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Business Ethics

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					Supplementary Material for Business
      Communication Class

            2012-2013




                                      1
                                                                    Contents

Introduction:
Education and career ......................................................................................................... 4

Unit 1 BRANDS
Agreeing and disagreeing.................................................................................................. 5
Calculating the Price of a Product..................................................................................... 7
Short talk (How important are brands for customers?) ..................................................... 8
Short talk (How can companies best develop their brands?) ............................................ 9

Unit 2 TRAVEL
Booking a hotel room ...................................................................................................... 11
Hungarian Tourism ......................................................................................................... 12
Fiji ................................................................................................................................... 12
Tourism Infrastructure Project ........................................................................................ 13
Balaton Centre Letter ...................................................................................................... 14
Luxury Hotel Letter......................................................................................................... 15

Unit 3 ORGANISATION
What’s your communication style?................................................................................. 17
Useful People to Have in Teams ..................................................................................... 18

Unit 4 CHANGE
Meetings – vocabulary .................................................................................................... 19
Minutes............................................................................................................................ 20

Unit 5 MONEY
Saying Numbers ............................................................................................................. 21
Borrowing and Lending .................................................................................................. 23
Negotiating a Loan ......................................................................................................... 23
Forms of Money .............................................................................................................. 24
Payment – prepositions ................................................................................................... 25
Presenting a Cash Flow Forecast .................................................................................... 26
Taxes ............................................................................................................................... 27
Taxes, taxes and more taxes............................................................................................ 28
UK Taxation.................................................................................................................... 29
Global Tax Evasion / Touchless Payment … ................................................................. 30

Unit 6 ADVERTISING
Presentation ..................................................................................................................... 31
Stating your Purpose ....................................................................................................... 32
Signposting...................................................................................................................... 33


Unit 8 EMPLOYMENT
Personnel issues - Remuneration..................................................................................... 34
Personnel issues - Working Conditions .......................................................................... 35
Defining the Human Characteristics ............................................................................... 36
Interview Questions......................................................................................................... 37
Reporting verbs ............................................................................................................... 39
Staff Motivation Dialogue............................................................................................... 41

                                                                                                                                              2
Unit 9 TRADE
Negotiating ...................................................................................................................... 42
Saying things delicately .................................................................................................. 43
Arguments for and against globalisation......................................................................... 45

Unit 10 QUALITY
Improving the Customer’s Way of Life .......................................................................... 46
Replying to a Complaint ................................................................................................. 47
Verb forms....................................................................................................................... 48
Airports............................................................................................................................ 49
Knowing Your Rights ..................................................................................................... 50
How can companies solve the problem of customer complaints? .................................. 51
Insurance – Vocabulary................................................................................................... 52
Evaluating Risk ............................................................................................................... 52
Application for Motor Insurance..................................................................................... 53
Why do businesses take out insurance policies? ............................................................. 54

Unit 11 ETHICS
Honesty and dishonesty................................................................................................... 55
Business Ethics................................................................................................................ 56
How can a business protect itself against dishonest behaviour? ..................................... 58

Unit 13 INNOVATION
Tóparti lakások ................................................................................................................ 59
Ocean City....................................................................................................................... 60
The Top Green Car.......................................................................................................... 61
Short talks on the environment........................................................................................ 62
Being an entrepreneur ..................................................................................................... 63

Unit 14 COMPETITION
Contracts.......................................................................................................................... 64
Contracts – special vocabulary........................................................................................ 65
Contracts for Sportspeople and Musicians...................................................................... 66

OTHER SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL
Small business questionnaire .......................................................................................... 67
Organising a conference - letter ...................................................................................... 69
New working conditions - letter...................................................................................... 69
Discourse markers ........................................................................................................... 70
The same and different .................................................................................................... 71
Suitability ........................................................................................................................ 72
Factory Location ............................................................................................................. 73
Plant Location Decisions................................................................................................. 73
Making Predictions ......................................................................................................... 74
New and Old.................................................................................................................... 75
Letter Writing Phrases..................................................................................................... 76
Letter Writing Test .......................................................................................................... 78
Linking Words and Phrases 1.......................................................................................... 79
Linking Words and Phrases 2.......................................................................................... 80
Linking Words and Phrases 3.......................................................................................... 82
Linking Words and Phrases 4.......................................................................................... 83

                                                                                                                                          3
Linking Words and Phrases 5.......................................................................................... 84
Punctuation...................................................................................................................... 85
Introducing your firm – letter.......................................................................................... 86
Writing a Report.............................................................................................................. 87

Oral exam
Part 1 – Talk about your studies and plans...................................................................... 88
Part 3 – Expressing opinions in a short talk .................................................................... 90
Part 3 – Presenting an Argument..................................................................................... 91
Part 4 – Types of Situation.............................................................................................. 92
Part 4 – Useful Phrases.................................................................................................... 92
Part 4 – Discussing a Work Contract; Discussing Office Renting.................................. 94

Tapescripts
Fiji ................................................................................................................................... 95
Negotiating a loan ........................................................................................................... 96
Presenting a cash flow forecast ....................................................................................... 97
Improving the customer’s way of life ............................................................................. 98
Ocean City..................................................................................................................... 100
Plant location decisions................................................................................................. 101




                                                                                                                                              4
Education and career


1. Where are you studying?

   ______________________________________________________________

2. Which year are you in?

   ______________________________________________________________

3. What subjects do you specialise in?

   ______________________________________________________________

4. Have you started to write your thesis/dissertation yet?

   ______________________________________________________________

5. What do you most / least enjoy about your studies?

   ______________________________________________________________

6. Why did you choose economics as a subject?

   ______________________________________________________________

7. Have you started looking for a job yet?

   ______________________________________________________________

8. How will you look for a job?

   ______________________________________________________________

9. How will the skills you have gained at university help you in your future career?

   ______________________________________________________________


10. What are the advantages and disadvantages of working in the financial sector?
   ______________________________________________________________


11. Would you like to be an entrepreneur / self-employed, or would you like to work for a
    (small / medium size / large) company? Why / why not?
    _____________________________________________________________


12. What are your strengths and weaknesses?

   ______________________________________________________________
                                                                                            5
        Unit 1 BRANDS


Agreeing and disagreeing

A. Fill each of the blanks with one suitable word from the words below, making sure to put the verb in
the write form if necessary.
1. You’ve just…………….... yourself. You said exactly the opposite a few minutes ago.
2. We discussed it for a while and then we…………..an agreement.
3. I think you should try to……………….with him. You can't both have everything you want.
4. I don't..................that. I don't think it's true at all.
5. He wasn’t at all …………….. He wouldn't do anything I asked him to do.
6. Thank you for your invitation which we are pleased to……………………..
7. We look forward to many more years of ……………...,between our two countries.
8. It is a .....………….... new law, which many people disagree with.
9. She argues ………………..me ………………almost everything.
10. I agree ……………you …………… what the problem is

        compromise               reach          co-operation       about (2)     controversial
             contradict                  with (x2)    co-operative        accept (x2)

B
1. They were…………………………. about who should make the coffee.
   A quarrelling B disputing C objecting D opposing

2. I'm not......... ………. them staying with us, as long as it's only for a few days.
   A disagreed with B opposite          C opposed to          D objected to

3. So, we're going to Italy for our holidays, right? ………………. Now where in Italy shall we go!
   A Agree               B I'm agree C Agreed           D In agreement




                                                                                                    6
C

1. I don't mind changing my plans.
to have an objection to (doing) something (see also no. 5)
...............................................................................................................................................
2. I thought about it for a while and then I accepted their offer.
to agree to something
...............................................................................................................................................
3. The neighbours were arguing.
to have a row (about something)
...............................................................................................................................................
4. Do we agree?
to be in agreement, to have an agreement
...............................................................................................................................................
5. I don 't like having to pay so much for so little.
to object to (doing) something (see also no. 1)
...............................................................................................................................................
6. He thinks that divorce is wrong.
to (not) agree with something (e.g. an idea, belief)
...............................................................................................................................................
7. I don't want to argue with you.
to have an argument (with someone)
………………………………………………………………………………………….
8. In the end we found a solution that suited us both.
to reach a compromise
…………………………………………………………………………………………..
9. I don't think that the way he treats people is right.
to disagree with something
...............................................................................................................................................
10. We've agreed to share the cost.
To come to an agreement
...............................................................................................................................................
11. I expressed my disagreement with his plan.
to express (your) opposition to something
...............................................................................................................................................
12. He thinks that capital punishment is a great idea.
to be in favour of something
...............................................................................................................................................

                                                                                                                                                  7
Calculating the price of a product


 1.    What fixed cost have they calculated?
 2.    What is the second speaker unsure about?
 3.    What would be a typical mark-up for the manufacturer?
 4.    How much is the company’s most expensive rival product?
 5.    What advantages does the third speaker feel the product has?
 6.    What does their research show about demand?
 7.    Why does the manager feel 12.50 is a good price?
 8.    Why does the second speaker favour an 11.50 price?
 9.    How much discount does the third speaker recommend?




                                                                      8
Answering a question


Give a short talk (2-3 mins) on the question:


                               How important are brands for customers?


Possible plan:

1. Introduce the question by explaining why it is important / relevant. (What do we mean by ‘brand’?
Why do people buy things?)
_____________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

2. Describe different aspects of brands, and why they are important for customers. (e.g. indicators of
quality; easy to recognise; relationship between price and quality; exclusivity; design and appearance of
packaging; advertising; endorsements, etc.)
_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

3. Conclude by summarising and giving your own opinion

_____________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

Useful expressions:
    •   One important function of brands is to ….
    •   On method of making a brand recognisable is to …
    •   One approach is to …
    •   Customers are looking for a product that …
    •   Customers sometimes find it difficult to distinguish between …
    •   One of the main advantages of brands is that …




                                                                                                            9
Answering a question


Give a short talk (2-3 mins) on the question:


                            How can companies best develop their brands?


Possible plan:

1. Introduce the question by explaining why it is important / relevant. (What can happen if companies do

not develop brands? How can brands increase sales?)

_____________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

2. Describe different aspects of brands, and how they can be developed. (e.g. choice of target market;

importance of market research; choice of name; design and appearance of packaging; advertising;

endorsements, etc.)

