HISTORIC ARLINGTON - Arlington County by wuzhenguang



Arlington Bicentennial
Celebration Task Force

  Arlington, Virginia

                                                      TABLE OF CONTENTS

                           Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

                           Native Americans of the Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

                           Early Settlement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

                           Alexandria County, District of Columbia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

      PUBLISHED BY         The Arlington Estateage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BICENTENNIAL CELEBRATION   The Arlington Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                           Suburban Alexandria County. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                           Arlington County in Transition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

                           Urban Arlington County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

                           Preserving Arlington’s Heritage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

                           Appendix I: The Arlington County Historical Markers . . . . . . . . . . . .

                           Appendix II: Sources on Arlington History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

                                                     The Arlington Community is indebted to the late Dr. Ludwell Lee
                                                Montague, who authored the original edition of this work in 1968, and to the
                                                 Arlington Historical Commission, which sponsored the original project. In
                                                 1976, as part of Arlington County’s participation in the U.S. Bicentennial
                                                celebration, a revised and updated Historic Arlington was prepared by the
                                                    Arlington Historical Commission. In 1976, the Arlington Historical
                                                  Commission became the Historical Affairs and Landmark Review Board
                                                     This edition is issued as part of Arlington County’s 2001 Bicentennial
                                                Celebration. As with the two previous editions, it is hoped that this booklet will
                                                 continue to foster a greater community awareness of Arlington County’s rich
                                                 and diverse history that began so long ago in 1608 when Captain John Smith
                                                visited Nameroughquena. The Arlington County Bicentennial Task Force and
                                                   the County’s Historical Affairs and Landmark Review Board trust that a
                                                 greater awareness of our County’s heritage will contribute to the planning for
                                                    Arlington’s future and to the preservation of the many historic resources
                                                                              throughout the County.
                                                The Arlington Bicentennial Celebration Task Force and the HALRB wish to
                                                thank Allen Kitchens, who headed the effort to revise and significantly update
                                                   the 1976 edition. He was assisted by Gail Baker, Sara Collins, Michael
                                                        Leventhal, Debbie Powers, Ruth Rose, and Karl VanNewkirk.

Opposite Page: Arlington House, built by
George Washington Parke Custis between 1802
and 1817, from which Arlington County derives
its name, and the image of which is used to
represent the County.

                        NATIVE AMERICANS
                          OF THE AREA

              ore than a dozen pre history Native American sites have been
              found within the present boundary of Arlington County, eight
              along the shore of the Potomac River, three in the upper val-
    ley of Four Mile Run. They were not all occupied at the same time.
    The earliest traces of Native American sites in this area date from
    about 13,500 years ago.
      The recorded history of Arlington began in July 1608. Captain John
    Smith and fourteen other Englishmen, on a voyage of exploration from
    James Fort in an open sailboat, arrived off a Native American village
    with a name that sounded to Smith as though it should be spelled
    Nameroughquena. This village of a few longhouses made of woven grass
    mats was located on the Virginia shore, where the present day railroad
    bridge and the spans carrying US-1 and I-395 touch the Virginia soil.
      The inhabitants of Nameroughquena spoke an Algonquian dialect
    similar to that spoken by the Native Americans who lived near James
    Fort. Their tribal name sounded to Smith like Nacotchtank. Other
    Englishmen later simplified it to Necostin.
      The “king’s house” of the Necostins was in a larger village on the
    other side of the river at a place now called Anacostia, a Latinized form
    of the tribal name. Smith learned that the Necostin king could muster
    some 80 warriors, from which it may be deduced that the entire
    Necostin population, on both sides of the river, numbered no more
    than 500 men, women, and children.
      The Necostins received Smith hospitably. Two years later, however,
    when Captain Samuel Argall came to buy corn from them for the
    starving men at James Fort, they refused to sell. Argall’s reaction was to
    drive them from their villages, which he plundered and burned.
    Thereafter Englishmen were not welcome in the land of the Necostins.
      During this period of hostility the Necostins took captive an
    Englishman, Henry Fleet. He lived among them for many years and
    gained their friendship. This friendship gave him a monopoly of the fur
    trade with the northern tribes at the head of navigation in the Potomac.

2                                                                           3
    Henry Fleet has left us a description of the area as it was in 1631.            about the same time Gerard Alexander, a great-grandson of John
                                                                                    Alexander, built Abingdon, the first mansion house within the present
       This place without question is the most pleasant and healthful place in
                                                                                    bounds of Arlington County. The site of the ruins of Abingdon has been
    all this country, and most convenient for habitation, the air temperate in
                                                                                    restored on the grounds of the Reagan Washington National Airport.
    summer and not violent in winter. It aboundeth in all manner of
                                                                                    The Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority has exhibits on
    fish….As for deer, buffaloes, bears, turkeys, the woods do swarm with
                                                                                    Abingdon and National Airport inside the original terminal building.
    them and the soil is exceedingly fertile; but above this place the country is
                                                                                      Fairfax County was established in 1742 to accommodate the settlers
    rocky and mountainous like Canada.
                                                                                    north of the Occoquan. Previously the Arlington area had been nomi-
   In 1669 John Alexander purchased from Robert Howson, a Stafford                  nally a part of Northumberland County (1648) and Westmoreland
County, Virginia, tobacco dealer, a 6,000-acre tract of land extending              (1663), and effectively a part of Stafford (1684) and Prince William
along the Potomac from Hunting Creek (south of Alexandria) to the                   (1731).
present north line of the Arlington National Cemetery and Fort Myer.                  In 1749 a town was established on Alexander land at the Hunting
Howson had obtained a patent for this land, but Alexander soon after-               Creek warehouse and was named Alexandria. Three years later George
ward bought it from him for six hundredweight (672 English pounds) of               Town was established on the Maryland side of the river west of Rock
tobacco with casks. Alexander must have settled tenants on this land                Creek. The four corners of the community that later became Arlington
in order to protect his title.                                                      were Alexandria, the Falls Church, the Falls Warehouse, and Awbery’s
   In 1675 the Susquehannocks, driven southward by the Iroquois,                    Ferry to George Town. Its center was at Birch’s, later Ball’s Crossroad,
invaded the area. This eruption precipitated a war with the Native                  where the road from Alexandria to the Falls crossed the road from
Americans in Virginia that led to Bacon’s Rebellion in 1676 against the             Awbery’s Ferry to the Falls Church.
colonial government in a revolt over policy toward Native Americans.                  In 1765 Fairfax Parish was established, to include all of Fairfax County
To escape these disturbances the Necostins fled westward to Conoy                   north of Hunting Creek. Its churches were Christ Church in Alexandria
Island in the upper Potomac, near Point of Rocks, Maryland. The                     and the Falls Church. A 500-acre farm (a glebe) was provided for the
English fled southward to the protection of the fort at Occoquan.                   support of the rector of the Parish, and in 1775 a glebe house was built
                                                                                    at what is now 4527 17th Street, North, in present-day Arlington.

