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The Rebirth of Reform

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					Chapter
      Chapter 3
Section 1 Settling the West
Growth of the Mining Industry


• Some cattle ranches in the West were
  enormous, covering more land than
  Massachusetts and Vermont put
  together.
Growth of the Mining Industry


• Growing industries in the East needed
  the West’s rich deposits of gold, silver,
  and copper.
  – Brought settlers to the West’s mountain states
           Boom and Bust
• 1859: Henry Comstock staked a claim
  for a silver mine in Virginia City, NV
  – went from an outpost to a boomtown overnight.
  – mines run out of silver
     • boomtown                 ghost town.
  – Cycle of boom and bust repeated throughout the
    mountainous West.
Growth of the Mining Industry


• During boom times, crime = a serious
  problem.
  – Vigilance committees formed to track down and
    punish criminals.
Growth of the Mining Industry


• Where was the mining industry?
  – Colorado, the Dakota Territory, and Montana.
  – Mining in Colorado spurred the building of
    railroads through the Rocky Mountains.
     • Denver = supply point for the mining areas
     • Denver = 2nd largest city in the West after San
        Francisco.
Map 16.6 The Mining Frontier, 1848-1890 (p. 474)
                      • The Far West was America’s gold
                        country because of its geological
                        history. Veins of gold and silver form
                        when molten material from the earth’s
                        core is forced up into fissures caused
                        by tectonic movements that create
                        mountain ranges, such as the ones
                        that dominate the far western
                        landscape. It was these veins, the
                        product of mountain-forming activity
                        many thousands of years earlier, that
                        prospectors began to discover after
                        1848 and furiously exploit. Although
                        widely dispersed across the Far
                        West, the lodes that they found
                        followed the mountain ranges
                        bisecting the region and bypassing
                        the great plateaus not shaped by the
                        ancient tectonic activity.
Ranching & Farming the Plains

• Where are the Great Plains?
  – extends westward to the Rocky Mountains from
    around the 100th meridian—an imaginary line
    running north and south from the central Dakotas
    through western Texas
Map 16.1 The Natural Environment of the
         West, 1860s (p. 458)
                         • As settlers pushed into the
                           Great Plains & beyond the
                           line of semiaridity, they
                           sensed the overwhelming
                           power of the natural
                           environment. In a
                           landscape without trees for
                           fences and barns and
                           without adequate rainfall,
                           ranchers and farmers had
                           to relearn their business.
                           The Native Americans
                           peopling the plains and
                           mountains had in time
                           learned to live in this
                           environment, but this
                           knowledge counted for
                           little against the ruthless
                           pressure of the settlers to
                           domesticate the West.
Ranching & Farming the Plains

• Post-Civil War
  – many Americans began building large cattle
    ranches on the Great Plains.
  – Texas longhorn = a breed of cattle that could
    survive the harsh climate of the plains.
Ranching & Farming the Plains

• Cattle ranching industry grows, why?
  – because of the open range = vast areas of
    grasslands owned by the federal government
  – Cattle raisers could graze their herds free of
    charge & without boundaries.
Ranching & Farming the Plains

• During the Civil War:
  – large #s of eastern cattle were slaughtered to feed the Union
    and Confederate armies
• After the war
  – beef prices soared, so?
      • This made it worthwhile to round up the longhorns.
Ranching & Farming the Plains

• Long Drive: (first one in 1866)
  – across the Great Plains to the railroad in Sedalia,
    Missouri,
  – proved that cattle could be driven north to the rail
    lines and sold for 10 times the price they could get
    in Texas.
    Cowboys on the Open Range




• In open-range ranching, cattle from different ranches grazed
  together. AT the roundup, cowboys separated the cattle by
  owner and branded the calves. Cowboys celebrated in
  dime novels were really farmhands on horseback, with the
  skills to work on the range. An ethnically diverse group,
  including blacks and Hispanics, they earned $25.00 a
  month, plus meals & a bed in the bunkhouse, in return for
  long hours of grueling, lonesome work.
Ranching & Farming the Plains

• Railroads
  – provided easy access to the Great Plains.
  – Railroad companies sold land along the rail lines
    at low prices and provided credit.
Ranching & Farming the Plains

• Homestead Act (1862)
  – For $10, a settler could file for a homestead
     • = a tract of public land available for settlement.
     • 160 acres of public land
     • could receive title of it after living there 5 years.
Ranching & Farming the Plains

• Difficult Plains life:
   – environment = harsh,
   – summer temperatures over 100°F
   – winter = blizzards & extreme cold.
   – Prairie fires and swarms of grasshoppers were a danger & a
     threat.
Ranching & Farming the Plains

• New Technology (1860s)
   – newly designed steel plows
   – seed drills
   – Reapers
   – threshing machines.
• machines made dry farming possible.
• could work large tracts of land with the
  machines.
Ranching & Farming the Plains
• Wheat
  – withstood drought better than other crops
      • became = most important crop on the Great Plains.
  – Wheat farmers from Minnesota & other Midwestern states
    moved to the Great Plains
      • take advantage of the inexpensive land & the new
        farming technology.
  – Wheat Belt
      • began at the eastern edge of the Great Plains and
        included much of the Dakotas and the western parts of
        Nebraska and Kansas.
Ranching & Farming the Plains