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

3. Conclude by selecting which you think is the best method(s)

_____________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

Answering ‘how to solve this problem’ questions
    •   One way of dealing with the problem is to ….
    •   On method of solving the problem is to …
    •   One approach is to …
    •   Sometimes this problem can be solved by …ing …
    •   Sometimes it is a good idea to …
    •   An alternative solution is to …


                                                                                                         10
Unit 2 TRAVEL

Listening
                                          Booking a hotel room
Receptionist: Hotel Concorde.
Vera Müller: Good morning. My name's Vera Müller. I'd like to book some accommodation for
   tomorrow for five nights.
Receptionist: April lst to 5th. Just one moment, madam. We are rather full at the moment, because of the
   trade fair. What kind of rooms would you like?
Vera Müller: I'd like three single rooms, all on the same floor.
Receptionist: I have three double rooms but not three singles available, sorry.
Vera Müller: What's the difference in price?
Receptionist: Single rooms are 100 euros, doubles are 700
Vera Müller: I see, um...what kind of rooms are the double rooms?
Receptionist: Very nice rooms, madam. I can give you three doubles on the sixth floor overlooking the
   city. They have balconies and bathrooms.
Vera Müller: Now, one of the guests is in a wheelchair. Are these rooms accessible by wheelchair?
Receptionist: Ah, no, madam. The lift goes to the fifth floor only. In this case you could have three rooms
   on the ground floor: one single and two doubles. No view of the city, but close to the garden.
Vera Müller: And do you have a small conference room I can reserve for April 3rd all day?
Receptionist: Er...yes, we have a nice quiet room that will take about 12 people. Would that be suitable?
Vera Müller: Yes, that will be fine. And ... um ... are the public rooms all accessible without having to go
   up or down steps?
Receptionist: Yes, madam. The restaurant is on the first floor - there's a lift. Otherwise everything,
   including the conference room is on the ground floor.
Vera Müller: All right, fine. Um ... then I'd like to book the three rooms on the ground floor for Acme
   International. The guests' names are: Mr H. Meier, Miss A. Schwarz and Mr D. Negri.
Receptionist: Thank you, so that's three rooms on the ground floor arriving on April lst and departing on
   April 6th. And the conference room all day on April 3rd.
Vera Müller: Right.
Receptionist: OK. Can I have your telephone number, please?
Vera Müller: Yes, it's 41 - that's Switzerland - 22 34 89 23. And I'm Vera Müller.
Receptionist: Fine, thank you, Ms Müller. Goodbye.
Vera Müller: Goodbye.




                                                                                                          11
Hungarian Tourism



Rocking on (and off)

With the onset of the rock festival season, Hungary's Nepszabadsag welcomes the increasing Europe-
wide popularity of the Sziget, or Island, Festival held annually on a disused Shipbuilding Island in the
Danube in Budapest.

"Promotion leaflets describe this festival as one of the blue-chips of the international festival market", the
paper says approvingly, adding that such high-budget festivals can only be paid for by attracting affluent
Western and Southern European audiences.

"The festival organizers have now achieved what Hungarian tourism experts have not managed to achieve
in a one and a half decades", the paper thinks.

"German tourists are again eating Hungarian sausages and drinking Hungarian wine on Hungarian
shores."




How would you spend 1 billion Forints to develop tourism in Hungary?


A: Marketing? Where?
B: Transport Links? Where?
C: Tax incentives? VAT? Tourism tax?
D: Infrastructure development? What?


Fiji
       1. How many of the islands in the group are inhabited?
          ………………………………………………………………………..
       2. What are the two main ethnic groups?
          ………………………………………………………………………..
       3. What role do they play in the economy?
          ………………………………………………………………………..
       4. Why did tourism start?
          ………………………………………………………………………..
       5. Why does so much of the income from tourism leave the country?
          ………………………………………………………………………..
       6. How has children’s behaviour changed?
          ………………………………………………………………………..
       7. How have Fijians’ attitudes changed?
          ………………………………………………………………………..


                                                                                                           12
Tourism Infrastructure Project


   A. Alföld Extreme Sports Centre
   B. Bükk Nature and Safari Park
   C. Balaton Freshwater Life Centre
   D. Budapest Science and Technology Park


Questions:


   1. Could you tell me something about your project?

      ……………………………………………………………………

   2. Please give me some details of the construction schedule.

      ……………………………………………………………………

   3. What is your opinion about the long term viability of the project?

      ……………………………………………………………………

   4. What effect will it have on local employment?

      ……………………………………………………………………

   5. Have you done any market research?

      ……………………………………………………………………

   6. Where do you plan to advertise?

      ……………………………………………………………………

   7. How many visitors will you be able to attract?

      ……………………………………………………………………

   8. What will be your main income sources?

      ……………………………………………………………………

   9. Can you forecast your costs over the next three years?

       ……………………………………………………………………
       Vocabulary:
   infrastructure, project manager, main contractor, sub-contractor, utilities, architect


                                                                                            13
Dear Sir/Madam,


   1.       I am writing to you on behalf of …. Kft. to apply for financial aid under the EU
         programme for tourism infrastructure development.
   2.       our company / specialise / develop / tourist facilities / Hungary.

   __________________________________________________________________________

   3.       plan / major project / involve /several Hungarian / international companies.

         _______________________________________________________________________

   4.       open / new Water Life Centre / Balaton / attract tourists / this region

         _______________________________________________________________________

   5.       centre / include / large collection animals / cafes / children’s play areas / museum

         _______________________________________________________________________

   6.       prepare / detailed breakdown / costs / demonstrate / the viability of the project

         _______________________________________________________________________

   7.       predict / 45,000 visitors / year / first year, increasing / 60,000 / 2014

         _______________________________________________________________________

   8.       50% / income / ticket sales / rest / food and drink sales / souvenirs

         _______________________________________________________________________

   9.       costs / €2 million / first year / development profitable / 2014

         _______________________________________________________________________

   10.      please not hesitate / contact me / more information

         _______________________________________________________________________

   11.      look forward / reply

         _______________________________________________________________________




                                                                                                   14
Naturehotels Kft Kft.
56 Rakoczi út.
Budapest


Kurosawa Luxury Hotels Ltd.
456 Sapuro
Tokyo 45


21st February 2005


Dear Ms Sakura


    1. I / Gábor Pécsi, managing director / Naturehotels Kft., / company specialize / development /

        hotels / wellness centres / Hungary.

    2. I / write / your company / read / article / Budapest Business Review / your hotels / Tokyo, New

        York, London / Paris.

    3. I / very impressed / your business philosophy / your commitment / quality / customer service.

    4. later / year / open / wellness centre / Budapest.

    5. this / major new investment / involve / consortium / international investors / retailers.

    6. we / very interested / invite your company / be our partner / Budapest.

    7. centre / state-of-the-art relaxation centre / serve / customer base / more / 2 million.

    8. economic prospects / central Europe / good / we feel that your company / enter / market here /

        Hungary / right time.

    9. if your company / interest / expand / Europe we / happy / if you / send / representative / Hungary /

        see / new facilities / discuss / project / more detail.

    10. please / not hesitate / contact me personally if / need / details.

    11. I enclose / brochure / illustrate / centre, / look forward / receive / reply.



Yours / …
Gábor Pécsi
                                                                                                       15
Naturehotels Kft.
56 Rakoczi út.
Budapest

Kurosawa Luxury Hotels Ltd.
456 Sapuro
Tokyo 45

21st February 2005

Dear Ms Sakura

    12. I am Gábor Pécsi, managing director of Naturehotels Kft., a company specializing (which
        specializes) in the development of hotels and wellness centres in Hungary.
    13. I am writing to your company because I read an article in the Budapest Business Review about
        your hotels in Tokyo, New York, London and Paris.
    14. I was (am) very impressed with (by) your business philosophy and your commitment to quality
        and customer service.
    15. Later this year we will open (will be opening / are going to open / are opening / are planning to
        open etc.) a wellness centre in Budapest.
    16. This is a major new investment involving (which involves) a consortium of international
        investors and retailers.
    17. We are very interested in inviting your company to be our partner in Budapest.
    18. The centre is a state-of-the-art relaxation centre which serves a customer base of more than 2
        million.
    19. Economic prospects in central Europe are good and we feel that your company will enter (would
        be entering) the market here in Hungary at the right time.
    20. If your company is interested in expanding in Europe we would be happy if you could send a
        representative to Hungary to see the new facilities and discuss the project in more detail.
    21. Please do not hesitate to contact me personally if you need any more (further) details.
    22. I enclose a brochure illustrating (which illustrates) the centre, and I look forward to receiving
        your reply.

Yours sincerely …
Gábor Pécsi




                                                                                                     16
Unit 3 ORGANISATION
What’s your communication style?
Read through these points and decide which are the most important for a successful communicator.
Explain your answer to your partner.

   1. I make an effort to have genuine two-way conversations.
   2. I make it clear up front what I want to talk about - and why.
   3. I make my main points stand out.
   4. I talk in a way that makes my stories and views come to life and hold people's interest.
   5. I am willing to share my personal thoughts and experiences when it's appropriate.
   6. I check to make sure people understand me.
   7. I show interest in what people are saying.
   8. I listen carefully
   9. I listen with an open mind and don’t distort what people are saying.
   10. I respond in a way that lets people know I am picking up their main points.
   11. I concentrate on understanding people rather than criticising or offering instant advice.
   12. I treat other people - and myself - with respect.
   13. I cooperate rather than compete in conversations.
   14. I do not force people to have conversations they don't want to have.
   15. I pick the right time and place for conversations to happen.
   16. When a conversation breaks down, I persevere and try to make it work.




                                                                                                   17
Useful People to have in Teams


 Type                   Typical Features                                       Positive Qualities                             Allowable Weaknesses
 Company
                      Conservative, predictable.                            Organising ability, hard-working self-discipline Lack of flexibility, unresponsiveness
 Worker
                                                                            Welcomes all potential contributors on their      Ordinary in terms of intellect and creative
 Chairman             Calm, self-confident. controlled.
                                                                            merits; a strong sense of objectives              ability.
                                                                            Drive and a readiness to challenge
 Shaper               Highly strung, outgoing, dynamic.                                                                      Liable to irritation and impatience.
                                                                            ineffectiveness
                                                                                                                           Up in the clouds, not interested in practical
 Plant                Individualistic, serious-minded,                      Genius, imagination, intellect,
                                                                                                                           details
 Resource                                                                   A capacity for contacting people and exploring Liable to lose interest once the initial
                      Extroverted, enthusiastic,
 Investigator                                                               anything new.                                  fascination has passed.
 Monitor-                                                                                                                  Lacks inspiration or the ability to motivate
                      Sober, unemotional, prudent.                          Judgement, discretion,
 Evaluator                                                                                                                 others.
Team Worker           Socially-orientated, rather mild,                     Responds to people and promotes team spirit. Indecisiveness at moments of crisis.
 Completer-
                      Orderly, conscientious,                               A capacity for follow-through, perfectionism     Worries about small things. Can’t let go.
 Finisher
 Specialist           Single-minded, self-starting.                         Has special or rare knowledge and skills         Contributes only on narrow front.



