 7 English /Language Arts: Unit 2 - - Peer Pressure, Hazing, and Bullying 2012-13   1
  “Cipher in the Snow,”                                                                                                             current sample (e.g.,
  Gene Mizer                                                                                                                        USA Today, June 13,

Key Terms
   General Vocabulary                               Literary Skills                                 Writing Skills                Speaking /Listening Skills
 compare and contrast          explicit details                                                 summary                        collaborative discussions
 classroom community           inferences                                                       development                    listening skills
 goal-setting                  theme or central idea                                            organization                   read-aloud
 accountability                character points of view                                         style                          public speaking
 Public Service                narrator point of view                                           task
    Announcement               multi-media vs print versions                                    audience
                               independent reading                                              purpose
                               comparing two authors writing about the same topic               journaling
                               multiple meaning words and phrases
                               Greek and Latin affixes and roots

MOTIVATION                                                                                                                         TEACHER NOTES
1. T asks Ss about the importance of “peer pressure” (e.g., How and why are Ss affected by peer

2. T assigns Journal prompt re: peer pressure (e.g., “Describe a time when you were a victim of peer
   pressure”). T reminds Ss to use criteria (posted) for effective Journal entries.

3. Ss exchange Journals, read/reflect (e.g., What decisions had to be made? What did people do? What
   are common instances of pressure within our classroom community? What motivates us to relent?
   How does it mesh with your own values? etc. ) (SL 7.1 b)

4. T helps Ss set goals for the Unit (1 personal and 1 academic); Ss record in Notebooks / Journals.

5. T previews “authentic assessments” as expectations for the Unit (i.e., explains what Ss will be expected
   to accomplish by the end of the Unit). T reminds Ss of Independent Reading Requirements. (see
   Unit # 1, Attachment #1)

TEACHING-LEARNING ACTIVITIES                                                                                                       TEACHER NOTES
1. T assigns a Journal prompt to introduce the book: “What are you willing to do to be accepted?” Ss
   write Journal responses (using the posted criteria), then debrief with teacher. After discussing the
   substance of the Journals, T focuses on structure, asking how well Ss met the criteria, can they see
   improvements since the first Journal, etc. (W 7.4) (See Unit #1 for Journal page. )

2. T introduces the concepts of development, organization, and style in writing; asks Ss what they think is
   meant by each. T demonstrates “development,” “organization” as closely related to “pre-writes;” Ss
   practice. T explains how “style” works but that it develops over time. (W 7.4)

3. T introduces the book The Battle of Jericho [or another book of the same theme] with a “book-talk.

4. T begins the book with a teaser (from the book), and the T and Ss read strategic pages together (i.e., a
   mix of T read-aloud; S read-aloud, choral reading, and silent reading); Ss complete a Directed
   Reading Guide (sample attached) that includes key vocabulary and explicit and implicit details, and
                                                                                                                  [ cont’d ]
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  TEACHING-LEARNING ACTIVITIES                                                                                                 TEACHER NOTES
  MAY ask for what-if or predicted detail; T assigns a written reaction: “Explain or discuss the dilemma
  Jericho faces; what would YOU do? What should HE do?” (RL 7.1; RL 7.2; RL 7.6)

  [ NOTE: Several of the Unit Standards may or may not “occur” in this first intro reading. Those that do
  not will be featured in the debrief of subsequent reading assignments. SEE BELOW.
                                                                                                        SL 7.1
  With pertinent reading assignments (in- and out-of-class) and completed logs, Ss will encounter the        .
  Standards several times. Either ahead of these encounters or as they bring their logs to class - - or even
  during an in-class reading - - key text details and vocabulary will be encountered: [ NOTE: T makes sure
  Ss have recorded key VOCABULARY, literal or explicit DETAILS, valid INFERENCES (implicit details),
  and THEME or CENTRAL IDEAS as part of Note-taking or Reading Notes. See Attachment #1 for a
  sample format. ]

  As Ss address the details of the reading (in Activities #5-9), they will hold collaborative discussions with
  each other - - in a variety of groupings and teams. They will listen carefully to each other and build on
  each others’ ideas. (SL 7.1 b)

     5. T reviews the distinction between literal and inferential detail, using examples from TV, fairy
        tales, and other familiar stories; T draws examples from assigned reading, and makes sure Ss see
        these two levels of meaning in the text and how to “support” the inferences with text detail. (RL 7.1)

     6. T helps Ss understand theme or central idea using familiar stories, TV shows, movies, or fairy
        tales. Across the full-length text, the author will develop this theme or text, and - - knowing this
        theme or central idea - - T draws Ss’ attention to text detail that shows this development. (RL 7.2)