• Events causing Great Plains
  farmers to fall on hard times:
  – In the 1890s, a glut of wheat caused prices to
    drop.
  – Some farmers lost their land because they could
    not repay bank loans they had taken out.
  – prolonged drought that began in the 1880s forced
    many farmers to return to the East.
          Native Americans


• How did they live?
  – Some GP Nat. Ams. lived in communities and
    farmed and hunted.
  – Most GP Nat. Ams were nomads who moved from
    place to place in search of food.
     • followed the herds of buffalo.
            Native Americans

• GP Nat. Ams had several things in common:
  – lived in extended family networks
  – had a close relationship with nature
  – were divided into bands with a governing council
  – practiced a religion based on a belief in the spiritual power of
    the natural world.
          Native Americans

• White settlement pressure
  (encroaching on their lands):
  – 1862 the Sioux in Minnesota launched a major
    uprising.
            Native Americans
• 1867 Congress formed an Indian Peace
  Commission
  – proposed creating two large reservations on the Plains.
  – Bureau of Indian Affairs would run the reservations.
  – U.S. army would deal with any groups that did not report to
    or remain on the reservations.
• This plan was doomed to failure
  – Signing treaties did not ensure that the govt or Native
    Americans would abide by their terms.
            Native Americans

• 1870s: buffalo were rapidly disappearing.
• 1889 very few buffalo remained.
  – buffalo were killed by migrants crossing the Great Plains
  – professional buffalo hunters wanted their hides,
  – sharpshooters hired by railroads, and hunters who killed
    them for sport.
         Native Americans

• Many Nat. Ams. left their reservations to
  hunt buffalo on the open plains
• Nat. Ams. Saw Americans violate
  treaties so they saw no reason to abide
  by them.
            Native Americans
• The Indians:
  –   lost their ancestral lands
  –   Faced an alien future of farming
  –   Were confronted by a winter of starvation
  –   At the same time, news of “salvation” came from a
      holy man called Wovoka
        • predicted the disappearance of the whites
        • Encouraged the Ghost Dance as a ritual to
          prepare for the regeneration.
            Native Americans
• Frenzy of Wovoka’s Ghost Dance swept
  through the Sioux encampments in 1890,
  – alarmed whites called for army intervention.
• The bloody battle at Wounded Knee:
  – Erupted when soldiers attempted to disarm a group of
    Wovoka’s followers;
  – final episode in the long war of suppression of the Plains
    Indians.
  – Thereafter, the division of tribal lands proceeded without
    hindrance.
• As whites flooded the newly acquired land,
  Indians became the minority.
        The Dead at Wounded Knee (p. 472)




• In December 1890 US soldiers massacred 146 Sioux men,
  women, and children in the Battle of Wounded Knee in south
  Dakota. It was the last big fight on the northern plains between
  the Indians and the whites. Black Elk, a Sioux holy man,
  related that “after the soldiers marched away from their dirty
  work, a heavy snow began to fall…and it grew very cold.” The
  body of Yellow Bird lay frozen where it had fallen.
          Native Americans
• The Dawes Act of 1887 declared that
  land for the Indians would be allotted in
  160-acre lots to heads of households:
  – Then Indians would become U.S. citizens
  – Remaining reservations were sold off
  – Proceeds going toward Indian education.
• 1890:
  – The federal government announced that it had
    tribal approval to open the Sioux “surplus” land to
    white settlement.
      Map 16.5 The Sioux
     Reservations in South
   Dakota, 1868-1889 (p. 471)

• In 1868, when they bent to the
  demand that they move onto
  the reservation, the Sioux
  thought they had gained
  secure rights to a substantial
  part of their ancestral hunting
  grounds. But as they learned
  to their sorrow, fixed boundary
  lines only increased their
  vulnerability to the land hungry
  whites and sped up the
  process of expropriation.
          Native Americans


• The Dawes Act was a failure.
  – Few Native Americans had the training or
    enthusiasm for farming or ranching.
  – allotments were too small to be profitable.
  – Few Native Americans were willing or able to
    adopt the American settlers’ lifestyles in place of
    their own culture.
• Alexander Graham Bell taught deaf children. He once
  told his family that he preferred to be remembered as
  a teacher rather than as the inventor of the
  telephone. Bell’s father, Alexander Melville Bell,
  taught deaf-mutes to speak and wrote textbooks on
  correct speech. As boys, Alexander Graham Bell and
  his brothers helped their father in public
  demonstrations of Visible Speech, a code of symbols
  that indicated what position of the throat, tongue, and
  lips were used in making sounds.
            The United States
              Industrializes

• End of Civil War:
  – American industry expanded
  – millions of people left their farms to work in mines &
    factories.
• By the early 1900s:
  – US becomes world’s leading industrial nation
• By 1914:
  – gross national product (GNP)=total value of goods &
    services produced by a country
     • = 8X greater than at the end of the Civil War.
          The United States
            Industrializes

• US natural resources = Water, timber,
  coal, iron, and copper
  – that leads US industrial success.
  – Transcontinental railroads increased
    industrialization
     • brought settlers and miners to the West
     • moved resources to the factories in the East.
            The United States
              Industrializes

• Petroleum Demand
  – could be turned into kerosene for lanterns & stoves
  – created the American oil industry.