Assignment:

You work for the HR Department. Choose one of the three situations below and write an e-mail to your manager in which you describe the three people who you
think are most suitable for the task.
1. Your company needs to design a new marketing strategy for a product which is not selling well.
2. Your company's workers are very unhappy - morale is low, productivity is low, the atmosphere at work is terrible.
3. Your company is losing money and your boss believes a member (or members) of staff are stealing from the company. You need to investigate.

•We need a person who is ........................ .
•It is important/crucial/vital/necessary to have .......................................
•It would be advisable/preferable to have ..................................
•X's ........................would be helpful/useful/indispensable ................... ............
•This task requires ............................. .
•In order to ................................... we need someone who can ............. ........... ...................


                                                                                                                                                                            18
    Unit 4 CHANGE

                                                Meetings – vocabulary

                absentees      agenda          apologies       casting vote    chairperson

                consensus      items           minutes         circulate       conduct



1 In all formal meetings (and most informal meetings) there is a …………… whose job it is to
   ……………… the business of the meeting, and to ensure that the meeting's objectives are achieved.

2 It is helpful in both formal and informal meetings to have a(n) …………, listing the points that are to be
   discussed. It is usual to ……………. this in advance so that participants can prepare adequately for the
   meeting.

3 If there are too many …………… on the agenda, it is inevitable that the meeting will be over-long and
   so less effective.

4 After formal meetings, the secretary writes up the ………….., an official record of the discussion that
   has taken place.

5 If you cannot attend a meeting, it is customary to send your …………. to the chairperson, who reads
   out the names of any ………………. at the beginning of the meeting.

6 When decisions must be taken, the chairperson hopes there will be a ……………….. on what should be
   done. Otherwise, a vote must be taken and sometimes the votes for and against are equal. If this
   happens, the only way to break the deadlock is for the chairperson to give his or her
   ……………………..




                                                                                                     19
MINUTES


        There are several ways of recording what was discussed and decided at a meeting. The minutes
below are known as 'resolution minutes'. They show the decisions that were taken at a meeting, but they
do not give any indication of the discussion which led to the decisions.


MINUTES OF THE MANAGEMENT MEETING

Held at Head Office on Wednesday, July 16, 2004 at 10 a.m.
Present: R Pullin (chair), P Sheldrake, J Latour, H Reiss, M Goldoni, C Lee, W Thomas (secretary).
Apologies for absence were received from P Spiropoulos.

Minutes of the last meeting
The minutes of the last meeting, previously circulated, were taken as read and signed as a true record.

Matters arising
There were no matters arising.

Advertising and promotion
In spite of increased advertising and promotional expenditure, the company's performance had been
disappointing. In view of this, it was resolved that the present contract with PRK agency be terminated.
With effect from January 2005 the London advertising agency, Sykes Pemberton, would be appointed to
handle the account.

Company logo
It was resolved that a specialist company would be commissioned to design a new logo. M Goldoni
agreed to provide a list of suitable firms.

New brochure
It was resolved that P Sheldrake would provide a detailed costing for the production .of a new brochure
using in-house personnel and facilities. This would be compared with estimates provided by outside
firms.

Date of the next meeting
The date of the next management meeting was scheduled for Wednesday July 30, 2004

R Pullin
General Manager
July 22, 2004.




                                                                                                          20
Unit 5 MONEY

Saying Numbers

1. How to say ‘0’
‘oh’
         after a decimal point          5.03              five point oh three
         in telephone numbers           67 10 38          six seven oh one three eight
         in bus numbers                 No. 701           the seven oh one
         in hotel room numbers          Room 206          room two oh six
         in years                       1905              nineteen oh five
‘nought’
         before the decimal point       0.02              nought point oh two
‘zero’
         for the number                 0                 the number zero
         for temperature                -50C              five degrees below zero
‘nil’
         in football scores             5-0               Spain won five nil
‘love’
         in tennis                      30-0              the score is thirty love


2. The decimal point
10.66           ten point six six
0.325           nought / zero point three two five
0.001           nought / zero point oh oh one


3. Money
$ 12.50         twelve dollars fifty
E 2.95          two Euros ninety five
How many forints to the Euro?


4. Per cent
0.5%            a half of one percent / half a per cent
0.25%           a quarter of a percentage point / nought point two five per cent




                                                                                         21
5. Hundreds, thousands
568             five hundred and sixty eight (UK)      five hundred sixty eight (USA)
1975            nineteen seventy five
2004            two thousand and four
1,975           one thousand, nine hundred and seventy (UK)
                one thousand, nine hundred seventy (USA)

1,000,000               one /a million
1,000,000,000           one / a billion


6. Fractions
a half, a third, a quarter (UK & USA), a fourth (USA), a fifth, a sixth


7. Calculations
7 + 3 = 10              seven plus /and three is / equals ten
10 – 3 = 7              ten minus three is / equals seven
10 x 3 = 30             ten times / multiplied by three is / equals thirty
30 ÷ 3 = 10             thirty divided by three is / equals ten


8. Numbers as adjectives
a fifty-minute lesson           a sixteen-week semester


Exercises:
1. The exact figure is 0.002                           8. Please ring me on 01256 66 54 333
2. I’m staying in room 405                             9. It’s exactly 6.784
3. The difference is less than 0.001                   10. That’ll cost £13.78
4. Did you say 0.225 or 0.229?                         11. The dollar is at 3.56
5. No. it says 14.004 not 14,004                       12. I’ve got a copy of The 1001 Nights
6. What’s 15 % of 65?                                  13. What’s 122?
7. Interest rates have gone up 0.75%.                  14. And 73?

15. The house they sold was 250 years old              They sold a ……………..
16. We lost $50,000                                    We made a ………………
17. The trout weighed 7 kilos                          I caught a ………………..
18. The bank lent him £240,000                         The bank gave him a ……




                                                                                                22
Borrowing and Lending
I. If you possess something, you can say that you. . . . . . . . .. . it.
    a. owe b. own c. owner
2. If you have to reimburse or repay someone, you. . . . . . . . . . . money.
    a. owe b. own c. yield
3. To let someone else have the use of your money for a certain period of time, after which it
    must be paid back, is to .……………..
    a. borrow b. lend c. credit
4. To take money that has to be repaid is, on the contrary, to . . . . . . . . . .. .
    a. borrow b. lend c. steal
5. An amount of money lent is a . . . . . . . . . . .
   a. debit b. debt c. loan
6. A person who has borrowed money is a . . . . . ... . . .. .
   a. creditor b. debtor c. owner
7. Another word for a lender is a / an. . . ... .. .. .
   a. creditor b. debtor c. owner
8. The income received by someone who lends money is called . . . . . . . . . .. .
   a. dividends b. interest c. interests
9. The borrower has to pay back the loan itself, also known as the . . . . . . . . . .. .
   a. principal b. principle c. premium
10. The amount of money a lender receives for a loan or an investment, expressed as a
   percentage, is known as its return or …………….
   a. credit b. income c. yield

                                                                        Negotiating a loan
Listen to the meeting between a bank manager and one of her customers. As you listen, complete the
information below:

    1. Reason for loan: ..................................................................................

    2. Amount of loan: ..................................................................................

    3. Term of loan:.......................................................................................

    4. Interest rate:.........................................................................................

    5. Current instalment:..............................................................................

    6. Security:
          a. type: .................................................................................................
          b. market value: ...................................................................................

    7. Turnover:.............................................................................................

    8. Profits: .................................................................................................

    9. Assets: .................................................................................................

    10. Liabilities:............................................................................................

                                                                                                                       23
Forms of Money
Choose the correct alternative to complete each sentence:

1. Money in notes and coins is called
a. cash b. capital c. reserves
2. The dollar, the mark and the yen are all
a. currencies b. funds c. monies
3. Money borrowed from a bank is a
a. deposit b. income c. loan
4. Borrowed money that has to be paid back constitutes a
a. debt b. fund c. subsidy
5. All the money received by a person or a company is known as
a. aid b. income c. wages
6. The money earned for a week's manual work is called
a. income b. salary c. wages
7. The money paid for a month's (professional) work is a
a. loan b. salary c. wages
8. Money placed in banks and other savings institutions constitutes
a. capital b. deposits c. finance
9. Money paid by the government or a company to a retired person is a
a. pension b. rebate c. subsidy
10. The money that will ultimately be used to pay pensions is kept in a
a. budget b. deposit c. fund
11. The money needed to start a company is called
a. aid b. capital c. debt
12. The money paid to lawyers, architects, private schools, etc. is called
a. fees b. instalments c: wages
13. Regular part payments of debts are called
a. deposits b. loans c. instalments
14. Part of a payment that is officially given back (for example, from taxes) is called a
a. gift b. instalment c. rebate
15. Estimated expenditure and income is written in a
a. budget b. reserve c. statement
16. A person's money in a business is known as his or her
a. deposit b. fund c. stake
17. Money given to producers to allow them to sell cheaply is called a
a. loan b. rebate c. subsidy
18. Money given to developing countries by richer ones is known as
a. aid b. debt c. subsidy




                                                                                            24
   Payment - prepositions

   Complete the following text by writing in the correct prepositions:
                    back        by      on      in     up     off      behind

 Most people pay their domestic bills 1) . . . . . . . cash or 2) …….. cheque. This is often
unrealistic in business. But allowing customers to buy large amounts of stock 3) . . . . . . .
credit is not without its problems. It is extremely difficult to ask a valued customer for
payment 4) . . . . . . . advance because it may look as if you don't trust them. You can't really
charge them interest 5) . . . . . .. the outstanding sum either, even if they miss the agreed
deadline for settlement, or they might get upset and withdraw their business altogether.
 To make matters worse, many companies these days will deliberately sit on your invoice and
wait to see how long it is before you actually put pressure 6) . …… them to pay 7) …….
 Of course, you can ease both your cashflow situation and theirs by offering them the facility
to pay 8) . . . . . .. what they owe you 9). . . . . . . regular instalments. But that doesn't mean to
say they won't fall 10)……… with their repayments whenever they're short of cash.
And you may end up writing 11) . . . . . .. half the debt altogether.
 Things would probably be a lot simpler if everyone paid up front for the goods they bought
and in theory a customer should be able to pay straightaway 12) . . . . . .. direct bank transfer.
This, of course, would mean customers remained 13) . . . . . . . constant credit with their
suppliers, but it would also prevent them from playing the waiting game with their creditors
and that would never do. Since most companies cannot pay you your money till they get
theirs, they will continue to conserve cash until the very last minute.