     7. At a key interval (e.g., half- or two-thirds of the way through and then at the end) when the central
        idea has been significantly developed, T draws Ss’ attention to this and models how to create an
        objective summary. Ss may need to practice with the familiar stories, TV, films, fairy tales, etc.
        NOTE: see Attachment # 2 for sample summary guidelines. (RL 7.2)

     8. T helps Ss analyze how author develops and contrasts points of view of characters or narrators
        using text detail. (RL 7.6)

     9. T draws Ss’ attention to multi-meaning words (L 7.4) and words with Greek or Latin affixes and
        roots (L 7.4 b) and words that will be important for their own word banks (L 7.6) as they complete
        their assigned readings or in-class readings. T reminds Ss how to use context clues and helps Ss
        create original sentences that show comprehension of the meanings. (L 7.4; L 7.6)

         NOTE: T may want to pull words from Ss at first, then move toward Ss find on their own.

     In addition to modeling, practice, and discussions, it is suggested that the T uses quizzes that include
     literal and implied detail, theme, points of view, characterization, and key vocabulary.

     If needed, use the two poems - - Attachments # 3and #4 - - for additional practice.

  10. T shows snippet of movie Bully (e.g., U-tube Bully). T leads discussion about connections between
      the substance of the book and the focus of the movie. Ss produce a Venn diagram that shows the
      similarities and differences. Ss then write a compare-contrast essay or think-piece. [ NOTE to
      Teacher: this may be better shown 1/3 of the way through the book when the hazing has worsened.
      (RL 7.2; RL 7.6)

  11. T helps Ss understand theme or central idea using familiar stories, TV shows, movies, or fairly
      tales. Across the full-length text, the author will develop this theme or text, and - - knowing this theme
      or central idea - - T draws Ss’ attention to text detail that shows this development. Ss work in 2s or 3s
      to devise literal, interpretive, and what-if questions. Ss will collaboratively discuss them (SL 7.1 b),
      focused on the elements in the standards. (RL 7.2)                                         [ cont’d ]

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  TEACHING-LEARNING ACTIVITIES                                                                                                 TEACHER NOTES

  12. T helps Ss compare the two bullying articles (Attachments #5 and #6). Ss read each separately first
      (perhaps in 2s or 3s), noting the key details and ideas of each. T leads debrief of each article
      separately, then helps Ss compare and contrast them, using a Venn diagram. (RI 7.9)

  13. T provides interlude of “Jeremy” (song by Pearl Jam, Attachment #7) re: a Columbine-like episode

  14. T shows the film Cipher in the Snow (U-Tube) as a different type of bullying - - ignoring a student to
      death. T leads discussion on the film; then Ss to read the print version of “Cipher in the Snow.”
      http://craigalan.wordpress.com/cipher-in-the-snow. During the discussion, the T helps Ss compare
      the film version with the print version of Cipher, citing the attributes of each and comparing the overall
      “effect” on the message. (RL 7.7)

  TRADITIONAL ASSESSMENT                                                                                                   TEACHER NOTES
  1. Unit Test ( consisting of multiple choice and 2- and 4-point essay items on Standards)

  2. Journals / Notebook entries

  3. Completed Reading Logs

  AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT                                                                                                     TEACHER NOTES
  Each student will - -

  1. Analyze a passage from a NEW (not read during the Unit) fictional work about bullying, hazing, and
     peer pressure; from that analysis, the student will - - [ on a response form provided ]
         a. identify three explicit details and three inferences, and include text detail to support
             (RL 7.1)
         b. determine the theme or central idea of the text, and show how it is developed through the
             piece (RL 7.2)
         c. explain how the author develops and contrasts the points of view of different characters or
             narrators in the text (RL 7.6)
         d. determine the meaning of multi-meaning words using context clues or roots and affixes and
             use them in an original sentence that indicates comprehension (L 7.4 and L 7.4 b and L 7.6)
         e. write an objective summary of the passage

  2. Analyze two passages from NEW (not read during the Unit) non-fiction works on bullying, hazing, and
     peer pressure - - each written by a different author; from that analysis, the student will - - [ on a
     response form provided ]
         a. identify two or more central ideas in ONE of the texts and analyze their development over the
             course of the text (RI 7.2)
         b. analyze how the two authors shaped their presentations of the key information by
             emphasizing different evidence or advancing a different interpretation of the facts. (RI 7.9)