                         EARLY SETTLEMENT
                                                                                                     ALEXANDRIA COUNTY,
                                                                                                     DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
   n 1722 the Iroquois ceded to colonial Virginia all of their lands
   south of the Potomac and east of the Blue Ridge. By that time, there
   were seven patents issued in the Arlington area consisting of 10,463

                                                                                       n 1791 President George Washington determined that the survey to
acres of granted land. Permanent settlement in the area that would
                                                                                       establish the boundaries of the ten-mile-square Federal District
comprise Arlington County began early in the eighteenth century.
                                                                                       should begin at Jones Point, south of Alexandria, and should pro-
  There were soon enough settlers north of the Occoquan (a stream
                                                                                    ceed northwestward so as to exclude the Falls Church. The survey was
presently defining part of the Fairfax-Prince William boundary) to war-
                                                                                    made that summer, and boundary stones were set up at one-mile inter-
rant the establishment of the Hunting Creek tobacco warehouse at the
                                                                                    vals. The District of Columbia was not organized until 1801, however.
foot of Oronoco Street in what became Alexandria. The original Falls
                                                                                    The part of Fairfax County ceded by Virginia to federal jurisdiction was
Church was built in 1733. In 1740 an official tobacco inspection sta-
                                                                                    then organized as Alexandria County, which included the Town of
tion was established at the Falls near the mouth of Pimmit Run. At

4                                                                                                                                                            5
Alexandria. All of the present Arlington County was located in the           The Alexandrians appealed to Richmond for help. The obvious answer
original Ten Mile Square of the District of Columbia.                        was that Virginia could not subsidize a canal project in the District of
   The population of the new county in 1800 was not quite 6,000, of          Columbia. The Alexandrians thereupon petitioned Congress for retro-
whom some 5,000 lived in the town of Alexandria and only 978 in the          cession to Virginia.
rural area. There were 297 slaves in the country part and 875 in the           Congress was willing, believing that the federal government would
town of Alexandria.                                                          never have any need for land and jurisdiction in Alexandria County. In
   The first bridge across the Potomac was built by the merchants of         1846 the County voted in favor of retrocession, and in 1847 the retro-
Georgetown in 1797 near the site of the Falls Warehouse. It was              cession was accomplished. Instead of returning the area to Fairfax
intended to draw the trade of the Leesburg area away from Alexandria         County, Virginia, Alexandria County remained a separate county.
to Georgetown. The response of the merchants of Alexandria was the             At the time of retrocession, the population of Alexandria County was
opening of the Leesburg Turnpike (now Leesburg Pike, State Route 7).         10,000, of whom 8,700 lived in the town of Alexandria and 1,300 in
   After the Falls Bridge had been twice carried away by floods, the mer-    the rural area.
chants of Georgetown built there, in 1808, a high chain suspension
bridge that was considered a marvel of engineering at that time. So
famous was the name Chain Bridge that it has remained the name of
the bridge over the Potomac although the chain suspension was
replaced by a steel suspension bridge in 1853.
   The merchants of Washington had the Long Bridge built in 1808 in
the present location of the railroad bridge parallel to the two spans that
carry US-1 and I-395. From it, the Columbian Turnpike (Columbia
Pike, State Route 244) was built westward to intercept the Leesburg
Turnpike and the Little River Turnpike (State Route 236). Another
turnpike was built from the Long Bridge to Alexandria; it is now the
Jefferson Davis Highway (US-1). In 1809, the Georgetown and
Alexandria Turnpike was chartered, crossing Custis family lands; a por-
tion of it is now Arlington Ridge Road.
   Attempts to increase trade with the west prompted various canal
projects. In the 18th century, George Washington and other prominent
leaders established the Patowmack Canal Company with the hope of
drawing trade to Alexandria. Although this project failed, efforts per-
sisted to build a waterway. In 1828 ground was broken for the
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company. This canal company was estab-
lished to construct and operate a canal along the north shore of the
Potomac from tidewater westward.
   The Alexandrians foresaw that this canal would bring the trade of
the upper country to Georgetown and Washington; they demanded a
terminus at Alexandria. To this end they formed the Alexandria Canal
Company and built the Aqueduct Bridge and Alexandria Canal, 1833-
1843. The work proved more costly than had been anticipated; federal
support for it was meager. At the same time the Commonwealth of
Virginia was engaged in an extensive program of such public works.           Ellicott’s 1793 map showing the Arlington portion of the 10-mile square of the
                                                                             District of Columbia.
6                                                                                                                                                             7
                                                                                                                        Colonel Robert E. Lee in 1855, when he was
                                                                                                                        Superintendent of the United States Military
                                                                                                                        Academy at West Point. This portrait,
                                                                                                                        painted by Ernest L. Ipsen in 1931, is based
                THE ARLINGTON ESTATE                                                                                    on a daguerreotype made in 1851 and is
                                                                                                                        considered a good likeness. Lee became
                                                                                                                        master of Arlington House in 1857. He
                                                                                                                        accepted command of Virginia’s military

    n 1778, John Parke Custis, George Washington’s stepson, bought
                                                                                                                        forces in 1861.
    the Abingdon Estate and other tracts from Gerard Alexander.
    George Washington Parke Custis, son and heir of John Custis and
step-grandson of George Washington inherited the northern 1100 acres
of this land and began construction of a mansion in 1802 on the high
ground overlooking the Potomac River and the City of Washington.
The building was finally completed in 1817. At first named Mount
Washington, it was soon renamed Arlington after the original Custis                                                      of seceded Virginia’s military
estate established before 1680 in Northhampton County, Virginia.                                                         forces. Summoned to Richmond,
G.W.P. Custis, ever conscious of his role as “the child of Mount                                                         he left Arlington on April 22
Vernon” (he spent his boyhood years living there), made his home a                                                       never to return to the mansion.
museum of Washington heirlooms and relics.                                                                                 In May 1861 the Arlington
  In 1831 Mary Anne Randolph Custis, the heiress of Arlington, mar-                                                      estate was occupied by federal
ried her third cousin, Lieutenant Robert Edward Lee of the U.S. Army                                                     troops. Three years later, the
Corps of Engineers. Although born at Stratford in Westmoreland                                                           estate was confiscated for failure
County, Robert Lee had grown up in Alexandria. After his marriage,            of the taxpayer to appear in person to pay $92.07 in taxes. The property
having no home of his own, he came to feel at home at Arlington. He           then was purchased by the U.S. Government at public auction for
spent some part of almost every year on leave there and lived there dur-      $26,800. The seizure of the estate was challenged in the courts in 1873,
ing a three-year tour of duty in Washington, 1834-1837.                       and after ten years of litigation, Custis Lee, son of Robert E. and Mary
  G.W.P. Custis died in 1857, leaving his estate to his daughter and          Anne Randolph Lee, received $150,000 compensation. The federal gov-
naming his son-in-law to be his executor. Thus Lieutenant Colonel Lee         ernment received clear title to the lands it had seized and occupied
became the master of Arlington. It took him a two-year leave of               twenty-two years earlier. In 1955 Arlington House was officially desig-
absence from the Army to get the estate in order.                             nated by an Act of Congress as a permanent national memorial to
  In 1860 Lee returned to his command in Texas and from there, in             Robert E. Lee.
agony of spirit, witnessed the disintegration of the Union. The theme            On December 4, 1863, The Freedman’s Village settlement was estab-
of his letters of this period was that there was no validity in the consti-   lished by the federal government on the Arlington Estate, south of the
tutional doctrine of the secessionists and no occasion for a revolution,      cemetery and the mansion. This village was created to provide homes
but that a Union that could be held together only by force of arms            and employment opportunities for the numerous slaves who had gained
would have already ceased to exist. If the Union should be dissolved in       their freedom by fleeing from nearby Maryland and Virginia and entering
this way, his only obligation would be to defend Virginia.                    the District of Columbia, in which slavery had been abolished on April
  Early in 1861 Lee was ordered back to Washington, where in April            16, 1862. Freedman’s Village consisted of 100 frame houses, a school with
he was offered command of the newly levied Union army. He declined,           five teachers, and two chapels. The chapels were the predecessors of the
stating that he could not take part in an invasion of the Southern            Mount Zion Baptist Church at 19th Street, South and Mount Olive
States, although he disapproved of their course of political action. After    Baptist Church now located on 13th Street, South. Most of the residents
resigning his commission in the U.S. Army, he accepted the command            of Freedman’s Village later moved to other sites in the County.