                                                                                                  25
Presenting a Cash Flow Forecast


   1. How much of his own capital does he intend to invest?
      ………………………………………………………
   2. What will sales be like at the end of the six month period?
      ………………………………………………………
   3. What will cost them ₤6,000 per month?
      ………………………………………………………
   4. What will the cost of raw materials be initially?
      ………………………………………………………
   5. What has he put a lot of effort into?
      ………………………………………………………
   6. In how many instalments will they pay the factory rent?
      ………………………………………………………
   7. What does the bank manager suggest he might do to get equipment cheaply?
      ………………………………………………………
   8. How much money does he think he will need for himself?
      ………………………………………………………




                                                                                 26
                                           Taxes


Decide whether the word tax (or taxation) comes before or after these words.


   1. …………………. allowance ……………………
   2. …………………. avoidance ……………………
   3. …………………. consultant ……………………
   4. …………………. deductible ……………………
   5. …………………. direct ……………………
   6. …………………. evasion ……………………
   7. …………………. free ……………………
   8. …………………. haven ……………………
   9. …………………. loophole ……………………
   10. …………………. payer ……………………
   11. …………………. progressive ……………………
   12. …………………. rates ……………………
   13. …………………. return ……………………
   14. …………………. sales ……………………


Questions


   1. What do you know about income tax in Hungary?
   2. What are the different rates of VAT and when do you pay them?
   3. What tax do you pay on alcohol, tobacco and petrol in Hungary?
   4. Should tax be hypothecated or not?
   5. What do you think about people who don’t pay tax?


Short talk:
   a. What changes would you make in the tax system?
   b. How and why do governments collect taxes?




                                                                               27
                                      Taxes, taxes and more taxes
Listening
Listen to the explanation of how the British and American governments collect and spend their
citizens' money: Fill in the gaps in the diagram below

UK CENTRAL GOVERNMENT INCOME                       US FEDERAL GOVERNMENT INCOME
1. taxes on income:                                1. ……………………… taxes
………………… and ……………………….                             2. ……………………….taxes
2. taxes on expenditure:                           3. ………………………..duties
……………………………..…..                                   4. ………………………..duties
…………………….. on alcohol, tobacco etc.                5. …………………………contributions
…………………………... on certain imports                   Revenue redistributed by the US Treasury
………………………… and other licence fees
All this revenue goes into the                     US FEDERAL GOVERNMENT
CONSOLIDA TED FUND to be redistributed             EXPENDITURE
                                                   1. ……………………….
UK CENTRAL GOVERNMENT                              2. ………………………….
EXPENDITURE                                        3. …………………………..
1. Old-age…………………..                                4. …………………………..
2 ………………………benefits                                5. ………………………….(25 % of total)
3 …………………………………..benefits
4 N……………….H…………….S…………..
5 Defence                                          US INDIVIDUAL STATES INCOME
                                                   1. ………………… taxes
UK LOCAL AUTHORITIES (i.e.:                        2. ……………………taxes
C……………… and B………………..)
INCOME:                                            US INDIVIDUAL STATES
                                                   EXPENDITURE
1 Rates (local property taxes, now Community
                                                   1. ………………………
   Charge)
                                                   2. ………………………..construction
2 Grant from central government funds.
                                                   3 Public …………………………
                                                   4 Public services
UK LOCAL AUTHORITIES
EXPENDITURE
1. ……………………
2. ……………………..building
3 Public ……………………………
4 Public services
______________________________________




                                                                                            28
UK Taxation


  1.   When will he answer questions?
  2.   How much tax do you pay up to ₤23,700?
  3.   How much is a married person’s tax allowance?
  4.   What can married couples now do in the UK?
  5.   What can you get tax relief on?
  6.   How much tax relief can you get on your mortgage interest payments?
  7.   What does PAYE mean?
  8.   What other deduction must the employer make?

_______________________________________________________________




                                                                             29
Global tax evasion
The most concerted global push ever undertaken against international tax evasion has failed to reverse
the flow of funds to offshore financial centres, according to banking industry data.

Despite unprecedented action from political leaders, and a blizzard of bilateral co-operation treaties
entered into by offshore centres, deposit data from the Bank of International Settlements (BIS) shows
bank accounts in tax havens still held $2.7tn (£1.7tn) last year – about the same amount as in 2007.

Niels Johannesen and Gabriel Zucman, academics who were granted access to a rarely seen
breakdown of BIS data, concluded: "So far, the G20 tax haven crackdown has … largely failed …
Treaties have led to a modest relocation of bank deposits between tax havens but have not triggered
significant flows of funds out of tax havens."

Their findings are in sharp contrast to the official verdict on the G20 initiative in London in 2009. Last
November Angel Gurria, general-secretary of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Development, the body whose job is to oversee the crackdown, told the G20 in Cannes: "The era of
bank secrecy is over." Acknowledging work remained to be done in some areas, he nevertheless
insisted: "It is now no longer possible to hide assets or income without risking detection."

Presented with Johannesen and Zucman's findings last week, Pascal Saint-Amans, the OECD's head of
tax, said: "It's an interesting survey, but perhaps it is published a bit early. Let's see what the impact is
in a couple of years."



                           Touchless payment coming to mobile phones
By Jane Wakefield Technology reporter, Barcelona

Much of the discussion at Mobile World Congress has been about turning the mobile phone into a
payment device. Handset manufacturers, network operators and even the boss of Google have been
talking-up Near Field Communication (NFC).
The technology allows nearby devices to exchange data - for example a sales transaction - and is seen
as a way for mobiles to replace the plastic in people's wallets. At MWC, Orange announced it would
be partnering with Samsung to roll out NFC-based contactless systems across Europe.

Meanwhile Google chief executive Eric Schmidt looked forward to a time when NFC would help him
buy trousers.

In his keynote address, Mr Schmidt said NFC "should revolutionise payments when tied to advertising
and location".

He offered a scenario. "I'm walking down the street and I need shoes. My phone has an NFC chip. It
knows where I am. "It tells me about two stores, one to the left with a 20% discount and one to the
right with a 30% [discount]. It is programmed to know I am a cheapskate so points me to the right and
the store knows what shoes I want," he said.
Later this year, Orange will launch the NFC-enabled Samsung Wave 578 in Spain, Poland and France.
It is the first in a series of NFC-enabled handsets the firm plans to sell, along with others from LG and
Nokia. The phones feature an NFC antenna connected directly to a special SIM card that allows the
owner's identity to be authenticated.




                                                                                                          30
Unit 6 ADVERTISING

PRESENTATION

Prepare to introduce and state the purpose of your presentation by completing the notes below. Then
present your introduction.

Perhaps we should begin.
or
OK, leťs get started.

Good morning l afternoon l evening, everyone.
Thanks for coming. I’m..................... ,... . And, as you know, l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
This morning I’m going to be
       • talking to you about
       • telling you
       • showing you
       • reporting on
       • taking a look at
......................................................................
So, I'll start off by
        • filling you in on the background to
        • bringing you up to date on
        • giving you an overview of
        • making a few observations about
        • outlining
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
And then I'll go on to
       • highlight what I see as the main
       • put the situation into some kind of perspective
       • discuss in more depth the implications of
       • talk you through
       • make detailed recommendations regarding
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ................................




                                                                                                                                             31
Stating Your Purpose

Cross out the verbs which do not fit in the following presentation extracts. The first one has been done
for you as an example.

1. First of all, I'd like to review / overview / outline the main points of my talk.
2. Perhaps I should start off by pointing / stressing / reminding that this is just a preliminary report.
      Nothing has been finalized as yet.
3. But later on I will, in fact, be putting forward / putting out / putting over several detailed
      proposals.
4. One thing I'll be dealing with / referring / regarding is the issue of a minimum wage.
5. And I'll also be asking / raising / putting the question of privatization.
6. So, what we're really driving at / aiming at / looking at are likely developments in the structure of
      the company over the next five to ten years.
7. If we could just draw / focus / attract our attention on the short term objectives to begin with.
8. The eighteen month plan, which by now you should've all had time to look at, outlines / reviews /
      sets out in detail our main recommendations.
9. Basically, what we're suggesting / asking / reviewing is a complete reorganization of staff and
      plant.
10. I'd now like to turn / draw / focus my attention to some of the difficulties we're likely to face.
11. I'm sure there's no need to draw out / spell out / think out what the main problem is going to be.
12. But we do need to seriously ask / answer / address the question of how we are going to overcome
      it.
13. The basic message I'm trying to get through / get across / get to here is simple. We can't rely on
      government support for much longer.
14. Disappointing end of year figures underline / undermine / underestimate the seriousness of the
      situation.
15. And the main conclusion we've thought / got to / come to is that massive corporate restructuring
      will be necessary before any privatization can go through.




                                                                                                         32
Signposting

Complete the following signpost phrases and sentences using the notes to help you. Say them first. Then
write them down. The first one has been done for you as an example.

1. Moving on / question / the US market,
     Moving on to the question of the US market,
2. Expand / the figures / last year,
......................................................................
3. I'd like / recap / the main points.
......................................................................
4. Leťs go back / question / clinical research methods.
......................................................................
5. Digress / a moment, leťs consider / alternatives.
......................................................................
6. Going back / a moment / the situation last year,
......................................................................
7. Leťs turn now / our targets / the next five years.
......................................................................
8. I'd like / turn now / our projections / year 2005.
......................................................................
9. Go back / the main reason / our collaboration / the Germans,
......................................................................
10. I'd like / expand / that / little, before we move on.
......................................................................
11. Leťs go back / a moment / what we were discussing earlier.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12. Let me expand / some / the main points / our proposal.
......................................................................
13. Elaborate / that / little / those of you / aren't familiar / Russian business practices,
......................................................................
14. If I could just move on / some / the problems we face / Central America,
......................................................................
15. I'd like / conclude / I may / repeating what I said / the beginning / this presentation.
.....................................................................