• 1859
  – Edwin Drake drilled 1st oil well near Titusville, Pennsylvania

• oil production increased leads to economic
  expansion.
           The United States
             Industrializes
• Between 1860 and 1910 US population 3xs
  – = a large workforce
  – = a greater demand for consumer goods.
• Laissez-faire = a French phrase that means
  “let people do as they choose,”
  – = a popular idea in the late 1800s
  – Many Americans believed the govt,should not interfere with
    the economy
  – wanted supply & demand to regulate prices & wages.
          The United States
            Industrializes

• Entrepreneurs
  – risked their capital to organize & run a business
  – late 1800s, they were attracted to manufacturing &
    transportation fields.
  – So? 100s of factories & 1000s of miles of railroad
    were built.
          The United States
            Industrializes

• late 1800s, state & fed. govt had a
  laissez-faire attitude
  – kept taxes and spending low
  – Did not impose regulations on industry.
  – The govt did not control wages or prices.
  – adopted policies to help industry.
           The United States
             Industrializes

• high tariffs imposed by Congress in the mid
  19th c.,
  – contradicted laissez-faire policies & harmed many
    Americans.
  – US raises tariffs on foreign products
      • other countries respond by raising tariffs against Am.
        products.
      • American companies who sold goods overseas, esp.
        farmers, were hurt by high tariffs.
           The United States
             Industrializes

• Early 1900:
  – American industries = large & highly competitive.
  – Many business leaders began to encourage free trade
     • believed they could compete internationally & succeed.
• New inventions increased America’s
  productivity
  – & produced wealth and job opportunities.
Kellogg’s Toasted Corn Flakes
           • Like crackers, sugar, and other
             nonperishable products, cereal
             had been traditionally sold to
             consumers in bulk from barrels.
             In the 1880s the Quaker Oats
             Company hit on the idea of
             selling oatmeal in boxes of
             standard size and weight. A
             further wrinkle was to process
             the cereal so that it could be
             consumed right from the box
             (with milk) for breakfast. And lo
             and behold: Kellogg’s Corn
             Flakes! This is one of Kellogg’s
             earliest advertisements.
         The United States
           Industrializes

• 1876 Scottish-American inventor
  Alexander Graham Bell invented the
  telephone.
  – 1877 Bell organized the Bell Telephone Company
  – later becomes the American Telephone &
    Telegraph Company (AT&T).
The United States
  Industrializes
        • late 1800s:
          Thomas Alva Edison
          invented or perfected:
           –   the phonograph
           –   the light bulb
           –   the electric generator
           –   the dictaphone
           –   the mimeographthe motion
               picture.
        • In 1882 the Edison
          Electric Illuminating Co.
          became a new industry
           – began supplying electric
             power to customers in New
             York City.
         Thomas Edison’s Laboratories in Menlo Park,
                    New Jersey, c. 1880




Thomas Edison’s dream of illuminating the world is illustrated
by this fanciful drawing of his laboratories in Menlo, New
Jersey. For the time being, however, it was the American hom
that was the primary beneficiary of Edison’s wonderful light
bulb, since electricity was slow to arrive in many parts of the
world.
     The Railroads: Linking the Nation




• Post- Civil War:
  – railroad construction dramatically expands
  – 1862 Lincoln signs the Pacific Railway Act
     • provides for the construction of a
        transcontinental railroad by the Union Pacific
        and Central Pacific railroad companies
     • May 10, 1869:
          – the first transcontinental railroad was
            complete.
    The Expansion of the Railroad System, 1870-1890




• In 1870 the nation had 53,000 miles of rail track; in 1890 it had
  167,000 miles. That burst of construction essentially completed the
  nation’s rail network, although there would be additional expansion
  for the next two decades. The main areas of growth were in the
  South and west of the Mississippi. The Great Plains and the Far
  West accounted for over 40 percent of all railroad construction in
  this period.
      The Railroads: Linking the Nation




• Railroads
  – encouraged the growth of American industry.
  – linked the nation & increased the size of markets.
  – stimulated the economy by spending large amounts of
    money on steel, coal, and timber.
• 1883
  – rail service became safer & more reliable
      • the American Railway Association divided the country
         into four time zones, or regions, where the same time
         was kept.
      The Railroads: Linking the Nation




• Large integrated railroad systems:
  – provided increased efficiency
  – decrease in time spent in long distance travel
  – it united Americans from different regions.
• Land grants
  – given to railroad companies by the federal government to
    encourage railroad construction
• Railroad companies (like the Union Pacific
  and Central Pacific)
  – were able to cover all their building costs by selling the land
    to settlers, real estate agencies, and other businesses.
       The Railroads: Linking the Nation