8                                                                                                                                                                  9
                  THE ARLINGTON LINE                                               SUBURBAN ALEXANDRIA COUNTY

W                                                                          I
            hen federal troops seized the Arlington heights, in May            n 1870 the town of Alexandria became an independent city, sepa-
            1861, they immediately began the construction of Forts             rate from Alexandria County. The County courthouse remained in
            Runyon, Corcoran, Albany, and Scott for the protection of          the city, however, until 1898, when a new courthouse was complet-
Washington. After the Union disaster at the First Battle of Manassas       ed near the present site of Arlington County’s administrative building
(Bull Run) in late July 1861, work was begun on Fort Ethan Allen, Fort     on Clarendon Boulevard and the County’s courthouse and detention
Richardson, and a line of breastworks and lunettes called in general the   center on North Courthouse Road. The very location of this new
Arlington Line. A similar line of redoubts and breastworks covering the    courthouse indicated a new orientation, toward Washington rather
valley of Four Mile Run was more properly part of the defenses of the      than Alexandria.
main base of the Army of the Potomac at Alexandria.                          Even before the Civil War, people from all parts of the country,
  The permanent garrison of these extensive fortifications within the      brought to Washington by official business, were attracted by the rural
present bounds of Arlington County, at least 10,000 men, greatly out-      beauty and tranquililty of Alexandria County. Some established homes
numbered the resident population, then some 1,400 men, women, and          in the County; others had summer cottages or hunting lodges there.
children.                                                                  After the war, a number of Union Army veterans returned to make
  The Arlington Line was never attacked, not even after the federal        their homes in the County.
defeat at the Second Battle of Manassas (Bull Run) — which means             During the post-war years, disorder and lawlessness crept into the
that it served effectively its strategic purpose.                          County. By the turn of the 20th century, the County was controlled by
                                                                           groups who established gambling houses, saloons, and race tracks, cater-
                                                                           ing to the worst elements. These centers of unsavory activities were
                                                                           found in Jackson City (between the present Pentagon Lagoon and
                                                                           Roach’s Run) and in Rosslyn. In response, the law-abiding citizens of
                                                                           the County formed a Good Citizen’s League that called for honest gov-
                                                                           ernment. The election of Colonel Crandal Mackey as Commonwealth
                                                                           Attorney brought to office a man determined to get rid of the gamblers
                                                                           by force if necessary. By 1910 order had returned to the County.
                                                                             Alexandria County remained essentially agricultural until about
                                                                           1900. The extension of trolley lines and the Washington and Old
                                                                           Dominion Railway into the County from Alexandria and Washington
                                                                           made possible the development of such commuter villages as Lyon Park,
                                                                           Clarendon, Ballston, Cherrydale, Bon Air, Glencarlyn, and Barcroft.
                                                                           These little settlements were full of civic enterprise and community
                                                                           spirit. Expecting nothing much from the County, they developed their
                                                                           own schools, libraries, and community centers.
                                                                             The trend is indicated in the census returns. The population grew
                                                                           from 3,200 in 1870 to 4,300 in 1890; 6,400 in 1900; 10,200 in 1910;
                                                                           and 16,000 in 1920.

10                                                                                                                                               11



                   ARLINGTON COUNTY





                                                                                                                                                                   ary R
                     IN TRANSITION





                                                                                                             .                                                                                         kw

                                                                                                           vd                                                                                                y.

                                                                                                g                                                                                                                                                                Key Bridge

                                                                                                                                                              Lee Hwy.



                                                                                                    Sycamor e
    n 1920 to avoid confusion between Alexandria County and the City                       m                                                                                                                                    I-66

                                                                                                                                       N. G

    of Alexandria and to honor Robert E. Lee, the name of the County


                                                                                                                                              r ge
    was changed to Arlington. That name was obviously derived from


                                                                                                                                                                                               y St.
                                                                                                     S t.

                                                                                                                  on                                                                                                            r en
the Arlington Estate. It had long been made familiar by federal devel-                                               Blv
                                                                                                                         d   .                           r.

                                                                                                                                                                  N. Fairfax Dr.
opments on the Arlington property: not only the Arlington National                                                        I-66

Cemetery, but also the Arlington Experimental Farm (1900-1940), and                                                  Wilso
                                                                                                                                 n Blvd

the Arlington Radio Towers (1913-1941). In 1921 the County was                                                                                                                                                                  St.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         2 nd
gaining new prestige from the attention focused on the dedication of                                                                  Arlington Blvd.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  S. Ha y e
the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in the Arlington National                                                                                                                                                                     Pike

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Jefferson Dav is Hwy.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  m b ia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Arlington Rid ge Rd.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              D r.
Cemetery and from plans to construct the Arlington Memorial Bridge.                                                                                                                       S.

  By 1930 the population of Arlington had increased to about 27,000.






The advent of the automobile had facilitated access to the areas in the


                                                                                                                                                                                                         e                 nD

                                                                                                                                                                                                   alt                           r.
County located between the trolley lines. During this period the                                                                                                                               W

County’s several hamlets and commuter villages began to merge, in the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  I -3
process reshaping the County’s basic infrastructure and transportation
lines. In addition to the villages referred to above, other areas included
Lyon Village, Nauck, and Queen City. Arlington County was becoming
a single, distinct community. In 1932 the old magisterial districts that
had been established in 1870 were abolished, and the County govern-          Current Day Arlington County
ment was integrated through the at-large election of a new County
Board and the establishment in Arlington in 1932 of the first County
Manager form of government in the United States. The County
Manager was to be chosen by the County Board. The first County
Manager was Ray S. Braden.                                                     During World War II, the Washington, D.C. region was flooded with
  During the Depression and with the outbreak of World War II, the           military personnel and civilian workers supporting the war effort.
expanding federal work force created a demand for housing. Arlington’s       Arlington’s population doubled, and the County began to make the
farmland was soon filled with thousands of new homes as well as large        transition from a bedroom community to a place where large numbers
garden apartment complexes, such as Colonial Village, Buckingham,            of people worked. The Pentagon, which opened in 1943, employed
Fairlington, and Arlington Village. Colonial Village, constructed            more than 36,000 military and civilian workers. Arlington, along with
between 1934 and 1940, was the first large-scale rental project to be        jurisdictions across the entire Washington metropolitan area, also
approved by the Federal Housing Administration for mortgage insur-           began the process of adapting to meet many new needs that, in addi-
ance and became a model for similar developments throughout the              tion to housing and public transportation pressures, included highways,
country.                                                                     schools, libraries, public health facilities, and recreation areas.

12                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      13
                                                                             cal landscape but also the composition of its population. What was
                                                                             once a racially segregated community became an integrated one. After
                                                                             the U.S. Supreme Court handed down its landmark decision on segre-
            URBAN ARLINGTON COUNTY                                           gated schools in 1954, Arlington became involved in the movement for
                                                                             school integration, starting in 1956 when the National Association for
                                                                             the Advancement for Colored People (NAACP) filed suit to integrate
                                                                             Virginia’s public schools. At that time, Virginia State law even prohib-