                                                                                                                                             33
    Unit 8 EMPLOYMENT

                                        PERSONNEL ISSUES


                                              Remuneration



        cash             deducted         incentive        commission        evaluate       increments


          salary           executive directors      earning potential         cost-of-living allowance


                                      fringe benefit           salespeople




        Most of the full-time employees at our headquarters in Manchester earn an annual salary, divided
into twelve monthly payments. Income tax is automatically (1) subtracted from their salary each month,
along with National Insurance contributions. The staff in our London office also receive a London (2)
weighting, because living and working in the capital is more expensive. Unlike many public sector jobs (civil
servants, teachers, nurses, and so on) our staff do not receive (3) automatic increases to their salary every
year. Pay rises are given according to merit, and there is no fixed pay-scale. We have an appraisal system in
which the managers (4) assess the performance of their subordinates every December. The (5) senior
managers are also paid a bonus at the end of the year if the financial results are good, on top of their basic (6)
remuneration, which is already rather high.
        The sales force earn a basic fixed salary, plus (7) a percentage of the value of their sales, which is
obviously an (8) encouragement to higher productivity. On the other hand, the (9) reps do not receive
overtime pay if they work long hours. The (10) potential income of the most successful ones is higher than
that of some of the managers.
        The hourly paid staff - cleaners, canteen workers, and so on - receive their wages in (11) notes and
coins in a pay packet every Friday. Of course this is after all deductions such as tax and insurance
contributions.
        Because we are in the insurance business we all get at least one (12) perk - cheap insurance policies.




                                                                                                              34
                                           Working Conditions



   absenteeism                 holiday           satisfaction       colleagues        leave             security


 contracts                   manual             sick pay          duties            maternity          workforce


                                         flexitime         morale




         My working conditions? I'd say they're really good. The working hours are very reasonable -
38 hours a week, Mondays to Fridays only, and I get four weeks paid (1) . . . . . . . .. . I think we're
even allowed to take unpaid (2) . . . . . . . . . if it's really necessary. They introduced a (3) . . . . . . . . .
system last year, so I can start any time between 7.30 and 9.30 in the morning, so I sometimes leave at
4 in the afternoon. Of course this means we now have to clock in and clock out, so we have to do the
right number of hours.
         Women get generous (4) . . . . . . . . .leave, although that doesn't concern me yet, and there are
a lot of women employed half-time or part-time here, so they have time for their children.
Of course I'm a full-time white-collar worker, hoping to make a career here. My (5) . . . . . . . . . and I
have permanent (6) . . . . . . . .. . At least we think so; it's hard to be sure about job (7) . . . . . . . . . these
days. We are consulted if they want to change our (8) . . . . . . . . . or anything.
         The entire (9) . . . . . . . . . is well-treated, not just us. The company's blue-collar workers, doing
(10) . . . . . . . . . jobs, also have good conditions of employment.
         It all makes a change from when I was a student, when I did casual, unskilled, seasonal work
for a fruit company, paid by the hour, with no (11) . . . . . . . . . or holiday pay or anything. They treated
workers really badly, so (12) . . . . . . . . . was low, nobody was motivated, productivity was minimal,
and there was a lot of (13) . . . . . . . . . and high turnover - I used to see new people almost every day.
There was no job (14) . . . . . . . . . , and nothing changed if our performance was good or bad, so we all
did the minimum.




                                                                                                                  35
Vocabulary revision (Personnel / Human resources)


           wage differentials                a salary scale                               a commission (pay)
           a headhunter                      a referee                                   absenteeism
           job satisfaction                  to be short-listed                          maternity & paternity
           job security                     an incentive                                 leave
           a post                           a remuneration package                       morale
           promotion                        fringe benefits                              aptitude
           perk                             sick pay                                     demotion


Listening:
Defining the Human Characteristics
1. What is the new category of job called? ..............................................................
2. What kind of person does Peter need for the job:
a. Physical make-up ...............................................................................................
b. Clothes ................................................................................................................
c. Attainment...........................................................................................................
d. Intelligence ..........................................................................................................
e. Special aptitudes..................................................................................................
f. Interests ...............................................................................................................
g. Disposition .........................................................................................................
h. Weekend work ....................................................................................................


Discussion
Consider the following selection / recruitment methods. What are the advantages and disadvantages of
each?
a.   A one-to-one interview
b.   A group interview
c.   A panel interview
d.   A practical task(s)
e.   A written statement
f.   A psychometric test
g.   Graphology
h.   Headhunting
i.   Personal recommendation



                                                                                                                               36
                                                                              Interview questions

1. Your name, address and telephone number.
...............................................................................................................................................
2. Your date of birth.
...............................................................................................................................................
3. Your marital status.
...............................................................................................................................................
4. The name and address of present {or last) employer.
...............................................................................................................................................
5. Your hobbies and leisure interests.
...............................................................................................................................................
6. The sports you play.
...............................................................................................................................................
7. The languages you speak, read or write.
...............................................................................................................................................
8. Details of the professional diplomas or degrees you have gained.
...............................................................................................................................................
9. Details of training courses you have attended.
...............................................................................................................................................
10. Details of your achievements (and responsibilities) in your working career.
...............................................................................................................................................
11. Your suitability for the job advertised.
...............................................................................................................................................
12. Your reasons for applying for this job.
...............................................................................................................................................
13. Details of your present (or last) job.
...............................................................................................................................................
14. Your current (or last) salary.
...............................................................................................................................................
15. The salary you would expect to receive.
...............................................................................................................................................
16. The names and addresses of two or three referees.
...............................................................................................................................................




                                                                                                                                                  37
Some interviewers like to give candidates a hard time by asking them difficult questions. Here
are some typical questions that an interviewer might ask-:


1. Tell me about yourself.
2. What do you think are your strengths and weaknesses?
3. We have a lot of applicants-for this job, why should we appoint you?
4. What has been your most valuable experience?
5. How would you describe your personality?
6. When did you last lose your temper? Describe what happened.
7. Which is more important to you: status or money?
8. How long do you think you'd stay with us if you were appointed?
9. Why do you want to leave your present job?
10. What makes you think you'd enjoy working for us?
11. Are you an ambitious person?
12. What would you like to be doing ten years from now?
13. What are you most proud of having done in your present job?
14. What was the worst problem you have had in your present job and how did you solve it?
15. What is the best idea you've had in the past month?
16. What is your worst fault and what is your best quality?
17. Don't you think you're a little young /old for this job?
18. What are your long-range goals?
19. Describe your present job – what do you find rewarding about it?
20. What do you do in your spare time?
21. What excites you about the job you're doing now?
22. What worries you about the job you're doing now?
23. Describe your ideal boss.
24. How would you rate your present boss?




                                                                                            38
Reporting verbs
Match the following ways of reporting:
1. It's absolutely vital that we expand.
2. If you ask me, it'd be madness to expand.
3. Can we look at the possibility of expanding?
4. So, just to sum up . . .
5. Very briefly, what we plan to do is this. . .
6. Are you sure this expansion is absolutely necessary?
   a. She raised the issue of expansion.
   b. He stressed the importance of expansion.
   c. She questioned the need for expansion.
   d. He outlined the proposed plans for expansion.
   e. She argued that expansion would be disastrous.
   f. He recapped on the main points of the plan.


Match the following ways of reporting in a similar way:
1. Actually, it's true that we've gone some way already.
2. I'm afraid I'm still not convinced.
3. OK, OK. Nobody said it was going to be easy.
4. Look, just how far have you gone with this?
5. You've done your homework, I'll grant you that.
6. I can only repeat that expansion is essential. .


a. He reaffirmed his position on expansion.
b. She demanded to know how far their plans had gone.
c. He confirmed that the programme was already under way.
d. She conceded that the plan was well-researched.
e. She still doubted whether any expansion was possible.
f. He admitted that expansion would be difficult




                                                            39
Now report the following remarks made by the Finance Director (FD) or the Managing
   Director (MD). Use the language given.



1. MD: It's crucial that we form a strategic alliance with the Japanese. (stress / importance)

_________________________________________________________________________

2. FD: Look, what I want to know is how the project is going to be financed? (demand /
   know)

_________________________________________________________________________

3. MD: Are you certain we need to raise extra capital? (question / need)

_________________________________________________________________________

4. FD: OK, I grant you it's going to take an injection of cash at the outset. (concede / injection
   of cash)

__________________________________________________________________________

5. MD: Let me say again how important it is that we team up with the Japanese. (reaffirm /
   position)

__________________________________________________________________________

6. MD: OK, I'll just run through the main points. (recap / main points)

__________________________________________________________________________




                                                                                                 40
                               Staff motivation dialogue


Student A


You work for Orbit records in the finance department. You have been unhappy at work and
your manager is not happy with your performance. You have been asked to go to an annual
appraisal interview.


Points to discuss


1. Reasons for your unhappiness at work
2. Suggestions for improving performance
       a. Increased salary (+10%?)
       b. More flexible hours (afternoons off?)
       c. More interesting tasks (job rotation?)
       d. Chance for promotion?




                                    Staff motivation dialogue


Student B


You work for Orbit records as a manager in the finance department. Your have some staff
who have been unhappy at work and you are also dissatisfied with their performance. You
have asked one of your staff to go to an annual appraisal interview.