• Wealth of railroad
  entrepreneurs =
  accusations that they
  had acquired their
  wealth through illegal
  means
• Bribery occurred
  frequently in this era.
     The Railroads: Linking the Nation




• Not all railroad entrepreneurs were
  corrupt.
  – James J. Hill built the Great Northern Railroad
     • without any federal land grants or subsidies
     • = the most successful transcontinental railroad
       & the only one not to go bankrupt.
   The Rise of Big Business

• By 1900 big business dominated the
  economy of the US
• corporation =
  – an organization owned by many people but treated by law as
    though it was a single person
  – Stockholders,
      • = people who own the corporation (own shares of
        ownership called stock)
      • Issuing stock allows a corporation to raise large sums of
        $ & spreads out the financial risk.
    The Rise of Big Business

• When corporations sell stock they invest in
  new technologies
  – to increase their efficiency.
• Advantages of big corporations:
  – produce more cheaply
  – could continue to operate even in poor economic times by
    cutting prices to increase sales.
• Many small businesses with high operating
  costs were forced out of business.
    The Rise of Big Business

• vertical integration (a way of structuring a
  corporation)
   – vertically integrated companies own all the different
     businesses it depends on for its operation.
   – This not only saved money but also made the big company
     bigger.
   – Andrew Carnegie, a Scottish immigrant, began of the steel
     industry as a vertically integrated corporation
• horizontal integration
   – Business leaders also pushed for this, combining many firms
     doing the same type of business into one large corporation.
The Rise of Big Business
    The Rise of Big Business
• monopoly = when one company gains control
  of an entire market.
  – In the late 19C, Americans became suspicious of large
    corporations & feared monopolies.
  – Many states made it illegal for a company to own stock in
    another company without permission from the state
    legislature.
• 1882 Standard Oil formed the first trust
  – merged businesses without violating laws against owning
    other companies.
  – Trusts allow a person to manage another person’s property.
  – A holding company did not produce anything itself
     • Instead, it owned the stock of companies that did
       produce goods.
     • holding companies controlled all the companies it owned,
       merging them all into one large enterprise.
                       Unions
• Workers in industrial America:
  – faced monotonous work
  – dangerous working conditions
  – an uneven division of income between the wealthy and the
    working class.
  – felt the only way to improve their working environment was
    to organize unions
• Marxism = the ideas of Karl Marx, was
  popular in Europe.
  – The class struggle between the workers & the owners
    shaped society
  – believed the workers would revolt & gain control.
  – After the revolution, a socialist society would be created
    where wealth was evenly divided, & classes would no longer
    exist.
                  Unions

• As ideas of Marxism spread in Europe, tens
  of thousands of immigrants arrived in the US.
• People began to associate Marxism with
  immigrants.
• They became suspicious of unions as well.
                       Unions

• industrial unions: united all craft workers
  and common laborers in a particular industry.
• Employers opposed unions
  – went to great lengths to prevent unions from forming.
  – would have workers take oaths or sign contracts promising
    not to join a union.
  – Would hire detectives to identify union organizers.
                        Unions
• Workers attempted to create large unions
  – rarely succeeded.
  – Many times confrontations between owners and government
    ended in violence.
• If a union was formed, companies used a
  lockout to break it.
  – Workers went without pay and were locked out of the
    property
  – If the union did strike, employers would hire replacement
    workers called strikebreakers.
• Workers who organized a union or strike
  were fired
  – put on a blacklist—a list of troublemakers.
  – Once blacklisted, a worker could get a job only by changing
    trade, residence, or his or her name.
             Unions
• American Federation of Labor (AFL):
        – In 1886 delegates from over 20 of the nation’s
          trade unions organized the AFL
             » The AFL’s first leader was Samuel
               Gompers,
             » His plain and simple approach to labor
               relations helped unions become accepted.
             » Gompers wanted to keep
               unions out of politics and to
               fight for small gains such as
               higher wages and better
               working conditions.
                          Unions

•       Under Gompers’s leadership, the AFL had
        three goals:
    1. to get companies to recognize unions & agree to collective
       bargaining
    2. to push for closed shops, where companies could only
       hire union members
    3. to promote an eight-hour workday.
•       By 1900 the AFL had over 500,000
        members.
    –    The majority of workers, however, were still unorganized.
                          Unions

• By 1900 women made up more than 18% of
  the labor force. Women worked as:
  –   domestic servants
  –   Teachers
  –   Nurses
  –   sales clerks
  –   secretaries
• Women were paid less than men.
  – It was felt that men needed a higher wage because they
    needed to support a family
  – Most unions excluded women.
Immigration &
 Urbanization
  Chapter 3, Section 3
Mulberry Street, New York City, c. 1900 (p. 543)