          rlington’s population growth increased steadily, from 1940 to
          1970. It went from 57,040 in 1940; 135,449 in 1950; 163,401        ited whites and blacks from sitting next to one another at public meet-
          in 1960 to 174,299 in 1970. From 1970 to 1990 the population       ings. With the State government threatening under its “Massive
declined, with 152,599 in 1980; 170,936 in 1990; but it rose again by        Resistance” effort to close public schools that integrated under federal
the century’s end, to 189,453 in 2000.                                       court orders, Arlington’s League of Women Voters along with other
  The post-World War II period brought rapid urbanization of Arlington       organizations, including the NAACP, led the effort to preserve
County that has continued into the 2000s. To deal with the pressures         Arlington’s public schools.
that began during the war, the County government in 1950 initiated a           Arlington’s effort initially succeeded in part when, on February 2,
planning process to develop a six-year improvement plan that would           1959, four black students were admitted to the formerly all-white
represent a program for capital improvements in essential public facili-     Stratford Junior High School (the building now houses the Hoffman-
ties and services needed by the County; this plan would be periodically      Boston Woodlawn Alternative Program). “Massive Resistance” col-
updated. In 1959 the County developed two additional programs provid-        lapsed in 1959 after the Virginia Supreme Court ruled that public edu-
ing for fiscal and capital improvement projections. All of this led to the   cation took precedence over segregation policy. Although the first
development in the 1960s of a master plan for the County.                    Arlington elementary school, Patrick Henry, and high school,
  Starting in the 1960s, some of the County’s older commercial and           Washington-Lee, accepted black students in the fall of 1959, it would
industrial areas were redeveloped. In Rosslyn and Crystal City, bars,        be more than a decade before all County schools were integrated.
pawnshops, automobile dealerships, construction yards, ironworks, tank
farms, and brickyards were replaced with high-rise apartments, office
buildings, and hotels. Much of the more recent major, high-density
development has taken place since the opening of the Metro rapid rail
system in Arlington between 1977 and 1986. Arlington County gov-
ernment policy has been to keep most of the high-density development
along the Metro corridors and to preserve residential, moderate-income
(or affordable) housing and low-density commercial areas as much as
  Much of Arlington’s urbanization has been a success story, given its
effective government leadership and high-quality staffing. A significant
aspect of this success has been attributed to the “Arlington Way” of
involving thousands of citizens in providing thousands of hours of
expertise to the government process through participation on County
commissions and committees; neighborhood conservation; economic
development; and the growth of public-private partnerships, such as the
Ballston Partnership, the Clarendon Alliance, the Rosslyn Renaissance,
and the Columbia Pike Revitalization Organization.                           The County’s administrative offices at Courthouse Plaza, opened in 1988.
  Arlington’s urban development changed not only the County’s physi-         The County’s Courts and Police Building (on the right), opened in 1995

14                                                                                                                                                      15
  Arlington has become a major employment and tourism center.
Increasing numbers of businesses and federal agencies have chosen
Arlington as a site for expansion. Millions of tourists flock to Arlington
each year to stay in its many hotels and to visit Arlington National
Cemetery, Arlington House, the Newseum, the Pentagon, the Marine
                                                                                                 APPENDIX I.:
Corps (Iwo Jima) Memorial, the Netherlands Carillon, and Arlington’s                        THE ARLINGTON COUNTY
many historic districts.
  Beginning in the 1970s, Arlington has become an ethnically diverse
                                                                                             HISTORICAL MARKERS
urban center. Increasing numbers of Arlington citizens are persons who
immigrated to the United States from many parts of the world.

                                                                                n 1965 Arlington County erected historical markers at the sites of
Numerous stores and restaurants catering to these ethnic communities            20 Civil War fortifications within the present bounds to the County.
opened in the County. Languages, particularly Spanish, Korean, and              Since 1968 the County Board has authorized the erection of 38
Vietnamese, began to be heard in Arlington’s workplaces, schools, and        additional markers at other historic sites. The texts for these 58 histori-
places of worship.                                                           cal markers are reproduced below.
  Arlington County’s excellent living, commercial, educational, and
recreational facilities attest to its carefully monitored and planned
development. Yet vestiges of its rich and significant historic past are                   DEFENSES OF WASHINGTON SERIES
preserved and available for public viewing—from the 18th- century
Ball-Sellers House, the Arlington House, the line of federal forts and
                                                                             1. FORT BENNETT
defense works of the Civil War era, and the Victorian Age commuter
                                                                             1600 block of North 22nd Street
villages of Glencarlyn, Maywood, Cherrydale, and East Falls Church, to
the exhibits depicting the County’s history at the Arlington Historical      Here stood Fort Bennett, a small outwork of Fort Corcoran, constructed
Society’s museum in the former Hume School at 1805 South Arlington           in May 1861. With a perimeter of 146 yards and emplacements for 5
Ridge Road.                                                                  guns, it was designed to bring under fire the slope northwest of Fort
                                                                             Corcoran, which could not be seen from there.
                                                                             2. FORT CORCORAN
                                                                             Key Boulevard at North Ode Street
                                                                             Here beside the Georgetown-Falls Church road stood Fort Corcoran, a
      PRESERVING ARLINGTON’S HERITAGE                                        bastioned earthwork built in May 1861 to command all the approaches
                                                                             to the Aqueduct Bridge. It had a perimeter of 576 yards and emplace-
                                                                             ments for 10 guns. It was dominated by the higher ground to the west and

         istoric preservation recognizes and enhances the history of a
                                                                             was relegated to a supporting role when the Arlington Line was built
         community while at the same time it promotes economic
                                                                             1000 yards farther west in August 1861.
         development, improves property values, and encourages
tourism. In Arlington, twenty-five years ago only a few citizens were        3. FORT HAGGERTY
seriously concerned with preserving the historic resources of the            Intersection of Wilson Boulevard and North Arlington Ridge Road
County. Today, the effort is widespread, involving the County’s              Here beside the Georgetown~Alexandria road stood Fort Haggerty, a
Historical Affairs and Landmark Review Board, the Arlington                  small outwork of Fort Corcoran, constructed in May 1861. With a
Historical Society, the Arlington Heritage Alliance, and the                 perimeter of 128 yards and emplacements for 4 guns, it was designed to
Neighborhood Conservation Program. As of 2001, twenty eight local            bring under fire the slope south of Fort Corcoran, which could not be
historic districts have been designated by the County Board.                 seen from there.
16                                                                                                                                                    17
4. FORT ALBANY                                                                 8. FORT C. F. SMITH
Junction of South Arlington Ridge Road and South Nash Street                   Near 2411 North 24th Street
Immediately to the northwest stood Fort Albany, a bastioned earthwork          Just to the north are the remains of Fort C. F. Smith, a lunette built early
built. In May, 1861, to command the approach to the Long Bridge by way         in 1863 to command the high ground north of Spout Run and protect
of the Columbia Turnpike. It had a perimeter of 429 yards and emplace-         the flank of the Arlington Line. It had a perimeter of 368 yards and
ments for 12 guns. Even alter Forts Richardson and Craig were built,           emplacements for 22 guns.
1300 yards to the west and north respectively, the heavy guns of Fort
                                                                               9. FORT STRONG
Albany served to support them, and to dominate them if they were cap-
                                                                               Lee Highway at North Adams Street
tured. The ground on which the Fort stood was cut away during the con-
struction of the Henry G. Shirley Memorial Highway, in 1942.                   Nearby to the north stood Fort Strong, a lunette marking the north end
                                                                               of the Arlington Line constructed in August 1861. It had a perimeter of
5. FORT RUNYON                                                                 318 yards and emplacements for 15 guns.
Boundary Drive and Old Jefferson Davis Highway
                                                                               10. THE ARLINGTON LINE
A half-mile to the southwest stood Fort Runyon, a large bastioned earth-
                                                                               Wilson Boulevard and North Courthouse Road
work constructed in May 1861 to protect the Long Bridge over the
Potomac. Its perimeter, 1,484 yards, was about the same as that of the         Here the Arlington Line constructed in August 1861, crossed the
Pentagon. After the construction of the Arlington Line two miles to the        Georgetown-Falls Church road. 100 yards to the northwest stood Fort
west, Fort Runyon fell into disuse. Nearby Fort Jackson, at the Virginia       Morton, a lunette with a perimeter of 250 yards and emplacements for 17
end of the Long Bridge, was no more than a checkpoint to control traf-         guns; 100 yards to the southeast stood Fort Woodbury, a lunette with a
fic on the bridge and protect it from sabotage.                                perimeter of 275 yards and emplacements for 13 guns.