  3. Write a Public Service announcement on the subject of bullying, hazing, and peer pressure and what
     the victim can and should do. (W 7.4)
          NOTE: see Attachment #8 of PSA criteria and a model. Students’ work may be posted on the
          district’s “Bullying Hotline” in conjunction with the Communications office (Karen Ingraham)

  4.     Evaluate his and her personal and academic goals for the Unit.

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Attachment #1 Youngstown City Schools
                                        Sample Directed Reading Guide

Student: ____________________________ Teacher: ____________________ Date: ___________________

Selection: _______________________________ Author: _________________________ Pages: _________

A. Key Details ( i.e., what the author says; what’s in print )
         (1) __________________________________________________________________________________

         (2) __________________________________________________________________________________

         (3) __________________________________________________________________________________

B. Key Inferences Drawn ( i.e., what the author means; what’s behind the print )
         (1) _________________________________________________________________________________

         (2) _________________________________________________________________________________

         (3) __________________________________________________________________________________

C. New Vocabulary or Phrases

         Word or Phrase            Meaning as used                                     Original Sentences reflecting
                                     in the text                                       student’s OWN understanding

     Connotation ?                                         Figurative Language?

     Connotation ?                                         Figurative Language?

     Connotation ?                                         Figurative Language?

OPTION: Predictions ?? _________________________________________________________________________

D. Author’s Central Idea or Overall Theme



E. One connection to your own experience or something else you’ve read.



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Attachment #2


                                                           FICTION SUMMARIES

     Pre-Write a simple outline
         1. Genre (e.g., a short story, a folk tale, a poem, a novel, a TV show, a movie, a play, etc.)
         2. Author
         3. Context
                 a. environment (e.g., the woods, a theme park, the suburbs, a space station etc.)
                 b. geographic location (e.g., near X city, in the deep South, colonial Massachusetts)
                 c. timeframe, if specified (e.g., the 1700s, today, the future)
         4. Characters / Narrator (e.g., involves 3 high school students; told by the main character’s best pal)
         5. Major Plot Details (e.g., two or three key events including the ending)

     Avoid ANY editorial remarks or comments - - include ONLY what’s written

     The Lion King is a Broadway play and an animated movie written by Irene Mecchi and others. It is set in the
     Pride Lands of Africa. It is the story of a community of jungle animals ruled by lions. The father lion has a son
     who will become king. But the father’s         wicked brother decides to have the father killed and drive off the
     son so that he can become king. The son goes into hiding, believing he killed his father. The wicked brother
     becomes king, and the community begins to fall apart. But friends loyal to the father king and the son find the
     son and convince him to return to the Pride Lands and take his rightful place as king. He does so, and the
     wicked brother is thrown out.

                                                       NON-FICTION SUMMARIES

     Pre-Write a simple outline
         1. Genre (e.g., an essay, a speech, a set of directions, a court transcript, a treaty, a biography, etc.)
         2. Author(s)
         3. Context or locale - - if important (e.g., delivered to the Ohio Historical Society)
         4. Purpose (e.g., to convince, to entertain, to inform, to explain, etc.)
         5. Thesis Idea(s) or Main Point(s)
         6. Support or development of detail

     Avoid ANY editorial remarks or comments - - include ONLY what’s written

     “The Gettysburg Address” is a famous speech given by President Abraham Lincoln just after the battle at
     Gettysburg during the Civil War. The President was asked to make a few remarks to the crowd who had come
     to the battlefield to remember those who died in the battle. The speech was to remind people that the country
     had been set up as one nation and that everyone deserved to be free. But with the Civil War, there was the
     threat that the country would split into North and South and that slavery would continue. Mr. Lincoln urged
     listeners to see the horrific sacrifice of so many lives as a reminder that the country dare not forget its origins of
     one nation under God.

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Attachment #3

           Thorn In My Side
                 by Bisi Akinola-Arutoghor

           Like a thorn in my side
           I’ve nowhere to hide
           You’ve got a sting in your tail
           And you’ll get me without fail

           Is it my hair, my size or my shoes?
           Whatever it is I’ll always lose
           Tell me what’s wrong I’m sure we can sort it out
           But you’d rather get angry, lash out and shout

           Trials and tribulations are all part of life
           But why do I have to put up with your trouble and strife?
           You suppress and repress me and laugh at my woes
           I’d like to see how you’d react if someone bigger stepped on your toes

           There’s a name for your kind you’re a B.U.L.L.Y.
           If I’m not to your liking you’ll tell me why and make me cry
           It’s not just the verbal but the physical and mental abuse
           Do you know how many times
           I’ve wanted to end it all with my head in a noose?