                     • The influx of southern and
                       Eastern Europeans created
                       teeming ghettos in the heart
                       of New York City and other
                       major American cities. The
                       view is of Mulberry Street,
                       with its pushcarts, street
                       peddlers, and bustling traffic.
                       The inhabitants are mostly
                       Italians and some of them,
                       noticing the photographer
                       preparing his camera, have
                       gathered to be in the picture.
             Immigration
• By 1900:
  – Eastern & Southern Europeans made up
    more than ½ of all immigrants
  – 14 million arrived b/w 1860-1900
     • Many were European Jews
  – America offered
     • Immigrants employment
     • Few immigration restrictions
     • Avoidance of military service
     • Religious freedom
     • Chance to move up social ladder
• Travel:
                    Immigration
  – Steerage
     • Most immigrants took the difficult trip to America
       in steerage
     • the least expensive accommodations on a
       steamship
  – 14-day trip usually ended at Ellis Island
     • small island in NY Harbor
     • served as a processing center for most immigrants
       arriving on the East Coast after 1892
     • Most immigrants passed through Ellis Island in a
       day
     • some faced the possibility of being separated from
       family and possibly sent back to Europe due to
       health problems.
Ellis Island Pictures
                 Immigration
• Most immigrants settled in cities
  – Lived in ethnically separated neighborhoods
  – They duplicated many of the comforts of their
    homelands
  – including language and religion
• Learning English
  – Allowed immigrants to adapt to American
    culture
  – Gave them marketable skills
• Settling among members of their
  own ethnic
  – Allowed immigrants to adjust well to living in the
    US
Immigration
  • Chinese Immigrants
    – Came to America because…
       • Severe unemployment,
         poverty, and famine in
         China;
       • Discovery of gold in
         California
       • Taiping Rebellion in
         China
       • Demand for railroad
         workers in the US led to
         an increase in Chinese
         immigration to the US in
         the mid-1800s.
              Immigration


• Chinese
  Immigrants
  (mainly Western
  Cities)
  – worked as laborers,
    servants, skilled
    tradesmen, and
    merchants
  – Some opened their
    own laundries.
              Immigration
• Japanese immigration
  – 1900-1908: Japanese immigration to the
    US drastically increased as Japan began
    to build an industrial economy and an
    empire.
• Angel Island:
  – routinely the first stop for immigrants
    crossing the Pacific Ocean
  – In 1910 a barracks was opened on Angel
    Island in California.
     • Asian immigrants, mostly young men
       and boys, waited sometimes for
       months for the results of immigration
       hearings
Angel Island Images
              • Nativism: preference
Immigration     for native-born people
                & a desire to limit
                immigration. Earlier,
                in the 1840s and
                1850s
                – The increase in immigration
                  led to nativism
                – nativism was directed
                  towards the Irish
                – In the early 1900s, it was
                  the Asian, Jews, and
                  eastern Europeans that
                  were the focus of nativism.
              • Nativism led to the
Immigration     forming of 2 anti-
                immigrant groups.
                – The American Protective
                  Association (est. 1887)
                   • The party’s founder,
                     Henry Bowers,
                     disliked Catholicism.
                   • wanted to stop
                     Catholic immigration.
                     In the 1870s,
                – Workingman’s Party of
                  California :
                   • Denis Kearny, an Irish
                     immigrant, organized
                     this group… wanted to
                     stop Chinese
                     immigration. Racial
                     violence resulted.
        Discussion Question
• Why did nativists oppose eastern
  European immigrants?
  – Nativists thought the large influx of
   Catholic immigrants from Ireland would
   give the Catholic Church too much power
   in the American government. Labor unions
   feared that immigrants would work for
   lower wages and take work as
   strikebreakers.
             Urbanization


• Urban population of the US grew
  – from about 10 million in 1870
  – to over 30 million by 1900.
• Immigrants remained in the cities
  – where they worked long hours for little pay.
  – most immigrants felt their standard of living had
    improved in the US
 Map 19.1 America’s Cities, 1900 (p.
              545)




• The number of Americans living in urban places more than
  doubled between 1880 & 1900, with the most dramatic
  increases in the largest metropolitan centers, New York
  grew from 1.2 million to 3.4 million, Chicago from 500,000
  to 1.7 million
               Urbanization


• Housing and transportation needs
  changed
  – due to the increase in the amount of people living
    in cities.
• As the price of land increased, building
  owners began to build up.
  – Created skyscrapers, tall steel frame buildings
               Urbanization


• Transportation in the late 1800s
  – various kinds of mass transit developed to move
    large numbers of people around cities quickly
  – Began with the horsecar
  – Later to the more sophisticated electric trolley cars
    and elevated railroads
  – Engineers created ways to move the ever-
    expanding population around the city.
Map 19.2 The Expansion of Chicago,
       1865–1902 (p. 547)
              • In 1865 Chicagoans
                depended on horsecar lines
                to get around town. By 1900
                the city limits had expanded
                enormously, accompanied by
                an equally dramatic
                expansion of streetcar
                service, which was by the
                electrified. Elevated trains
                also helped to ease
                congestion in the urban core.
                New streetcar lines, some
                extending beyond the city
                limits, were important to
                suburban development in the
                coming years.
                 Urbanization