6. FORT SCOTT                                                                  11. FORT WOODBURY
Fort Scott Drive entrance to the Fort Scott Recreation Area.                   North Courthouse Road and North 14th Streets
Here stood a detached lunette constructed in May 1861 to guard the             Immediately behind the present Courthouse stood Fort Woodbury, a
south flank of the defenses of Washington and named for General                lunette in the Arlington Line constructed in August 1861. It had a
Winfield Scott, then General-in-Chief of the Army. It was subsequently         perimeter of 275 yards and 19 emplacements for 13 guns. It was named
relegated to an interior position by the construction of the defenses of       for Major D.P. Woodbury, the Engineer who designed and constructed
Alexandria about 1_ miles to the west. The Fort had a perimeter of 313         the Arlington Line.
yards and emplacements for 8 guns. A remnant portion may be found              12. FORT WHIPPLE
immediately to the west.                                                       Arlington Boulevard and Pershing Drive, near entrance to Ft. Myer
7. FORT ETHAN ALLEN                                                            On the high ground to the northeast stood Fort Whipple, a bastioned
North Old Glebe Road at the James Madison School                               earthwork built early in 1863 to support the Arlington Line built in
This embankment was the south face of Fort Ethan Allen, a bàstioned            1861. It had a perimeter of 640 yards and emplacements for 47 guns.
earthwork built in September 1861, to command all the approaches to            After the War, Fort Whipple was maintained as a permanent military
Chain Bridge south of Pimmit Run. The Fort had a perimeter of 736              post. In 1880 the name was changed to Fort Myer in honor of General
yards, with emplacements for 39 guns. The embankments, which still             Albert J. Myer, former post commander and first Chief Signal Officer of
remain, were the south face, less the west bastion; an interior bombproof      the United States Army.
shelter for protection against artillery fire from Hall’s Hill; the magazine
and guardhouse near the north face; and a part of the east face.

18                                                                                                                                                       19
13. FORT CASS                                                                    19. FORT REYNOLDS
Arlington Boulevard. at North 10th Street                                        Fort Reynolds Park, South 31st Street, east of South Woodrow Street
Just to the south stood Fort Cass, a lunette in the Arlington Line con-          Here stood Fort Reynolds, a redoubt constructed in September 1861, to
structed in August 1861. It had a perimeter of 288 yards and emplace-            command the approach to Alexandria by way of the valley of Four Mile
ments for 13 guns.                                                               Run. It. had a perimeter of 360 yards and emplacements for 12 guns.
14. FORT TILLINGHAST                                                             20. BATTERY GARESCHE
Arlington Boulevard and North 2nd Street                                         South Abingdon Street at South 30th Road
Here stood Fort Tillinghast, a lunette in the Arlington Line constructed in      Here stood Battery Garesche, constructed late in 1861 to control the
August 1861. It had a perimeter of 298 yards and emplacements for 13             higher ground dominating Fort Reynolds, 200 yards to the southeast. It
guns. A model of this fort, typical of all lunettes in the Arlington Line, can   had a perimeter of 166 yards and emplacements for 8 guns.
be seen at the Hume School museum of the Arlington Historical Society.
South Courthouse Road at South 4th Street
                                                                                                           GENERAL SERIES
Here stood Fort Craig, a lunette in the Arlington Line constructed in
August 1861. It had a perimeter of 324 yards and emplacements for 11 guns.       21. LITTLE FALLS ROAD
                                                                                 Little Falls Road andNorth George Mason Drive
16. FORT RICHARDSON                                                              Little Falls Road was originally a trail from the Indian villages at the head
South 18th Street off South Glebe Road                                           of Four Mile Run to the Potomac River fisheries just below the Little
Here is what is left of Fort Richardson, a detached redoubt constructed          Falls. Later it was developed as a wagon road from the settlement at the
in September 1861 to cover the left flank of the newly built Arlington           Falls Church to Thomas Lee’s landing and warehouse at the mouth of
defense line, It Was named for General Israel B. Richardson, whose divi-         Pimmit Run.
sion was then deployed to defend against attack by way of Columbia
Turnpike. It had a perimeter of 316 yards and emplacements for 15 guns.          22. MINOR’S HILL
                                                                                 Williamsburg Boulevard and North Powhatan Street
17. FORT BERRY                                                                   To the northwest is Minor’s Hill, so called for George Minor who lived
South Glebe Road at South 17th Street and Walter Reed Drive                      on the far side at the time of the Revolution. It is the highest elevation
Immediately to the west stood Fort Berry, a redoubt constructed in 1863          in the County. In the fall of 1861 it was the site of a Confederate outpost.
at the north flank of the defenses of Alexandria, but also flanking the          Afterwards there was a Federal signal station at the top of the hilt. Here
Columbia Turnpike and the Arlington Line constructed in 1861. It had             at the foot of the hill was a large cantonment housing the reserve force
a perimeter of 215 yards and emplacements for 10 guns.                           supporting the Federal outposts in Fairfax County.
18. FORT BARNARD                                                                 23. CONFEDERATE OUTPOST
South Pollard Street and Walter Reed Drive at the Fort Barnard Recreation        Wilson Boulevard at North Manchester Street
Center                                                                           In August 1861, while U.S. forces were constructing the Arlington Line
Here stood Fort Barnard, a redoubt constructed late in 1861 to command           three miles to the east, the Confederates established a fortified outpost
the approaches to Alexandria by way of Four Mile Run and Glebe Road. It          on the high ground about 200 yards west of here, to guard the bridge by
was named for General J. G. Barnard, Chief Engineer of the Defenses of           which the Georgetown - Falls Church road crossed Four Mile Run. In
Washington. It had a perimeter of 250 yards and emplacements for 20 guns.        October they withdrew to Fairfax Court House. The Federals then estab-
                                                                                 lished a signal station at the top of the hill and constructed Fort Ramsay
                                                                                 just across the County line.