Points to discuss


1. Reasons for his /her unhappiness at work
2. Suggestions for improving performance
       a. Increased salary (+2%?)
       b. More flexible hours (weekend work?)
       c. More training courses (languages? software?)
       d. Move to another department?
                                                                                          41
    Unit 9 TRADE                                   21………………………………………………
                                                      exactly?
                                                   (Later that morning)
Negotiating
                                                   Carson: I want to be clear about this
                                                      22………………………… for me?
Carson: Let’s agree first on how to organise       Pieter: 23………………….. What I'm saying
   today's meeting, 1……………..?                         is that 24………………. offer you a non-
Pieter: Aha.                                          exclusive contract, 25……………………
Carson: OK, well, 2 …………..starting with               you stock our whole range of products and
   the contract itself? Then 3……………………                an agreed quantity of spare parts for each
   move on to the product range, sales targets        item.
   and discounts. 4 ……………….. for the               Carson: Right
   morning session?                                Pieter: What I'd like to know now is are you
Pieter: That sounds fine. There's plenty to talk      prepared to commit yourself to a figure for
   about there, for sure. 5……………………..                 sales growth, 26 …………………, over the
   start things off?                                  next three years?
Carson: 6………………. Go ahead.                         Carson: 27 …………………………..
Pieter: OK, well, as you know, we've signed        Pieter: What, not even a rough figure?
   up quite a few overseas agents recently.        Carson: 28……………. It's going to depend
   7……………... really is exclusivity. 8                 on a lot of variables - any figure I give you
   ………………. an exclusive agent can                     won't be very accurate.
   offer us more - more commitment, more
                                                   Pieter: OK, I won't try to pin you down on
   motivation and better service.9 ……………
                                                      that. Let's move on to discounts.
   build up the relationship gradually, based
                                                      29……………….. 2% on orders up to
   on trust, and common interests
                                                      $200,000, 5% on orders from $200,000-
Carson: 10 ………………………right there,                      $500,000, and 10% for anything over that.
   Pieter. Sorry, but 11……………………..                    It gives you a strong incentive to exceed
   that. An exclusive agreement 12                    your target. 30……………………... that?
   ……………….. Absolutely impossible.
                                                   Carson: Well, I'm a bit disappointed, really. 31
Pieter: Oh, 13 …………………….?                             ……………………… at least 5% up to
Carson: It's just that we're agents for a lot of      $200,000. It's the going rate over here - or
   big manufacturers, European, North                 weren't you aware of that?
   American, a couple from the Far East, and       Pieter: I'm sorry; I can't improve my offer on
   we're locked into agreements with them. 14.        discounts. We've worked them out very
   ………………. we can break them. In any                  carefully.
   case, 15 ………………... - we've always
                                                   Carson: I see. Well, I don't know. . .
   handled competitors' products, it's the way
   we run our business.                            Pieter: How about this? 32
                                                      …………………… accept the discount
Pieter: I see.
                                                      rates, 33 …………………..help you with
Carson: Look, exclusivity isn't everything, you       your mark-ups. 34. ………………….set
   know. 16 ………………look after your                     some limits, 35………………….. you can
   firm well 17 …………………., give us the                 set your own mark-ups and we won't
   chance - there'll be no lack of commitment         interfere.
   on our part. 18………………….. it.
                                                   Carson: Hm, yes, that'd be useful. It'd give us
Pieter: Hm, I suppose 19                              plenty of flexibility with our pricing.
   …………………………, erm ……
                                                   Pieter: Exactly. 36………………………
Carson: Yes?
                                                   Carson: Right, OK, 37. ……………… that.
Pieter: … if you offered us a realistic sales
                                                   Pieter: Great, 38. …………………… then.
   target for the first year.
                                                      Let's summarise, shall we?
Carson: I see. Well, I suppose 20
   ……………………………………………
   ……………... 'realistic'.
                                                                                               42
Saying things delicately

Obviously, in a delicate negotiation you do not always say exactly what you think! You need to be
able to express yourself diplomatically, to make your point firmly but politely.
Match what you think with what you say:

WHAT YOU THINK
1. We are unhappy with this offer.
2. We are dissatisfied.
3. We can't accept it.
4. You said there would be a discount.
5. Don't forget your obligations.
6. We want a guarantee.
7. We won't agree to this.
8. We're shocked you expect us to cover the costs.
9. That's wrong.
10. We want a bigger rebate.
11. We must finalize the deal today.
12. You obviously don't understand.

WHAT YOU SAY
a. Unfortunately, we would be unable to accept that.
b. With respect, that's not quite correct.
c. I'm sure we don't need to remind you of your contractual obligations.
d. We're rather surprised you expect us to cover the costs.
e. We would find this somewhat difficult to agree to.
f. We were rather hoping to finalize the deal today.
g. I'm sorry but we're not very happy with this offer.
h. Actually, we were hoping for a slightly more substantial rebate.
i. I'm afraid you don't seem to understand.
j. We understood there would be a discount.
k. We would need some sort of guarantee.
l. We're not completely satisfied.

1. What is the purpose of expressions like unfortunately and I'm afraid?
2. What is the difference between unhappy and not very happy, dissatisfied and not completely
     satisfied? Notice the pattern. How would you change these:
                               bad unprofitable      unpopular     false
3. What is the effect of using would in sentences a, e, and k? What is the difference between that's a
     problem, and that would be a problem? Notice we use we would be unable to instead of we
     can't. . .
4. How do words like quite, rather, slightly, and somewhat change the effect of what you say?
5. What is the difference between You said and We understood in 4-j ?
6. What is the effect of using seem in sentence 12-i?
                                                                                                   43
3
Now change the following rather direct remarks into ones which are more diplomatic. The words in
brackets will help you.


1. You said the goods were on their way. (understood)
__________________________________________________________________________
2. We're unhappy about it. (sorry but / not very)
__________________________________________________________________________
3. That's a bad idea. (might / not very)
__________________________________________________________________________
4. This is most inconvenient. (afraid / might / not very)
__________________________________________________________________________
5. We can't accept your offer. (unfortunately / unable)
__________________________________________________________________________
6. We want a bigger discount. (hoping / slightly)
__________________________________________________________________________
7. Your products are very expensive. (seem / rather)
__________________________________________________________________________
8. We must reach agreement today. (actually / rather hoping)
__________________________________________________________________________
9. It'll be unmarketable. (unfortunately / would / not very)
__________________________________________________________________________
10. There will be a delay. (afraid / might / slight)
__________________________________________________________________________
11. You must give us more time. (actually / appreciate / a little more)
__________________________________________________________________________
12. You don't understand how important this is. (respect / don't seem / quite how)
__________________________________________________________________________
13. Don't forget the terms of the contract! (sure / don't need / remind)
__________________________________________________________________________
14. We're getting nowhere! (afraid / don't seem / very far)
__________________________________________________________________________




                                                                                             44
                         Arguments for and against globalisation

•   inward investment increases rapidly
•   economies can be rebuilt from outside
•   economies are more vulnerable to international change
•   trade is liberalised
•   living standards can rise
•   the gap between rich and poor can increase
•   some countries can be left out of the global trading system
•   economies can be destabilised
•   environmental problems may be overlooked
•   workers’ rights are sometimes ignored
•   it is easier to export / import criminality
•   there is more communication between different nations
•   many aspects of life are more and more standardised
•   corporations can have more power than nation states
•   technology can be transferred more easily
•   scientific development in one country can benefit another country very quickly

                      FOR                                            AGAINST




                                                                                     45
    Unit 10 QUALITY


Improving the customer's way of life

l. Apart from its main store, there are .........................Mitsukoshi branches in Japan.
       4       14      40      44

2: The 'Ladies Club' provides ...
        companionship        discounts                    free lunches

3. To help foreigners, brochures are available in ………………....
       most European languages               Japanese English                       English and Japanese

4. English is spoken by ..........of the sales staff..
       all            most                                  none            some.

5. When you step off an escalator a girl in uniform …………..
      can give information                   helps you off
      greets everyone                        tells everyone what is available on that floor

6. The facilities offered at other Japanese department stores are ………….
    exactly the same as Mitsukoshi                  more numerous than Mitsukoshi
    very different from Mitsukoshi                  very similar to Mitsukoshi

7. Japanese department stores are open ...
    everyday of the week                                  every day except Sunday
     every day except national holidays                   six days a week

8. Japanese department stores are in direct competition with ...
    discount stores each other        mail order houses supermarkets

9. Mitsukoshi was founded . ................................ years ago.
10. Unlike the policy of a supermarket, the emphasis in Mitsukoshi is on ways of …………………
   of customers’ lives.
11. The audience in the theatre is given a …………… containing sushi, which is…………….. with
   ……….
12. Shoppers babies can be looked after in a .................................…………………….. babies
13. The lift girls wear a uniform consisting of skirt, waistcoat and a little bowler …………….. with
   …………..and beautiful little white………………….
14. On the roof there is a …………………. for children and a ……………. with a view to Tokyo
15. Some department stores In Japan even have their own………….......
16. At Odakyo or Keido department stores you can take the lift down to the………………. where
   your ………………. is waiting.
17. Department stores in Japan are open from........... to…………………..
18. The speaker thinks that the Japanese concept of department stores cannot be……………. to the
   West
19. Western department stores compete in terms of ……………….. and ………………..
20. Japanese department stores compete in terms of ……………… and ………………….
21. At Mitsukoshi in Regent Street, London, the staff happily spend time helping people who have
   lost their ………………. or ………………….. , or who can’t find their ……………… or can’t
   find ………………… .
                                                                                                46
Replying to a Complaint

You work for a bank which has received this letter. After reading the letter, you realise it was your
bank’s fault. Write a letter in reply to Mr. Chase, apologising and offering two free tickets to a concert
sponsored by the bank.

Nov 6th, 2000

Dear Mr Highsmith

   Following the recent telephone conversation that I had with Mrs. Henry, I am confirming the
complaint that I made to her concerning the $60 overdraft charge that your bank has mistakenly debited
from my account.
   As I explained to her on the phone, my account has in fact always been in credit. Therefore I can see
no reason why I should have to pay for a mistake which must have been made by the bank.
   She promised that she would look into the problem and get back to me. However, I have heard nothing
from her since. Consequently I have decided to forward this official complaint by registered post.
   I hope that you will be able to rectify the situation as soon as possible. Could you please confirm in
writing that my account has been credited with the equivalent sum.


Awaiting your reply.

Yours sincerely,

    H ow ard Chase




                                                                                                            47
Verb forms

In English verbs are frequently combined to make more complex expressions. To do this you
   need to know how to form the second verb. For example:
      They refused to buy from us.
      They delayed buying from us.
      We persuaded them to buy from us.
      I recommend you buy from us.

Complete the following sentences using the appropriate form of the second verb.

1. We can't afford. . . . . . . . (take) any risks.
2. We risk. . . . . . . . (lose) everything if we fail.
3. Everything will be OK providing we manage. . . . . . . . (get) financial backing.
4. We can't really avoid. . . . . . .. (involve) the shareholders.
5. I'd recommend. . . . . . . . (concentrate) on cashflow to begin with.
6. Would you mind. . . . . . . . (run) your eye over these figures?
7. It'll involve. . . . . . .. (sacrifice) a lot.
8. Everything appears. . . . . . .. (be) all right.
9. I tend. . . . . . . . (agree) with you.
10. We used………………(work) in different departments, but now we work together.
11. Are you used to ……………….. (take) the initiative or do you wait to be told what to do?
12. I strongly advise you …………………..(get) professional advice.
13. Have you considered. . . . . . . . (draw) up a provisional business plan?
14. Surely you don't expect us . . . . . . . . (pay) for this ourselves!
15. If we do something about it now, it'll save us . . . . . . .. (have) to sort it out later.
16. I suggest we . . . . . . . . (meet) at eleven.
17. We stopped at 11 ....................(have) a break.
18. Thankfully, they've stopped........ (send) us their damned publicity leaflets.
19. Don't forget. . . . . . . . (do) that report.
20. I'll never forget. . . . . . . . (meet) them for the first time.