• Housing:
  – Definite boundaries could be seen between where the
    wealthy, middle class, and working class people lived.
  – Wealthy families lived in the heart of the city where they
    constructed elaborate homes.
  – The middle class, which included doctors, lawyers,
    engineers, and teachers, tended to live away from the city.
  – Majority of urban dwellers were part of the working class
    who lived in city tenements, or dark and crowded multi-
    family apartments.
 Figure 19.1 Floor Plan of a Dumbbell Tenement (p. 549)
In a contest for a
design that met an
1879 requirement that
every room have a
window, the dumbbell
tenement won. The
interior indentation,
which created an
airshaft between
adjoining buildings,
gave the tenement its
“dumbbell” shape.
What was touted as a “model” tenement demonstrated instead the
futility of trying to reconcile maximum land usage with decent
housing. Each floor contained four apartments of three or 4 rooms.
The largest only 10 by 11 ft. The 2 toilets in the hall became filthy o
broke down under daily use by forty or more people.
                    Urbanization
• Problems with urban growth
  – An increase in crime, fire, disease, and pollution.
     • Alcohol contributed to crime
  – 1880-1900
     • large increase in the murder rate
  – Contaminated drinking water from improper sewage
    disposal
     • resulted in epidemics of typhoid fever and cholera
• Native-born Americans blamed the
  problems on immigrants
             Urbanization


• Political Machine:
  – A new political system to deal with urban
    problems
  – Informal political group designed to gain
    and keep power
  – provided essentials to city dwellers in
    exchange for votes
  – Party bosses ran the machines
               Urbanization
• Party bosses:
  – had tight control of the city’s money
  – Many of the politicians became wealthy due
    to fraud or graft—getting money through
    dishonest or questionable means.
• Most famous New York Democratic
  political machine was Tammany
  Hall
  – 1860s and 1870s, Tammany Hall’s boss was
    William M. Tweed.
  – Tweed’s corruption sent him to prison in
    1874.
              Urbanization


• Opponents of political machines
  – blasted bosses for their corruption
  – Example: Cartoonist, Thomas Nast
• Defenders of political machines
  – thought machines supplied necessary services
  – and helped to assimilate the masses of new city
    dwellers
        Discussion question


• What were some of the problems
  caused by political machines?
  – The bosses that ran the political machines grew
    rich by accepting bribes, selling permits to friends,
    and dealing in other corrupt ways to benefit
    themselves
   The National Pastime (p. 568)




In 1897, as today, the end-of-season games filled the bleachers.
Here the Boston Beaneaters are playing the Baltimore Orioles.
Boston won. The Baltimore stadium would soon be replaced by a
bigger concrete and steel structure, but what is happening on the
fields need no updating. The scene is virtually identical to today’s
game.
Early Reforms in the
     Gilded Age
      Chapter 3, Section 4
         Warm-up




•   Artist Thomas Eakins was part of the movement known as realism.
    His painting The Gross Clinic was rejected for an exhibition in
    Philadelphia because it was considered too harshly realistic. What
    about the painting might have caused this reaction?
    A.   The features of the people are not clear.
    B.   The medical students are dissecting human body parts.
    C.   The colors are too bright.
    D.   There are no women in the painting
Warm-up



          •   ANSWER: B
              –   The medical students
                  are dissecting human
                  body parts.
          •   Look at the bottom
              right corner
             The Gilded Age
• The Gilded Age
  – A novel co-written by Mark Twain & Charles Warner
• Historians use this term to refer to the time
  between 1870-1900
• “Gilded” refers to something being gold on
  the outside and made of cheaper material on
  the inside
• Twain & Warner:
  – Point out that although this was a time of growth
  – Beneath the surface were corruption, poverty & huge
    difference b/w rich and poor
                   The Gilded Age
• Industrialization & urbanization caused Americans
  to look at society in a different way.
• This gave way to new values, art, and forms of
  entertainment.
• Individualism:
  – Strong belief in the Gilded Age
  – regardless of your background, you could still rise in society
  – Horatio Alger
      • minister from Massachusetts
      • moved to New York
      • left the clergy and where he wrote over 100 novels about rags-
        to-riches stories
              The Gilded Age


• Herbert Spencer (an English philosopher)
  – proposed idea of Social Darwinism
  – took Charles Darwin's theory of evolution & natural selection
    & applied it to human society.
  – Like Darwin's theory—that a species that cannot adapt to the
    environment will eventually die out—
  – Spencer felt that human society evolved through competition
  – concluded that society progressed & became better because
    only the fittest people survived
  – Industrial leaders agreed with Social Darwinism.
                 The Gilded Age
•   Social Darwinism
    –    paralleled laissez-faire
        • economic doctrine that was opposed to
           government interference with business.
•   Opposing Darwin:
    –    Many devout Christians & some leading
         scientists opposed the idea of the origin of new
         species
        • Rejected the theory of evolution because it
            went against the Bible's account of creation.
              The Gilded Age
• Andrew Carnegie (wealthy business
  leader)
  – believed in Social Darwinism & laissez-faire
  – Also felt those who profited from society should
    give something back
  – He softened Social Darwinism with his Gospel of
    Wealth.
     • This philosophy stated that wealthy Americans
       were responsible & should engage in
       philanthropy, using great fortunes to further
       social progress.
               The Gilded Age
• Realism
  – new movement in art and literature
  – portrayed people in realistic situations instead of idealizing
    them as the romantic artists had done
• Popular culture
  – changed in the late 1800s
  – People had more money to spend on entertainment &
    recreation
  – Work became separate from home
  – Saloon acted like a community & political center for male
    workers
  – Coney Island in New York was an amusement park that
    attracted working class families & single adults
              The Gilded Age