20                                                                                                                                                          21
24. THE GLEBE OF FAIRFAX PARISH                                              27. CARLIN SPRINGS
4527 North 17th Street                                                       In Glencarlyn Park (approach from 2nd Street South and South Jefferson
The glebe was a 500-acre farm provided for the rector of Fairfax Parish,     Street entrance)
which included both Christ Church, Alexandria, and the Falls Church.         In 1872 John F. Carlin developed here a popular resort which could be
The Glebe House, built in 1775, stood here. It burned in 1808 and was        reached by train from Washington and Alexandria. His establishment
rebuilt in 1820, as a hunting lodge; the octagon wing was added about        included two springs, an ice cream parlor, a restaurant, a dance pavilion,
1850. Distinguished persons who have occupied the house include the          and a swimming hole at the confluence of Four Mile Run and Lubber Run.
Rev. Bryan Fairfax (8th Lord Fairfax), John Peter Van Ness (Mayor of         It remained popular until about 1887, when the property was sold to the
Washington), Clarke Mills (sculptor), Caleb Cushing (first U.S.              developers of Glencarlyn. They demolished the resort buildings, but pre-
Minister to China), and Frank Ball (state senator).                          served the natural park, which was acquired by Arlington County in 1943.
25. BALLSTON                                                                 28. THE ARLINGTON MILL
North Fairfax Drive and North Stafford Street                                Columbia Pike and South Four Mile Run Drive
By 1900 a well-defined village called Central Ballston had developed in      The land along Four Mile Run in this area belonged to George
the area bounded by the present Wilson Boulevard, Taylor Street,             Washington and was known as Washington Forest. Later it became part
Washington Boulevard, and Pollard Street. More diffuse settlement            of the Arlington estate. The Columbia Turnpike was built through here
extended westward to Lubber Run and southward along Glebe Road to            in 1808 to link the Long Bridge at Washington with the Little River
Henderson Road. The track of the Washington, Arlington, and Falls            Turnpike. In 1836 G.W.P. Custis built a grist mill here where the turn-
Church Electric Railroad ran along what is now Fairfax Drive; the            pike crossed Four Mile Run. It was destroyed during the Civil War (as the
Ballston Station was at Ballston Avenue, now Stuart Street. Here             supposed property of R. E. Lee), but was rebuilt in 1880, continued in
Clements Avenue. now Stafford Street, divided to pass on either side of      operation until 1906, and was destroyed by fire in 1920.
an old Ball family graveyard.
                                                                             29. BARCROFT
26. BALL’S CROSSROADS                                                        Columbia Pike and South Four Mile Run Drive
Southeast Corner of North Glebe Road and Wilson Boulevard                    In 1880 Dr. John W. Barcroft rebuilt the Arlington Mill. The name of the
This intersection has been a focal point since about 1740, when two          railroad station here was subsequently changed from Arlington to
roads were developed, one from the future site to Alexandria to the          Barcroft, and that became the name of the residential community which
mouth of Pimmit Run, the other from Awbury’s Ferry (at the site of           developed eastward along Columbia Pike. This community, left to its
Rosslyn) to the Falls Church. The first came to be known as the Glebe        own devices, developed an active civic league and its own church,
Road because it passed the glebe of Fairfax Parish and in order to distin-   school, and neighborhood house.
guish it from other roads to the Falls. The second was eventually named
                                                                             30. THE ARLINGTON RADIO TOWERS
Wilson Boulevard in honor of President Wilson. The intersection
                                                                             South Courthouse Road at the entrance of the Naval Communications Station
became known as Ball’s Crossroads when Ball’s Tavern was established
here in the early 1800’s.                                                    Three radio towers similar to the Eiffel Tower in construction were erect-
                                                                             ed here in 1913. One stood 600 feet and the other two 450 feet above the
                                                                             200-foot elevation of the site. The word “radio” was first used, instead of
                                                                             “wireless”, in the name of this Naval communications facility. The first
                                                                             trans-Atlantic voice communication was made between this station and
                                                                             the Eiffel Tower in 1915. The nation set its clocks by the Arlington
                                                                             Radio time signal and listened for its broadcast weather reports. The tow-
                                                                             ers were dismantled in 1941, as a menace to aircraft approaching the new
                                                                             Washington National Airport.
22                                                                                                                                                   23
31. PROSPECT HILL                                                            35. CHERRYDALE
Arlington Ridge Road south of South Nash Street                              2190 Military Road
The mansion which formerly stood here was built in 1841 by James Roach,      In 1893 a branch post office at Lee Highway and Pollard Street was
a prosperous contractor who supplied most of the brick and stone used in     named Cherrydale, with reference to Dorsey Donaldson’s large cherry
the construction of the Aqueduct Bridge and Alexandria Canal (under          orchard in back of the present firehouse. Quincy Street was then known
construction 1833-1843) and the Alexandria, Loudoun, and Hampshire           as Cherry Valley Road. Settlement in this area began after the Civil War
Railroad (under construction 1853-1859). His property, which extended to     and was stimulated in 1906 by the establishment of the Great Falls and
Roach’s Run, was ruined and vandalized during the construction of Fort       Old Dominion Railway Line. Abandoned in 1935, the roadbed became
Runyon and Fort Albany in 1861. His mansion was demolished in 1965.          Old Dominion Drive. Military Road was cut through broken and dense-
                                                                             ly wooded country by Army engineers in 1861, to connect the isolated
                                                                             defensive works at Chain Bridge (Forts Marcy and Ethan Allen) with the
North Troy Street near North 21st Street, at the Dawson Terrace Playground
                                                                             Arlington Line.
This house is probably the oldest structure in Arlington County, but its
exact age is unknown. This land was first patented in 1696; a house at       36. THE BALL-CARLIN CEMETARY
this site is shown on a survey of 1785. Thomas Dawson enlarged the pres-     300 South Kensington Street
ent house by adding the east end in 1859. He left the place to his daugh-    Here between 1766 and 1908 were buried members of the Ball and
ter. Bessie Lola, who married W. C. Bailey. She lived here for 94 years      Carlin families. In 1742 John Ball was granted 166 acres in this area and
and died in 1955.                                                            in 1748 his brother Moses Ball was granted 91 adjoining acres, now the
                                                                             site of Doctor’s Hospital. They were cousins of George Washington who
                                                                             acquired an adjoining tract along Four Mile Run in 1785. After John
Northeast corner of Lee Highway and North Glebe Road
                                                                             Ball’s death in 1766, his estate was sold to William Carlin who was one
For more than half a century from the mid-1800’s the intersection of Lee     of Washington’s tailors. Fragments of the original Ball-Carlin log house
Highway and Glebe Road was known as Wunders Crossroads after the             are within the walls of the house at 5620 3rd Street South. About 1800
family whose farm lay just Northeast. Dr. Henry S. Wunder and his son        Carlin built a log house that still stands at 5512 North Carlin Springs
George 0. Wunder were leading citizens of the county. Glebe Road was         Road. In present Glencarlyn Park his descendants operated “Carlin
then the road to the falls. It was later named for the glebe of Fairfax      Springs”, a popular resort during 1872-1884.
parish. Its Northernmost portion was part of the Little Falls Road from
Falls Church. Lee Highway, originally the Georgetown Fairfax Road was        37. SOUTHERN SHREVE CEMETERY
renamed to honor Robert E. Lee.                                              Between North Frederick and North Harrison Streets off of North 10th
                                                                             Street, behind St. Ann Catholic Church
                                                                             Five generations of the Southern, Shreve, and related families are
5115 Little Falls Road
                                                                             interred in this burial plott. The Shreve family in Arlington dates from
Seagmuller, a native of Germany, came to America at 23 and achieved          the arrival of Samuel Shreve from New Jersey about 1780. Shreve pur-
success as an inventor and manufacturer of scientific instruments. He        chased a tract of land near Ballston in 1791. The earliest grave (1832) is
lived here at Reserve Hill, the home of his parents-in-law, the              that of John Redin (Sixth Continential Line), a veteran of the American
Vandenbergs, and contributed in many ways to the development of this         Revolution. Redin’s daughter married Richard Southern.
part of the county. He advanced funds in 1890 for a much-needed school
which was named in his honor and which was replaced in 1937 by James
Madison School. He was chairman of the County Board of Supervisors
and was influential in locating the County Court House at its present site
in 1898. He completed construction of this mansion in 1903. Its stone
water tower is a replica of a tower in the walls of Nuremberg.
24                                                                                                                                                  25
38. BIRCHWOOD                                                                41. HUNTER’S CROSSROADS
4572 26th Street, North                                                      Northeast corner of South Glebe Road and Columbia Pike
Caleb Birch, a farmer and constable, built a log house here around 1800      One of the routes at this historic intersection is Glebe Road, developed
on land granted to his grandfather, James Robertson, by Lord Fairfax in      in the 18th century to connect Alexandria with northern Arlington.
1724. The original house burned and was rebuilt about 1836. A second         Columbia Turnpike was built in 1808 between the Long Bridge to
log cabin was added ten years later. The two cabins, although separate,      Washington and the Little River Turnpike at Annandale. In the late
had a common roof, forming what was known as a “dog trot’ house. Later.      1850’s, Louisa Hunter gave land on the northeast corner of the
President Theodore Roosevelt rode horseback in this area with his friend     Crossroads to a Methodist Church known as Hunter’s Chapel. During
and White House physician, Rear Admiral Presley M. Rixey, on whose           the Civil War, Federal troops dismantled the church for its building
estate Birchwood stood. Rixey’s valet, Richard Wallace, lived at             materials after using the structure as a picket post, block house, commis-
Birchwdod, and Roosevelt visited Wallace here. In 1936, Birchwood was        sary, and stable. Following the Civil War the congregation used other
reconstructed using the original logs.                                       buildings in this area. Today’s successor, Arlington Methodist Church,
                                                                             stands two blocks to the north on Glebe Road.
5512 North Carlin Springs Road                                               42. SITE OF ARLINGTON CHAPEL
This home incorporates the original log house built about 1800 by            Northwest corner of Columbia Pike and South Orme Street
William Carlin. It is one of the earliest structures remaining in            Arlington’s first house of worship, the Chapel of Ease of Arlington
Arlington. At one time, Carlin had been a tailor in Alexandria whose         Plantation, was near this location. George Washington Parke Custis
clients included George Washington. Mr. Carlin’s granddaughter, Mary         built it about 1825 for his family, neighbors, and servants. Services were
Alexander Carlin, a school teacher, was born in this house and lived here    conducted by students from the Episcopal Theological Seminary in
until her death in 1905. Hers was the last burial in the Ball-Carlin         Alexandria. Union soldiers burned the building at the beginning of the
Cemetery adjacent to the Glencarlyn Library.                                 Civil War. The congregation was reestablished after the war when it met
                                                                             in abandoned Federal barracks in this vicinity. The Trinity Episcopal
                                                                             Church, now located at South Wayne Street and Columbia Pike, is the
North Glebe Road before the Chain Bridge
                                                                             successor congregation.
Thomas Lee patented land in this area in 1719. Here at the head of nav-
igation of the Potomac River, he established an official tobacco inspec-     43. JOHN BALL HOUSE
tion warehouse in 1742, the beginning of Arlington’s first industrial        5620 3rd Street, South
complex. After 1794, Philip Richard Fendall and Lewis Hipkins, then          In 1742, John Ball received a 166-acre land grant from Lord Fairfax and
owners of 200 acres in the Pimmit Run region, built a grist mill, brewery,   became one of the first settlers in this area. The oldest portion of the
distillery, cooper and blacksmith shops, and other structures. After 1815    present house is a one-and-a-half 18th century log cabin that was proba-
a cloth mill, woolen factory, and paper mill were established along the      bly built by John Ball. In 1772. six years after Ball’s death, the property
Run, later to be abandoned. In the 1890’s the Columbia Light and Power       was acquired by William Carlin, once George Washington’s tailor. The
Company used Pimmit Run to generate electricity. Stone from nearby           Carlin family was associated with this area for over a century there after
quarries was loaded on scows moored to the iron rings that can still be      the two-story portion of the house was added about 1885. In 1975, Mrs.
seen embedded in the rocks below.                                            Marian Sellers, the last private owner, donated this structure to the
                                                                             Arlington Historical Society.