                                                                                                 48
Airports


Vocabulary:


  navigation            zero visibility         to undergo a revolution               gangway(s)
   accessible             congestion             inconvenience                   time-consuming
                    railcars                functional           user-friendly


                                            Questions:


1. How is modern aircraft technology developing?
________________________________________________________________________


2. What is an old-fashioned airport like?
________________________________________________________________________


3. What two basic problems do airports have?
________________________________________________________________________


4. How can these problems be solved?
________________________________________________________________________


5. What plans does Gatwick have for the future?
________________________________________________________________________


6. What is Gatwick 2 like?
________________________________________________________________________




                                                                                                  49
Knowing Your Rights                                    J. Well, if you’ve asked the seller if the kitchen
B.           Many            consumers           are      mixer you’re being shown will be powerful
     ………………………… (1) in buying goods                       enough to knead bread dough and he says it
     from shops and traders. John Scott, of the           will, then he’s entered into a contract, and if
     Office of Fair Trading, is here to explain           it breaks under the strain of your bread
     exactly what your rights are under English           making, ………..………… (7) to a refund.
     Law. John, first of all; what are the Acts that      And the third one is that the goods are ‘as
     give the buyer rights?                               described’.
J: Well Barbara there are two Acts. There’s the        B. And, ‘described’, you mean on the package?
   Sale of Goods Act and the Trades                    J. Yes, on the package or as illustrated or
   Descriptions        Act,      and      both            described     on    a    display    sign    or
   ………………….. (2) in contracts that he or                  ……………………... (8) Now, for example
   she enters into with traders.                          a packet of frozen prawns which shows large,
B: And who are ‘traders’ exactly?                         juicy prawns on the outside, and the ones
                                                          inside are tiny, then you have cause for
J.: Well, ‘traders’ means any shop, doorstep
                                                          complaint, or if the label says the blanket is
    salesman, ………. (3) or mail order firm.
                                                          pink and it turns out to be blue, than again
B. I see, and what is a contract then …………
                                                          you have a cause for complaint.
   ………….. (4)?
                                                       B. And if you think you have a cause for
J. Well, if you buy anything from a trader you
                                                          complaint what should you do?
   have in fact entered into a contract with him.
                                                       J. Well you must take the item back to the shop,
B. And does the trader have obligations?
                                                          unless it’s ………….……………… (9) to
J. Yes, he has three main obligations. The first          move, in which case the trader must collect it
   one is that the goods are of ‘merchantable             himself. And you’ll be entitled to all or part
   quality’.                                              of your money back, a cash refund, plus
B. What does, what does ‘merchantable’ mean               …………………….. (10) or personal injury.
   then?                                               B. I see, I’ve sometimes been offered a credit
J. Well, that means …………..…………. (5),                      note by the trader in that sort of situation.
   bearing in mind the price that you paid for it,     J. Well, no the buyer is under no obligation to
   the nature of the goods, and how they’re               accept a credit note, but he or she may accept
   described. For example, a pair of shoes which          the …………………… (11) or a repair to the
   fall apart after two weeks of normal wear are          item, or you can insist on a refund according
   not of merchantable quality. Very cheap, or            to the law.
   second hand goods, needn’t be top quality,
                                                       B. Instead of taking it back to the shop, would it
   but ………….………… (6) this obligation.
                                                          be a good idea to send it to the manufacturer?
   And the second obligation is that the goods
                                                       J.    No, definitely not, it’s the retailer’s
   are ‘fit for any particular purpose made
                                                            responsibility.       But you     could
   known to the seller’.
                                                            ………………….. (12) if you’ve suffered
B. Could you give me an example of that?
                                                            personal injury, say.




                                                                                                     50
                                          Answering a question


Give a short talk (2-3 mins) on the question:


                    How can companies solve the problem of customer complaints?


Possible plan:

1. Introduce the question by explaining why it is important / relevant. (What can happen if companies
do not deal well with complaints?)
__________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

2. Describe different problems that can occur in different types of business, and for each one give a
possible solution
__________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________

3. Conclude by selecting which you think is the best method(s)

__________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

Answering ‘how to solve this problem’ questions
    •   One way of dealing with the problem is to ….
    •   On method of solving the problem is to …
    •   One approach is to …
    •   Sometimes this problem can be solved by …ing …
    •   Sometimes it is a good idea to …
    •   An alternative solution is to …
    •   It is often useful to try … ing




                                                                                                        51
Insurance - vocabulary

    •   To insure (something / someone) against something
    •   An insurance policy which covers you against illness
    •   To pay a monthly premium
    •   To claim (make a claim) on a policy
    •   The company accepts / disputes / rejects the claim
    •   A no-claims bonus
    •   An insurance broker
    •   To get a quote (e.g. online)
    •   An actuary
    •   The odds against something happening are 10-1
    •   The likelihood / probability of an event happening
    •   A person is in a high- / low-risk category
    •   Insurance fraud
    •   To make a false claim
    •   An act of God

Evaluating risk
  Read the following document which describes the main criteria that are used by UK insurers to
define a standard driver who would pay the normal rate for motor insurance cover.

The Driver
The person seeking insurance must
   • be the main user of the car.
   • be between the ages of 25 and 74.
   • have been resident in the UK for at least 3 years.
   • have had a full UK driving licence for the past 12 months.
   • have had no motoring convictions during the past 3 years
   • have had no suspension of licence during the past 5 years.
   • have had no motor insurance containing special terms or increased premiums.
   • not have a physical defect, infirmity or suffer from a heart condition or diabetes.
   • not be engaged in the following businesses or occupations:
       Casino, Night Club, Disc Jockey, Musician, Professional sport,
       Entertainment, Show Business, Student.


    Another factor used in determining the premium that will be charged for motor insurance is what
is called the 'group rating'. Under this system each model of car is included in one of twenty groups
depending on a variety of factors such as:
    • Cost of spare parts, repair times, price of the car, performance, car security and anti-theft
         features




                                                                                                  52
Application for motor insurance

1. Full name:.....................................................................................................

2. Address:........................................................................................................

3. Date of birth: ................................................................................................

4. Occupation: ..................................................................................................

5. Date UK/EU driving test passed:…………………………………………….

6. Vehicle make and model: .............................................................................

7. Engine size: ..................................................................................................

8. Year of manufacture:....................................................................................

9. Present value: ...............................................................................................

10. Who will be the principal user? .................................................................

11. Where is the vehicle garaged? ...................................................................

12. No. of years of no-claims bonuses: ............................................................

13. Will the vehicle be used for business purposes? ........................................

14. Give details of other persons, who will or may drive the car:....................

     a Name: ......................................................................................................

     b Date of birth: ...........................................................................................

     c Date UK/EC driving test passed:.............................................................

15. Have you or any person who will drive the car:.........................................

     a been involved in a motor accident in the last three years? ......................

     b been convicted of any motoring offences in the past five years? ............

     c been resident in the UK for less than 3 years?.........................................

* If you have answered yes to any of these questions please give full details in the space provided:




                                                                                                                      53
Answering a question


Give a short talk (2-3 mins) on the question:


                           Why do businesses take out insurance policies?


Possible plan:

1. Introduce the question by explaining why it is important / relevant.
__________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

2. Describe different types of risk, and why they are important for businesses. (e.g. risks to stock –
fire, theft, loss, flood damage; risks to premises – fire, flood damage, criminal damage; risks to staff –
injury, work related sickness; risks to customers – liability related to products or services, injury
suffered on premises)
__________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

3. Conclude by summarising and giving your own opinion

__________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

Useful expressions:
    •   One important risk many businesses face is ….
    •   One way of protecting against …. is to …
    •   One approach is to …
    •   Business must be sure that …
    •   If working conditions are dangerous / unhealthy …




                                                                                                         54
Unit 11 ETHICS

                                         Honesty and dishonesty

1. She's so ………………. . One minute she's your best friend, and the next minute she doesn't
    want to know you
    A deceptive           B two-faced            C deceitful            D misleading

2. He was very …………………. He flattered me so that I wouldn't be able to refuse him the
    favour he wanted.
    A crooked             B two-faced            C cunning              D deceptive

3. She's ………………….. If you tell her a secret, she tells other people.
    A deceitful           B insincere            C untrustworthy D two-faced

4. I'm not taken in by his ……………….. praise
    A dishonest           B two-faced            C deceitful            D insincere

5. Don't expect him to turn up on time. He's very ………………..
    A untrustworthy                              B unreliable           C deceitful    D cunning

6. It's .................... of you to, say that. You know it isn't true.
    A dishonest           B devious              C untrustworthy D false

7. I was …………….. by his honest appearance. Only later did I discover that he was a liar.
    A misled              B deviated             C done                 D cheated

8. This photo of the house is rather ……………….. It makes it look much bigger than it really is.
    A deceitful           B deceptive            C devious              D dishonest

9. Before you send them any money make sure the company really exists. The whole thing could
    be a ……………..
    A deceit              B fool                 C cheat                D con

10. I didn't think he'd ……………… such a pathetic lie, but he believed every word of it.
    A take up             B fall out             C take in              D fall for

11. You can't ……………… me! I know that story isn't true.
    A tie                 B fool                 C do                   D cheat

12. I realise now that you've been ………………….. me. You haven't been going out with your
    friends; you've been seeing another man.
    A lying               B doing                C deceiving            D conning

13. Their brochure is full of ……………….information. For example it says that all rooms are
    'with shower', But it doesn’t say that in some cases the shower is halfway down the corridor.
    A misleading          B deceptive            C deceitful            D insincere

14. ‘This isn't a …………………, is it? If I lend you my car, you will bring it back, won't you?'
    A cheat               B trick                C rip-off.             D deceit


                                                                                                   55
                                                                           Cheating and lies
For each of the sentences below, write a new sentence as similar as possible in meaning to the
original sentence, but using the word given. This word must not be altered in any way.
1. Because I believed his lies, I paid far: too much for it.
   conned .............................................................................................................................

2. Why aren't you telling me the truth?
   lying ...............................................................................................................................

3. Because I believed her lies, I gave her 10,000 Ft.
   tricked .............................................................................................................................

4. They cheated me.
   ripped .............................................................................................................................

5. When I checked my change, I realised I'd been deliberately charged 500 ft more than I should have
   been.
   cheated ............................................................................................................................