           My brother says be strong, you’ll get bored and it will all come to an end
           I want the end now, don’t need an enemy but a friend
           School years are long and there’re supposed to be fun
           This seems like a battle that can never be won

           You’ve never been strong just aggressive and weak
           You’ve never liked me because I’m kind and meek
           My self respect and confidence have been taken away
           But I pray to God that they will come back soon, someday

           I’m now older and wiser and even have respect for myself
           Doing well in my career and I even have wealth
           Saw you the other day walking up and down the street
           You should have concentrated on studying not bullying
           Then you would be able to make ends meet

           No more do I have that thorn in my side
           It is now your turn, to run away and hide
           Go on bend your head down in embarrassment and shame
           Like a newly planted flower, I’ll never be the same again.

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     Attachment #4

             Stop And Think
                   by Laurey

             I look down upon my grave today
             surrounded by flowers, where sleeping I lay
             so many regrets for what I have done
             I took my own life, I could only live once
             now I am peaceful, but never at rest
             as my soul is still breathing deep within my chest
             so many friends, a difference I made
             someone is crying tears upon my grave
             I see there my mum, a picture of pain
             my heart is still living but my body is drained
             what I would do just to hug her again
             tell her I love her, stop tears being shed
             I never thought of the pain I could cause
             hearts I had shattered, lives I had torn
             just because of those hurtful things
             that heartless girl had said to me
             wish that I could make her pay
             if she had thought I'd be here today
             but instead, I'm lying in my grave
             with things that I could never say
             words I needed off my chest
             now that I will never rest.
             I was self absorbed, just thinking of me
             looking back on how I could have been
             I know my mind was in a trance
             and I will never have a second chance
             I should have thought before I met my death
             I’m sorry now, took my last breath
             for all you people who feel so down,
             take a minute, look around
             there’s always people there for you
             those people who will help you through
             suicide isn’t the way
             the message carved upon my grave.

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Attachment #5

Column: Bullying in USA: Are we defenseless?                                                                                            p. 1
By Bruce Kluger     USA Today January 25 and 26, 2012
                                                                                                                             Updated 1/25/2012 2:36 PM

Although I have lived in New York City for 32 years, I have never been to Staten Island. It has
been said, however, that this southernmost of New York's five boroughs is also its most
neighborly. With tree-lined streets and a vibrant mix of white- and blue-collar families, it is even,
some say, evocative of Middle America.


                                                                                             By David Joles, (Minneapolis) Star Tribune, via AP

         Wearing anti-bullying shirts: Students encourage Minnesota legislators in November to enact a law against bullying.

            Tragically, last month Staten Island took a giant step closer to becoming like the rest of the nation.
            On Dec. 27, a 15-year-old high school sophomore named Amanda Cummings walked onto the
            main boulevard in her neighborhood and, according to witnesses, threw herself into the path of an
            onrushing bus. She died from her injuries six days later. Police say that at the time of the accident,
            she was carrying a suicide note in her pocket.
                MORE: Cyberbullying cases that ended in tragedy
                MORE: Read our chat on solutions for, ways to fight cyberbullying.

            A common scenario
            Amanda's back story is all too familiar: She had been bullied relentlessly at her school, mostly by
            other girls. She had suffered a failed romance that brought her into conflict with a female classmate.
            She had reportedly sunken into a fog of drugs and alcohol. And most sickeningly, even as she lay
            dying in the hospital, the bullying continued on her Facebook page.

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             To make matters worse, police investigators have yet to rule the suicide a result of bullying, citing
             lack of evidence. Family members say this is because Amanda did not want to inflame her anguish
             by forcing a public confrontation. The investigation is still open.

                                                                                                                                                   p. 2

         Attachment #5, cont’d

             That this wrenchingly painful story is now considered a textbook example of today's teen suicide
             scenarios speaks both to the depth of the crisis and our failed efforts to curb it.
             This is a problem without a solution.

             According to the Children's Defense Fund, one child or teen in America commits suicide every five
             hours. Additionally, says the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, for every suicide among
             young people, there are at least 100 attempts. And a review by Yale University finds that victims of
             bullying are two to nine times more likely to consider suicide than non-victims.

             I first read about Amanda's death just minutes before my two girls barreled in the front door from
             school. Bridgette, 16, looked at me and asked why I had tears in my eyes. I showed her the story,
             and as she read it, she grew enraged.

             "It's not going to get better!" she bellowed, paraphrasing the name of the popular national
             organization that wages war on bullying. "Not unless somebody does something. At this point, Lady
             Gaga is the only one who is making a difference."