26                                                                                                                                                   27
44. CHAIN BRIDGE                                                             47. WALKER CHAPEL
Chain Bridge (Virginia end)                                                  4102 North Glebe Road.
In 1797, the merchants of Georgetown built here the first bridge over the    Walker Chapel, a small frame country church of the Mount Olivet Circuit,
Potomac River in order to compete with the Virginia port of Alexandria.      was dedicated at this location on July 18,1876. It was named in honor of the
The falls Bridge allowed trade from the “upper country” of Virginia to       Walker family who donated the Walker Grave Yard as a site for the church.
move directly to Georgetown over the Georgetown-Leesburg road. After         A new frame church was built nearby in 1903 although the original chapel
the first two bridges were destroyed by floods, a chain suspension bridge,   structure continued in use as a Sunday School until its demolition in 1930.
considered a marvel of engineering with a span of 128 feet between stone     The present building dates from 1959. The earliest recorded burial in the
towers, was built in 1808. Although this bridge has been replaced by         adjacent cemetery was that of David Walker, who died in 1848.
other forms of construction, the popular name Chain Bridge continues to
                                                                             48. OLD BALL FAMILY BURIAL GROUND
be used. The present bridge was built following the flood of 1936.
                                                                             Washington Boulevard between North Lincoln Street and North Kirkwood Road
45. JACKSON CITY                                                             This is one of Arlington’s oldest family burial grounds. Ensign John Ball
East of the Pentagon (between Pentagon Lagoon and Roaches Run)               (1748-1814), a veteran of the American Revolution (Sixth Virginia
Near here, a group of New York speculators promoted an industrial city       Infantry), is buried here. John Ball was the son of Moses Ball, who was
adjacent to Washington. They planned to dredge a seaport from Roach’s        one of the pioneer settlers in the Glencarlyn area of Arlington. Also
Run Lagoon. On January 11, 1836, President Andrew Jackson dedicated          buried in the cemetery are many of John Ball’s direct and collateral
the site, and George Washington Parke Custis delivered an oration. The       descendents, including John Wesley Boldin, a Civil War soldier
venture collapsed, and the tract was sold as farm land in 1841. After the    (Company D,Third Pennsylvania Cavalry), and members of the Marcey,
Civil War, the area became an infamous resort known as “The Monte            Stricker, Donaldson, and Croson families.
Carlo of America”, with gambling houses, vice dens, and a race track
                                                                             49. NECOSTIN INDIANS
nearby. In 1904 concerned Arlingtonians of “The Good Citizens League”
                                                                             At parking lot at Roosevelt Island (off George Washington Parkway)
banded together and cleared out the undesirable elements.
                                                                             The Indians living in this area when Captain John Smith explored the
46. BRANDYMORE CASTLE                                                        Potomac in 1608 were late woodland period Necostins of Algonquian-
North Roosevelt Street at Four Mile Run                                      speaking stock. Smith’s map located a small village called
This landmark was first described in 1724 by surveyor Charles                Nameroughquena in what is now Arlington. In 1670 Theodore Roosevelt
Broadwater as “The Rock Stones called Brandymore Castle”. Research in        island was known as “Anacostie’s lie” — the island of the Necostins. Not
1972 established that the natural formation matched the boundary             long after, the Indians moved away as settlement by Europeans
descriptions on the 18th Century Land grants from Lord Fairfax to            encroached upon their fields, hunting and fishing grounds. Traces of even
William Gunnel, James Going and Simon Pearson, George Harrison,              earlier Indian cultures have been found throughout the area.
John Caryle and John Dalton, and Captain Charles Broadwater. The ori-
                                                                             50. ALCOVA
gin of the name “Brandymore” is unknown, but this rocky outcrop resem-
                                                                             3435 8th Street, South
bles the collapsed battlements of an old castle with Four Mile Run serv-
ing as a moat.                                                               The oldest part of this house may date from 1836 when John M. Young,
                                                                             a Washington wheelwright and carriage maker, purchased the farm from
                                                                             Thomas Hodges, planted a large orchard, and used the place as a summer
                                                                             home. In 1915, the farm was acquired by former Virginia State Senator
                                                                             Joseph Cloyd Byars, who several years later expanded the house. Senator
                                                                             Byars named the house Alcova for Alexandria County, Va. (renamed
                                                                             Arlington County in 1920). Byars also developed in this area one of
                                                                             Arlington’s early sub-divisions which he called Alcova Heights.
28                                                                                                                                                    29
51. MOSES BALL GRANT                                                             54. TAVERS FAMILY GRAVEYARD
Entrance to Northern Virginia Community Hospital and South Carlin Springs Road   1309 South Monroe Street
Moses BaIl (1717-1792), the ancestor of generations of prominent                 John N. and Elizabeth Causin Travers established a 30-acre farm here in
Arlingtonians, received a 91-acre grant on this land from Lord Fairfax in        1832, when Arlington was rural and had less than 1,500 inhabitants.
1748. The property remained in the Ball family until 1818. It is thought         Over the years the land was subdivided. Descendants and kin lived here,
that Ball built his home on a rise north of the existing spring about 200        contributing to the life of Arlington into the 20th century. The grave-
yards east of this marker. George Washington, who owned an adjacent              yard on family land continued a burial tradition common in the rural
tract of land south of Four Mile Run, surveyed his tract on April 22, 1785       south. At least 15 members of the related Travers, Whitehead, and Dyer
in company with Moses Ball.                                                      families were interred here, including John N. Travers (d. 1837). His will
                                                                                 asks that this space “bee reserved for a bury ground for the family…on my
                                                                                 west line nevour to bee parted with or tilled as long as eternity shall last.”
16th Street, North at North Glebe Road
                                                                                 In 1990 there were 15 marked and likely more unmarked graves.
This is Arlington’s oldest church site in continuous use. Land for a
Methodist Protestant Meeting House was conveyed in 1855 by William               55. FREEDMAN’S VILLAGE
and Ann Marcey and John B. and Cornetia Brown, for whom Brown’s                  Foxcroft Heights Park (Southgate Road and South Oak Street)
Bend Road (now 16th Street, North) was named. The first church was               After the outbreak of the Civil War, escaped slaves sought refuge at
completed in 1860. During the Civil War Union Troops used the Church             Union Camps and thousands crowded into the Federal City. In response
as a hospital and stable and subsequently destroyed it. The present struc-       to the unhealthy conditions in Washington, the government selected a
ture, erected in 1948-1 949, is the fourth church on the site. Among             site on the Arlington Heights in May, 1863, to provide freed slaves with
those buried in the Mount Olivet cemetery is Sue Landon Vaughan, one             housing and opportunities for work, training, and education. Freedman’s
of the founders of Decoration Day (now Memorial Day). In Mississippi             Village, which was located in Arlington National Cemetery, was soon
during April 1865, she began the practice of decorating the graves of            built and formally dedicated on December 4, 1863. There were over 50
Civil War dead, both Confederate and Union.                                      two-story duplex houses, two churches, a school, a meeting hall, hospital
                                                                                 and home for the aged and infirm. In time the population exceeded
                                                                                 1,000. Though intended to be temporary, the Village lasted into the
South 19th and South Kenmore Streets
                                                                                 1890’s, when it was closed and its residents dispersed.
Established 1866. As soon as the smoking guns of the Civil War were
finally silenced, a group of former slaves banded themselves together in         56. DREW SCHOOL
what was then known as Freedmen’s Village, a government reservation              South 23rd and South Kenmore Streets (school parking lot)
in the area of Arlington National Cemetery, and founded a Baptist                In 1945 a new segregated elementary school was built for Arlington’s
Church. This Church was named The Old Bell Church. From these                    African American population in the Green Valley, now Nauck, neighbor-
humble beginnings in the year 1866, The Mt. Zion Baptist Church was              hood. It was the only Arlington school to be built in the Art Moderne
born. It is the oldest of the Black congregations in Arlington. Today it is      architectural style. Originally called the Kemper Annex, it was renamed in
a magnificent temple, a light shining in the darkness, “A City set on a          1952 to honor Dr. Charles R. Drew, a local resident and eminent physician.
hill” reaching out to the masses in an attempt to fulfill the works of the       After receiving his medical degree (McGill University, 1933), Dr. Drew
Master, “To heal the sick, feed the poor, clothe the naked, comfort the          became the first African American to earn a Doctor of Science in Medicine
sorrowful and bring deliverance to the captives”.                                (Ph.D.) degree (Columbia University, 1940). He was internationally recog-
                                                                                 nized as a pioneer in the field of blood plasma research. With the end of seg-
                                                                                 regation practices in 1971, the school became the Drew Model School, a
                                                                                 countywide magnet school. In 2000 the school was demolished to make way
                                                                                 for a new school building, also to be named in honor of Dr. Drew.