• Popular culture
  – Watching baseball, football, & basketball became popular
  – In the early 1880s, vaudeville became popular
      • adapted from the French theater & combined animal
        acts, acrobats, gymnasts, & dancers in its performance
  – People began enjoying ragtime music
      • based on the patterns of African American music
  The Rebirth of Reform
• Background
 – Industrialization & urbanization led to
   debates among Americans over the issue of
   how to handle society’s problems
• Progress and Poverty (1879)
 – journalist Henry George wrote this best-
   selling book
 – raised questions about American society
   and challenged
    • the ideas of Social Darwinism
    • laissez-faire economics
 The Rebirth of Reform


• Dynamic Sociology (1883)
  – Lester Frank Ward argued that humans were unlike animals
  – they could think and plan ahead
  – concluded that it was cooperation & not competition that
    caused people to succeed.
  – wanted government to become more involved in solving
    societal problems
• These ideas became known as Reform
  Darwinism.
 The Rebirth of Reform


• Naturalism
  – a style of writing where writers criticized industrial society
  – They suggested that some people failed in life due to
    circumstances they could not control.
• Reformers began to organize to help the
  poor.
• Social gospel
  – A movement in the late 1800s / early 1900s which
    emphasized charity and social responsibility as a means of
    salvation.
  The Rebirth of Reform


• Minister Washington Gladden
  – wanted to apply “Christian Law” to social problems.
• Baptist minister Walter Rauschenbusch later
  led the movement
  – believed that competition was the cause of many social
    problems
  – led to many churches taking on community functions to
    improve society by offering gyms, social programs, and
    daycare.
• Eventually these efforts led to an organization
  known as the Salvation Army.
 The Rebirth of Reform


• YMCA
  – attempted to help industrial workers & urban poor through
     • Bible studies
     • prayer meetings
     • citizenship training
     • group activities
• Dwight L. Moody
  – an evangelical Christian & president of the Chicago YMCA.
  – was against Social Gospel & Social Darwinism
  – felt the way to help the poor was by redeeming their souls
    and not by providing them with services.
     The Rebirth of Reform
• The settlement house movement
  – Institution located in a poor neighborhood that provided
    numerous community services such as medical care,
    child care, libraries & classes in English
  – promoted by reformers who felt it was their Christian
    duty to improve the living conditions of the poor and
    help immigrants learn to speak English.
• Jane Addams
  – Set-up settlement houses in poor neighborhoods.
     • opened Hull House in 1889 and inspired many
       others
   Reba Owen,
 Settlement-House
  Worker (p. 572)


• The settlement house
  was a hallmark of
  progressive America.
  Columbus, Ohio, had five,
  including Godman Guild
  House, where Reba
  Owen served as a visiting
  nurse, tending the
  pregnant mothers and
  children of the
  neighborhood
 The Rebirth of Reform


• In the late 1880s, the increase of
  industry resulted in a need for better-
  trained workers.
  – As a result, there was a need for more school &
    colleges.
• Americanization
  – becoming knowledgeable about American culture
  – = key to the success of immigrant children.
   The Rebirth of Reform
• Booker T. Washington
  – led the crusade to form the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama in
    1881
      • There was a the lack of educational opportunities for
        African Americans
• Number of colleges greatly increased in the
  late 1800s
  – partly a result of the Morrill Land Grant Act
     • gave federal land grants to states for the purposes of
       establishing agricultural and mechanical colleges
• College attendance increased.
• Number of women’s colleges also increased.
            Booker T.
           Washington
            (p. 534)
•   In an age of severe racial oppression,
                Washington emerged as the
    acknowledged leader of black people
               in the United States. He was
           remarkable both for his ability as
        spokesman to white Americans and
          for his deep understanding of the
     aspirations of black Americans. Born
           a slave, Washington suffered the
       indignities experienced by all blacks
     after emancipation. But having been
         befriended by several whites as he
                  grew too manhood, he also
      understood what it took to gain white
    support—and maneuver around white
           hostility –in the black struggle for
                                      equality.
  The Rebirth of Reform


• Free libraries provided education to city
  dwellers
  – Andrew Carnegie donated millions toward the construction of
    libraries.