             I instantly understood what Bridgette meant. Unlike the It Gets Better and Trevor Projects — both
             landmark and admirable organizations — Lady Gaga has stealthily used her pop star prowess and
             signature otherness to get into the heads of youths. Even the title of her anti-bullying foundation,
             Born This Way (taken from the title of her hit song), sends a potent and uplifting message to kids,
             signifying that it's OK to feel different.

             And yet, even as Lady Gaga continues these noble efforts, we continue to lose children. This is why
             Amanda's mother felt compelled, even at the depths of her grieving, to speak out on national
             television, urging parents everywhere to monitor their kids' lives more closely.

             "If (the bullies) are doing this to one person," she warned, "they're doing it to others."
             This is a problem without a solution.

             The more I thought about the story from Staten Island, the more I began to channel Bridgette's fury.
             In recent months, I, like many Americans, have been absorbed in the presidential debates, listening
             carefully to see whether any of the candidates were addressing issues that spoke to my family, my
8/1/12                                    YCS Grade 7 English / Language Arts: Unit 2 - - ELA Unit 2 Peer Pressure, Hazing, and Bullying 2012-13   10
             kids, my life. And now I wonder: Who is leading the charge against the deadly epidemic of teen
             bullying — a scourge that continues to lurk in the playgrounds and hallways of all of our kids' lives?

                                                                                                                                                p. 3

         Attachment #5, cont’d

             Who is speaking out on the issue with the same urgency we routinely give to teen pregnancy, or
             childhood obesity, or even standardized testing? Granted, our system of political debate can't
             possibly accommodate every issue facing our nation; and yet how many more deaths must we
             witness before bullying is elevated to the level of national emergency? How many more broken
             hearts must parents and families endure?

             'Around-the-clock problem'
             Last fall, I participated in an online campaign against bullying that was launched by my friendMarlo
             Thomas on her Huffington Post blog. At one point, Marlo and I conducted a telephone interview
             with a New Yorker named Kevin Jacobsen, who had lost his 14-year-old son, Kameron, to a
             bullying-related suicide. Marlo asked most of the questions as I listened in — like any father would
             — aching.

             "Bullying is not the same old issue it used to be," Kevin cautioned. "With social networking and
             computers and cellphones, it's become an around-the-clock problem. It's now a health issue."

             Not long before the interview, Kevin had created an anti-bullying website in memory of his son. He
             called it Kindness Above Malice and vowed to devote the rest of his life to ensuring that no parent
             experiences the same crushing loss he and his wife had suffered.
             Then came this month's shocking e-mail: On Jan. 7, as the one-year anniversary of Kameron's
             death approached, Kevin took his own life. He has now joined his son. And Amanda. And far, far
             too many children in this country.

             This is a column without a solution. Does anybody have one?
             Bruce Kluger is a member of USA TODAY's Board of Contributors. He lives in New York

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Attachment #6

Should bullies be treated as criminals?                                                                              p. 1

By Greg Toppo, USA TODAY June 13, 2012
                                                                                                                            Updated 6/13/2012 5:24 PM

An earlier version of this story misstated the role of Rosalind Wiseman in a 2010 Massachusetts
case. Wiseman worked with prosecutors before and after the case involving Phoebe Prince but
did not consult with them while the case was active.


                                                                                                   By Rodney White, The Des Moines Register

         Pallbearers with pink and orange accents in their hair carry the casket of Kenneth Weishuhn, a freshman at South
         O'Brien High School who hanged himself.

                                                                                                          By Rodney White, The Des Moines Register

            After Kenneth Weishuhn told classmates at his Iowa high school last winter that he was gay, his
            family says anonymous voicemail threats began popping up on his cellphone. At school, some of
            his fellow students yelled anti-gay slurs, and the harassment got so bad that teachers at South
            O'Brien High School in Paullina, Iowa, began standing guard in hallways. Friends started an online
            support group for Kenneth, whom they called "K.J." Bullies spammed it, family members say.

            On April 15, K.J. hanged himself in the garage of his home in Primghar. He was 14.
            K.J.'s suicide generated a rare front-page editorial in the Sioux City Journal, headlined, "We must
            stop bullying. It starts here. And it starts now." The editorial said bullies' mistreatment of Weishuhn
            "didn't let up until he took his own life," adding, "We are all to blame. We have not done enough."

            Candlelight vigils and rallies for the freshman spread across Iowa, and K.J.'s image served as an
            onstage backdrop during Madonna's European tour.

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     Attachment #6, cont’d                                                                                                             p. 2

            Nearly two months later, police are still investigating. O'Brien County Sheriff Michael Anderson said
            Tuesday that an announcement from the county attorney on whether criminal charges will be filed
            could come as early as this week.