30                                                                                                                                                          31
1805 Arlington Ridge Road
The Hume School was built in 1891. The Queen Anne style building was
designed by B. Stanley Simmons, an area architect. The school was                                         APPENDIX II.
named for Frank Hume, a local civic and business leader, who donated
adjacent land for a playground. It was an active public school for 67 years,                              SOURCES ON
closing in 1958. The Arlington Historical Society, founded in 1956, led a                              ARLINGTON HISTORY
successful community campaign to save the building for use as a local
museum. In 1960, the Hume School was deeded to the Arlington
Historical Society. The Hume School is a designated Arlington County           Arlington Genealogy Club. Graveyards of Arlington County, Virginia (1985).
Landmark and listed in the National Register of Historic Places.
                                                                               Arlington Historical Society. The Arlington Historical Magazine. Published since 1957, it
58. CHERRYDALE VOLUNTEER FIREHOUSE                                             contains articles, maps and pictures of all aspects of the history of Arlington County.
3900 Lee Highway                                                               Arlington Historical Society. Images of America: Arlington (2000).
The Cherrydale Volunteer Fire Department was the first fire company in         Cooling, B. F. III and Walton H. Owen II. Mr. Lincoln’s Forts: A Guide to the Civil War
Arlington County. Formed in 1898 and officially established in 1904, it        Defenses of Washington (1988).
originally consisted of 10 leather buckets, a ladder, and spirited volun-      Goldberg, Alfred. The Pentagon: The First Fifty Years (1992).
teers. A community fundraising effort, including a contribution from U.
                                                                               Harwood, Herbert H. Jr. Rails to the Blue Ridge: The Washington and Old Dominion
S. President Woodrow Wilson, resulted in the construction of the
                                                                               Railroad, 1847-1968 (2000).
Cherrydale Firehouse in 1921. The masonry building became the first
permanent firehouse in the County and has continually served the               Lee, Dorothy Ellis. A History of Arlington County, Virginia (1946).
Cherrydale neighborhood as a center for social and community activities.       Netherton, Nan and Ross. Arlington County in Virginia: A Pictorial History (1987).
The Cherrydale Firehouse is a designated Arlington County Landmark             Nelligan, Murray H. Old Arlington: The Story of Arlington House, the Robert E. Lee
and listed in the National Register of Historic Places.                        Memorial (2001).
                                                                               Pratt, Sherman. Arlington County, Virginia A Modern History (1997).
                                                                               Rose, C. B. Jr. Arlington County, Virginia: A History (1976).
                                                                               Templeman, Eleanor Lee. Arlington Heritage: Vignettes of a Virginia County (1959).

                                                                               More information, including primary sources on Arlington County history, can be found in
                                                                               the Virginia Room of the Arlington Central Library and in the Arlington Historical Society

                     ARLINGTON COUNTY, VIRGINIA

ARLINGTON COUNTY BOARD                 Mr. Stanton Jue
The Honorable Jay Fisette, Chairman    Mr. Gene Karp
The Honorable Chris Zimmerman,         Ms. Judy Klevins
Vice Chairman                          Mr. Scott McCaffrey
The Honorable Barbara Favola           Ms. Joan McDermott
The Honorable Charles Monroe           Mr. Patrick Smaldore
The Honorable Paul Ferguson            Mr. Walter Tejada
                                       The Honorable Benjamin H. Winslow, Jr.
CELEBRATION TASK FORCE                 Ms. Debbie Powers, Staff Liaison
The Honorable John W. Warner,
Honorary Co-Chairman                   THE HISTORICAL AFFAIRS
The Honorable James P. Moran,          AND LANDMARK REVIEW BOARD
Honorary Co-Chairman                   Mr. Charles Monfort, Chairman
Mrs. Elizabeth Campbell,               Ms. Amy Silverman, Vice Chairman
Honorary Co-Chairman                   Mr. Barry Berringer
Margaret S. Lampe, Chairman            Mr. John Crouch
Dr. Talmadge Williams, Vice Chairman   Mr. Charles Craig
Ms Charlene Bickford                   Ms. Joan McDermott
Ms D. Elizabeth Bolling                Mr. Michael McHugh
Mr. David Briggs                       Mr. Tom Greenfield
Dr. Denise Bruner                      Ms. Isabel Kaldenbach-Montemayor
Mr. Ned Christensen                    Ms. Nancy Iacomini
The Honorable Albert C. Eisenberg      Mr. David W. Ricks
Ms. Linda Henderson                    Ms. Suzanne R. Klein
Mr. Robert Holdorf                     Mr. Gerald LaPorte
The Honorable Edward Holland           Mr. William Spack
Mr. Frank Impala                       Mr. Michael Leventhal, Staff Liaison


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