• In what way did public schools pose a
  problem for immigrants?
  – (Parents were afraid their children would become too
    Americanized and forget their culture and traditions.)
  Stalemate in Washington


• spoils system, or patronage :
  – Government jobs went to supporters of the
    winning party in an election.
  – 1870s:
     • many Americans believed that patronage
       corrupted those who worked for the
       government.
     • They began a movement to reform the civil
       service.
  Stalemate in Washington


• President Rutherford B. Hayes attacked
  the practice of patronage.
  – The “Stalwarts”—
     • Republican machine politicians who strongly
       opposed civil service reform—accused Hayes
       of backing civil service reform to create
       openings for his own supporters.
  – “Halfbreeds.”
     • Civil service reformers
  Stalemate in Washington


• Election of 1880 winners:
  – James Garfield (president) : Republican candidate
    = Halfbreed
  – Chester Arthur (vice president): Stalwart
• President Garfield was assassinated a
  few months into his presidency
  Stalemate in Washington


• 1883 Pendleton Act is passed
  – civil service reform act allowed the president to decide which
    federal jobs would be filled according to rules set up by a
    bipartisan Civil Service Commission.
  – Candidates competed for federal jobs through examinations
  – Appointments could be made only from the list of those who
    took the exams.
  – Once appointed to a job, a civil service official could not be
    removed for political reasons.
   Stalemate in Washington


• Why were so few new policies introduced in
  the 1870s and 1880s?
  – Democrats had control of the House of Representatives
  – Republicans had the control of the Senate.
• Both parties were well organized in the late
  1800s.
  – presidential elections were won with narrow margins
    between 1876 and 1896.
  – In 1876 and 1888, the presidential candidate lost the popular
    vote, but won the electoral vote and the election.
  Stalemate in Washington


• Republicans won 4 of the 6 presidential
  elections between 1876 and 1896.
  – Democrats controlled the House of
    Representatives
  – Senate was controlled by Republicans who did
    not necessarily agree with the president on issues.
  Stalemate in Washington


• Presidential election of 1884,
  Republicans remained divided over
  reform.
  – Democrats nominated Governor Grover Cleveland
    of New York, a reformer who opposed Tammany
    Hall.
  – Republicans nominated James G. Blaine, a former
    Speaker of the House of Representatives. Blaine
    was popular among Republican Party workers.
   Stalemate in Washington


• Corruption in the American Government
  = major issue in the campaign was
  corruption in American government.
  – Some Republican reformers, called “Mugwumps,”
    disliked Blaine so much that they left the party to
    support the Democratic candidate Grover
    Cleveland.
  – Cleveland admitted to having fathered a child ten
    years earlier and retained the support of the
    Mugwumps for his honesty
    Stalemate in Washington


• Blaine tried to persuade Roman Catholics to
  vote Republican because his mother was an
  Irish Catholic.
  – His tactic failed, and Cleveland was elected president.
• Many strikes occurred during Cleveland’s
  administration.
  – Small businesses and farmers became angry at railroads
    because they paid high rates for shipping goods, but large
    corporations were given rebates, or partial refunds, and
    lower rates for shipping goods.
    Stalemate in Washington


• Republican candidate in the 1888 election =
  Benjamin Harrison
  – His campaign was given large contributions by industrialists
    who wanted tariff protection.
• Democratic candidate = Cleveland.
  – He was against high tariff rates.
• Harrison won the election by winning the
  electoral vote, but not the popular vote.
   Stalemate in Washington


• Election of 1888
  – Republicans gained control of both houses of
  – Congress and the White House.
  – The Republicans were able to pass legislation on
    issues of national concern.
  Stalemate in Washington


• McKinley Tariff
  – cut tariff rates on some goods
  – increased the rates of others.
  – lowered federal revenue & left the nation with a budget
    deficit.
• Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890
  – made trusts illegal
  – the courts did little to enforce the law.
  – Businesses formed trusts & combinations at a great rate.
      Discussion Question


• What were the results of the Sherman
  Antitrust Act?
  – The courts did little to enforce the Sherman
    Antitrust Act. The legislative act was important for
    establishing a precedent in the regulation of big
    business
                    Populism


• Populism
  – a political movement in the 1890s emerged to increase the
    political power of farmers & to work for legislation for
    farmers’ interests.
• Background:
  – To help finance the Union in the Civil War, the government
    issued millions of dollars in greenbacks, or paper currency
    that could not be exchanged for gold or silver coins.
  – This rapid increase in the money supply without a rapid
    increase in goods for sale caused inflation—a decline in the
    value of money. The prices of goods greatly increased.
                    Populism


• To get inflation under control, the federal
  government stopped printing greenbacks and
  started paying off bonds.
• Congress also stopped making silver into
  coins.
  – As a result, the country did not have a large enough money
    supply to meet the needs of the growing economy. This led
    to deflation—or an increase in the value of money and a
    decrease in the general level of prices.
                  Populism


• Deflation forced most farmers to borrow
  $ to plant their crops.
  – short supply of $ caused an increase in interest
    rates that the farmers owed
• Some farmers wanted more greenbacks
  printed to expand the money supply
• Others wanted gov’t to mint silver coins.
                     Populism
• Grange:
  – = a nat’l farm organization founded for social & educational
    purposes.
• Grangers put their money together & created
  cooperatives—marketing organizations that
  worked to help its members.
• cooperatives pooled members’
• crops and held them off the market to force
  the prices to rise. Cooperatives could
• negotiate better shipping rates from railroads.

				
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