            Tragic suicides such as K.J.'s have galvanized educators into a zero-tolerance stance on bullying,
            and a recent analysis by the U.S. Department of Education shows that state lawmakers nationwide
            are increasingly willing to criminalize bullying behavior, even as experts wonder whether doing so
            will have the intended effect: to curb the behavior and improve the learning atmosphere.

            As millions of students head off to their summer breaks, they might leave behind the face-to-face
            bullying that includes everything from simple taunts to brutal beatings, but too often they can't
            escape the digital world that gives the predators access to their prey day and night and well beyond
            the schoolyard gates.

8/1/12                                YCS Grade 7 English / Language Arts: Unit 2 - - ELA Unit 2 Peer Pressure, Hazing, and Bullying 2012-13   13
         Attachment #6, cont’d                                                                                                            p. 3

             Though bullying is as old as classrooms, only in the past decade or so have states moved to
             address, legislatively, what once was simply the domain of schools. In 1999, only Georgia had an
             anti-bullying law. Now every state but Montana does. In the past 13 years, states have enacted
             nearly 130 anti-bullying measures, half of which came since 2008.
             Spurred partly by the Columbine shootings in 1999, in which media accounts suggested the
             perpetrators had been bullied, states began "rapidly" addressing bullying, a 2011 U.S. Department
             of Education report found. Eighteen states have laws that allow victims to seek legal remedies for
             bullying, either from schools that don't act or from the bullies themselves. Among other recent

                  •    32 states require that schools have procedures for investigating bullying incidents.
                  •    17 states require that school staff report bullying to a supervisor, much as they report
                       suspected abuse and neglect.
                  •    Nine states require administrators to report bullying to police.
                  •    11 states require that schools allow anonymous reporting by students of bullying.

             Russlynn Ali, the Department of Education's assistant secretary for civil rights, said schools should
             think hard before turning discipline cases over to police. "It's hugely important to set the (school)
             culture right and make it safe for all," she said. "That is different from sending children to jail."

             Ali said minority students in districts with zero-tolerance policies are frequently punished
             more severely than other students. She noted new federal data that show that zero-tolerance
             districts in the 2009-10 school year expelled nearly 30,000 students; 56% were black or Hispanic,
             though 45% of students enrolled were black or Hispanic.

             Even anti-bullying advocates warn that throwing bullies in jail might not be the best remedy. "It's a
             terrible idea," said Eliza Byard, who heads the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network
             (GLSEN), a national advocacy group that works on improving the climate at the nation's schools.
             "Locking children up (and) imposing criminal penalties on children represents a tremendous failure
             on the part of adults."

             Yet in state after state, legislators are stepping forward to address what has been called a national
             epidemic, one that has gained even greater visibility in recent years as singer Lady Gaga, actress
             Anne Hathaway and scores of other celebrities have helped to elevate the cause.

8/1/12                                   YCS Grade 7 English / Language Arts: Unit 2 - - ELA Unit 2 Peer Pressure, Hazing, and Bullying 2012-13   14
         Attachment #6, cont’d                                                                                                       p. 4

         Chris Hall, an Iowa state lawmaker from Sioux City, proposed legislation last winter that would
         require both the bully's and the victim's parents to take part in mediation after a bullying report. If
         the bully's parents refuse to cooperate, prosecutors could pursue fines or criminal charges, though
         Hall envisions community service, not jail time, for scofflaw parents. Bringing the parents into the
         process, Hall says, "helps to connect the dots for a child."

         The measure died before getting a hearing, but Hall says K.J.'s suicide, which came at the end of
         the 2012 legislative session, could make a difference going forward. He plans to reintroduce the
         legislation in January.

         The Prince case
         Perhaps the most notorious bullying case in recent years took place in South Hadley, Mass., where
         on Jan. 14, 2010, Phoebe Prince, also a high school freshman, hanged herself from a stairwell in
         her home. Police concluded that in the three months before her death, a small group of classmates
         had relentlessly bullied the 15-year-old.

         On March 29 of that year, District Attorney Elizabeth Scheibel announced felony criminal
         indictments against six teens, five of whom were minors. The most serious charge carried a
         sentence of up to 10 years in prison. Two years later, none of the six has gone to trial. Prosecutors
         dropped statutory rape charges against one teen, and the other five struck plea deals on lesser
         misdemeanor charges for probation and community service.
         Attorney Richard Cole, a Massachusetts school safety consultant who testified last year before a
         state commission reviewing bullying laws, said Massachusetts has "enough criminal statutes right
         now for police or prosecutors" to go after bullies. Massachusetts prosecuted Phoebe's case under
         civil rights law, but a spate of new legislation in other states forces schools to clamp down on bullies
         with the help of law enforcement.
         Though anti-bullying advocates welcome the attention the issue has been getting, they say much of
         the new legislation doesn't address the underlying psychological issues behind bullying or fund
         training for teachers, counselors and administrators on what to do when victims come forward. As a
         result, they say, schools are unprepared to react, even as victims' expectations for justice rise.

         "Criminalizing these behaviors is not going to be the most effective thing to prevent them," said
         Elizabeth Englander, director of the Massachusetts Aggression Reduction Center at Bridgewater
         State University. It's hard to know, she said, whether pursuing criminal charges will prevent bullying
         or simply "drive the problem underground."
8/1/12                              YCS Grade 7 English / Language Arts: Unit 2 - - ELA Unit 2 Peer Pressure, Hazing, and Bullying 2012-13   15
    Attachment #6, cont’d                                                                                                             p. 5

          Research shows that children struggling with mental health problems are especially vulnerable to
          being bullied. Though few would disagree that extreme harassment and intimidation deserve swift
          punishment, Englander and other experts wonder whether teenagers should be prosecuted if a
          vulnerable classmate reacts with suicide. "Something in the system fails when children have to
          resort to extreme violence," she said.

          High-profile "bullycide" cases increase the pressure communities feel to punish bullies. An opinion
          poll conducted in February 2010, weeks after Phoebe's death, found that 61% of Massachusetts
          voters said school bullying should be a crime.
          Byard said sending a bully to jail might seem like the right thing to do, but it's "an easy answer that
          doesn't work."

          She noted that her group's most recent school climate survey in 2009 found that fewer than one in
          six gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender students said teachers or other school staff consistently
          intervened when homophobic remarks were made in their presence. Criminalizing bullying, she
          said, is "part of a move to talk only about the individual," not the entire system's response to
          abusive behavior.

          She said states should look to model legislation in Maine, signed last month by Gov. Paul LePage,
          a Republican, that focuses on prevention and on training for teachers. The state Legislature passed
          it with wide margins in both the House and Senate. It provides schools with a clear definition of
          bullying in an attempt to help teachers figure out how to proceed.

          What can be done?
          Recent federal statistics show that school has never been a safer place but that bullying remains a
          persistent problem: The U.S. Department of Education's most recent school crime and safety
          survey showed that from 2005 to 2009, 28% of middle- and high-school students reported having
          been bullied in school, and 6% said they were victims of cyberbullying, even as the number of
          students who said they'd been victims of theft or violent crime dropped. About one in 16 students
          surveyed said he or she was bullied at school "almost every day." Among seventh-graders, nearly
          one in 10 was bullied every day.

          As in many bullying cases, Phoebe's suicide raised questions about how effective her school had
          been in keeping her safe. In the fall of 2009, Phoebe, a recent immigrant from Ireland, and her
          mother talked to school counselors about Phoebe's bullying difficulties in Ireland.
8/1/12                               YCS Grade 7 English / Language Arts: Unit 2 - - ELA Unit 2 Peer Pressure, Hazing, and Bullying 2012-13   16
         Attachment #6, cont’d                                                                                                p. 6

             Rosalind Wiseman, the author of the 2002 book Queen Bees & Wannabes, a bestseller about teen
             girls' relationships that was the basis of the movie Mean Girls, said the district attorney in Phoebe's
             case "chose very carefully" how she charged the teens. "What I wish she had done was hold the
             adults responsible."

             Wiseman met with teens at Phoebe's school after the suicide and found that quite a few "were
             really jaded" about the case. "Certainly the adults created the culture in which (bullying) was
             allowed to thrive." A consultant to schools trying to address bullying, Wiseman said students often
             tell her that administrators turn a blind eye to complaints if eyewitnesses aren't present. She
             regularly meets parents who "get crazy-angry" because their kids' bullying complaints go unheeded.
             "They feel like they're sending their child into a system that's supposed to keep them safe, but it's
             actually the biggest risk to their child's safety," she said.

             Though Phoebe's case didn't send anyone to prison, it had the intended effect, said Cole, the
             Massachusetts attorney. None of the six students returned to the school. The case "definitely acts
             as a deterrent to others." Cole and other civil rights experts worry about dragging too many young
             people into court, but he says, "There absolutely are times when you need to get the criminal justice
             system involved."

             K.J.'s mother, Jeannie Chambers, isn't so sure. Though police and the county prosecutor won't talk
             about the case, Chambers says she doubts anyone will be charged. In fact, she told police she
             didn't want anyone going to jail for K.J.'s death. "I just didn't want somebody else's family to suffer,"
             she said Monday.

             Four classmates were disciplined for anti-gay bullying directed at K.J. before his death. Chambers
             said that she believes their behavior directly contributed to his suicide but that the four have already
             been subjected to withering criticism from classmates. Chambers told police she hoped the
             students received counseling, not jail time. "I didn't want somebody else to — how do I say it? — go
             through what my son went through."

             Echoing Hall's proposed legislation, Chambers said parents need to be held accountable for their
             children's hateful behavior. "A lot of people don't understand: These kids learned it from home."

8/1/12                                   YCS Grade 7 English / Language Arts: Unit 2 - - ELA Unit 2 Peer Pressure, Hazing, and Bullying 2012-13   17
Attachment #7

                               Lyrics to “Jeremy” by Pearl Jam

           At home
           Drawing pictures
           Of mountain tops
           With him on top
           Lemon yellow sun
           Arms raised in a V
           Dead lay in pools of maroon below

           Daddy didn't give attention
           To the fact that mommy didn't care
           King Jeremy the wicked
           Ruled his world

           Jeremy spoke in class today
           Jeremy spoke in class today

           Clearly I remember
           Pickin' on the boy
           Seemed a harmless little fuck
           But we unleashed a lion
           Gnashed his teeth
           And bit the recess lady's breast

           How could I forget
           He hit me with a surprise left
           My jaw left hurting
           Dropped wide open
           Just like the day
           Like the day I heard

           Daddy didn't give affection
           And the boy was something that mommy wouldn't wear
           King Jeremy the wicked
           Ruled his world

           Jeremy spoke in class today
           Jeremy spoke in class today
           Try to forget this...
           Try to erase this...
           From the blackboard.
8/1/12                         YCS Grade 7 English / Language Arts: Unit 2 - - ELA Unit 2 Peer Pressure, Hazing, and Bullying 2012-13   18
Attachment #8
                                PUBLIC SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENT
                    [ adapted from the Public Information Office, Youngstown City Schools ]

     What Is a Public Service Announcement?
     A Public Service Announcement (PSA) is a free commercial for a non-profit organization
     aired voluntarily by individual radio or TV stations. At times, a PSA also appears ina
     newspaper, sports game program, or an organization’s newsletter.

     The goal of the PSA is simple - - to get someone to take a specific action. Your PSA
     should motivate the reader or listener to act.

     Talk Only About Results
     A good PSA is not to advertise or promote the sponsoring organization; it is strictly about
     the results that will come from taking action.

     Use Real Language
     Use the language as you use every day. Instead of “To obtain participation details, . . .” Say
     “To find out about signing up,. . . .” or “To find out more, . . .”

     Use Emotion
     People often act based on emotional reasons. It is true that people “rationalize” their actions
     with logic, but they are motivated by their emotions.

     Make it Personally “Relatable”
     A PSA is nothing more than a conversation with your audience. Make your message
     personal to them. Make it easy for them to relate to the subject.

     Identify the Organization
     The sponsoring organization must be identified in the PSA.

     Deliver ONLY ONE Core Message
     The “core” message is the one thing you want the audience to hear, to understand, and to
     remember. Never try to get the reader or listener to do more than one thing.

     You know what your PSA is about, but the audience may not have your inside knowledge.
     The listeners or readers must understand the message the first time; it’s not their job to figure
     out what you mean.

     Most frequently, it is between 30 and 60 seconds.
                                     [ see next page for a sample ]
8/1/12                             YCS Grade 7 English / Language Arts: Unit 2 - - ELA Unit 2 Peer Pressure, Hazing, and Bullying 2012-13   19
Attachment #8, cont’d

         A Sample 60-Second PSA

         Heart disease affects millions of Americans, and claims thousands
         of lives each year. Known as the silent killer, heart disease may
         strike when you least expect it. It can affect both men and women,
         young and old. Your mother or father, sisters and brothers, sons
         and daughters - - even you.

         Early detection is the key to preventing this life-shattering illness.
         Visit your doctor today for a complete heart scan. Remember, early
         detection is the key to saving your life, or the life of a loved one.
         This message is brought to you as a public service from the
         American Heart Association. www.AmericanHeart.org

8/1/12                          YCS Grade 7 English / Language Arts: Unit 2 - - ELA Unit 2 Peer Pressure, Hazing, and Bullying 2012-13   20

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