6. Because I believed his lies, he got a lot of money from me
   tricked .............................................................................................................................

7. You didn't believe his story, did you?
   taken ...............................................................................................................................

                                                          Business Ethics
Imagine yourself in the following situations. In each case you can either agree to the suggested
action, or refuse.

1. Everybody expects the government to change at the next election. The Chairman of your
company suggests that all the members of the board should start 'wining and dining'
politicians expected to form the next government - i.e. inviting them for expensive restaurant
meals, in order to explain to them the company's situation and problems.
Do you agree?

2. Someone suggests that the easiest way to find out what competitors are doing is secretly to
pay one of their staff to take pictures of their production processes. Do you agree?

3. The manager of a foreign subsidiary explains that to get quick planning permission to build
a new factory it is necessary to give a few cash 'presents' to local officials. $10,000 will save a
year of bureaucratic difficulties.
Do you agree?




                                                                                                                                           56
4. Whenever there's a north wind, foul-smelling sulphur dioxide emissions from one of your
factories pollute a nearby town. The local authorities ask you to fit filters on your chimneys,
but this will cost at least $300,000, the equivalent of six months' profit.
Do you agree?

5. You could save 15% of your production costs by closing a factory in a small town where
you are a major employer, and relocating to a cheaper developing country. This would result
in 1500 people losing their jobs in one town, and 1200 jobs being created in another.
Do you relocate?

6. You discover that one of your suppliers in a developing country employs children as young
as nine years old in its factory, in appalling working conditions. They say that if you cancel
your orders they will have to close the factory and the whole village will lose this major
source of income. Do you continue?

7. Your products are now of such high quality that they last for at least ten years, and your
sales are consequently lower than they used to be when your products were less durable.
Someone suggests using cheaper components that won't last quite so long. Do you agree?

8. You have produced a huge quantity of toys under an exclusive contract to tie in with a
major new Hollywood movie. But just before the film is released, you discover that pieces of
the toy can be broken off and that young children could swallow them and even choke to
death.
Do you sell the toy?




                                                                                            57
Szakmai kérdes                      Business Ethics and Honesty


                   How can a business protect itself against dishonest behaviour?
                                                  Structure:
A. Introduction – why is it important for a business to protect itself?

B. Brief indication of topics:

“I would like to talk about three/four/five different aspects of the problem; dishonest behaviour from
customers, from staff, from criminals, from partners or competitors and from authorities

C. Detailed points with examples:

“First of all, a business sometimes has problems with its customers…

                 shoplifters – (uniformed) security guards – security (CCTV) cameras –

                     products with a magnetic strip – (plain clothes) store detectives

“There are also problems with staff issues …

      theft from offices – employees’ behaviour to each other - promotion issues – staff loyalty –

                      handling personal data – policies on sexism, ageism, racism

“…and from criminal behaviour in general …”

             breaking into offices – theft from warehouses – security of stock and product

“…and with a business’s partners, competitors and sub-contractors …”

 honouring contracts – keeping deadlines – bidding for contracts – providing quality raw materials –

                                 maintaining good relationships with partners

“… and finally, with governments and other forms of authority…”

                    bribery – lobbying – dealing with conditions in other countries…


D. Conclusion
“All in all, (In conclusion) I think that it is vitally important for a business to do everything possible to
protect itself against dishonest behaviour…”




                                                                                                          58
    Unit 13 INNOVATION

                                             HIRDETES

          TÓPARTI LAKÁSOK A BUDAI SZABADIDİ ÉS SPORTKÖZPONTBAN
Budapest XI. kerületében Kıérberken, hamarosan egy teljesen új városrész születik: Lakás-
Szabadidı- és Sportközpont, a Demján-csoport fejlesztésében. A részint tulajdonos, részint
generálkivitelezı Arcadom Rt. a napokban lát hozzá a feladat megvalósításához. A
sajtótájékoztatón Bálint Péter, a cég vezérigazgatója nyilatkozott.


A Demján-csoport tagjaként számos olyan épületet hoztak létre, melyek kategóriájukban nóvumnak
számítottak. A kıérberki fejlesztésben mi a különleges, mi az amiért ilyen nagy a kereslet az itt épülı
lakások iránt?
Röviden azt mondanám: az ideköltözık nem csupán lakást vásárolnak, hanem környezetet. Ki ne
szeretne olyan helyen élni ahol lakása közelében csónakázhat, bevásárolhat teniszezhet, miközben
autóját biztonságos parkolóban tudhatja. A kıérberki ingatlanfejlesztés különlegessége az a 4 hektáron
létrejövı horgászásra, csónakázásra is alkalmas tó-együttes, melyet a Hosszúréti patak szabályozása
révén alakítunk ki.
Ehhez fogható zöldkörnyezeti fejlesztésre 50 éve nem volt példa Budapesten, de mi a helyzet az ígért
sportközponttal?
A beruházás nem csupán a lakópark közvetlen környezetének fejlesztését jelenti. Több mint 5
hektáron egy sport- és szabadidıközpontot építünk, a hozzá tartozó infrastrukturális fejlesztésekkel
együtt. A fedett sportcsarnok mellett labdarúgó- és kosárlabdapályákat, számos teniszpályát is
kialakítunk, sıt uszoda, szauna, kondi- és aerobiktermek, squash-pályák, klubház állnak majd igény
szerint nyílt klubrendszerben a lakók, illetve a környéken élı sportolni vágyók rendelkezésére.




                                                                                                   59
Ocean City


1. Population of Japan now …………. million
  Only …………….. % of Japan’s land area of ………….. sq. km is inhabitable.


2. Kiyohide Terai’s study group includes the heads of many famous Japanese companies:
S…………. , Mitsui, Nippon S………… , Nippon T……………….. & T……….., Asahi
p…………… group.


HOW OCEAN CITY WOULD WORK


3. Distance from the coast of Japan:………….. km. No. of inhabitants: ………. million. To
build it would need ………….. tonnes of steel.


4. Length of each side …………
  Distance between decks …………..
  Top deck:…………………………………………………………………………….
  2nd deck: …………………………………………………………………………….
  3rd deck: …………………………………………………………………………….
  4th deck: …………………………………………………………………………….


5. Total number of poles: ……………….. , each containing a ……………….. controlled by
……………..
- Not resting on sea bed but …………….
- No sensation of being ………………
- Not affected by rough seas because of its ………………. and height above ……………


6. Advantages of living there: tax benefits, leisure facilities: ……………….., …………..
pools, ………….. , ……………riding etc. Plus no ……………… .




                                                                                        60
The top green car

                                                        Toyota Prius 1.5 T3

The Toyota Prius is just about the most economical car you can buy. It can do an impressive 66 miles
per gallon and it has the lowest CO2 emissions on the market - only 104g/km. The battery pack is
hidden under the floor behind the rear seats and kicks into action when additional power is required
and recharges when the brakes are applied. You can also switch to running the car solely on electric
power, but because you can travel little more than a mile on electricity alone it's not as useful a feature
as one might hope. The Prius is not, however, cheap, especially when compared with similar vehicles
in its class, but low running costs do help to offset the high purchase price.

List price ................................£17,545
Top speed .............................106 mph
MPG (overall figure) ...................65.7
CO2 emissions .....................104 g/km
Boot space ...........................408 litres
NCAP crash test rating .............*****
No of doors .......................................5
No of seats ........................................5
Engine size ...........................1.5 litres



Dealer
What kind of car are you looking for?
Who will be the main driver of the car?
What sort of price range are you interested in?
What kind of credit terms would you like?

Buyer
How safe is it?
What’s the fuel consumption like? / (How many miles does it do to the gallon?) /(What’s its
    mpg?)
What’s its top speed?
How does it compare with other cars in its class?
How reliable is it?
Has it been selling well?
Is it environmentally friendly?




                                                                                                       61
                                              Special question
Environment


A: Are you a ‘green consumer’?


B: How can businesses reduce their environmental impact?


    1. Explain the relevance / importance / topicality of the question


                         A                                                      B


Environment an important issue today – global          Environment an important issue today – global
warming, pollution (air quality, water quality, etc)   warming, pollution (air quality, water quality, etc)
natural resources under pressure etc.                  natural resources under pressure etc.


    2. Define terms


                         A                                                      B
What do we mean by a ‘green consumer’?                 What is ‘environmental impact’?


    3. Give a structured answer with examples


                         A                                                      B
Purchasing decisions; ingredients, packaging,          Production of goods / provision of services;
country of origin (clothes, food and drink,            ingredients, raw materials, sourcing, production
electronic goods etc.)                                 processes, construction of buildings and plant
Use of goods and services (energy use, repair          Distribution; transporting, warehousing
and maintenance)                                       Marketing and sales; advertising, location of
Disposal of goods (recycling, disposal )               markets


    4. End with a short conclusion


                         A                                                      B
Personal opinion / general summary                     Personal opinion / general summary




                                                                                                        62
Answering a question


Give a short talk (2-3 minutes) on the question:


              What are the advantages and disadvantages of being an entrepreneur?


Possible plan:

1. Introduce the question by explaining why it is important / relevant / topical

Role of SME’s (create employment, innovation, support local economy)

__________________________________________________________________________________



2. Describe advantages (your own boss, increase income, create new products and services etc.)
__________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________



3. Describe disadvantages (long hours, risk, difficulty getting finance, personal conflicts, family stress,

getting expert advice, competition)

__________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________



4. Conclude with a short summary and personal opinion.

__________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________




                                                                                                        63
Unit 14 COMPETITION

Contracts
Here are some notes on an agreement between the Company of Professional Congress Organizers
(C.P.C.O), specialists in organising congresses, and the Confederation of International Industries
(C.I.I.), who are planning to hold a congress.


Contract notes
Terms of agreement between C.P.C.O. and C.I.I. regarding the Industry Congress 2004:
C.P.C.O shall
1. Act as a consultant and make necessary arrangements for the conference.
2. Invest / Address / Participate in planning meetings
3. Require / Undertake / Meet the organizational and administrative work
4. Invite / Set up / Deliver, immediately before and during the conference, a special office and
secretariat.


C.I.I. shall
5. Be / Pay / Earn responsible for the professional, technical and scientific content of the
programme.
6. Compete / Provide / Fax a scientific secretariat.


C.P.C.O. agrees to
7. Purchase / Trade / Draw up a budget.
8. Call / Demonstrate/ Collect fees.
9. Sell / Produce / Let a final account of all receipts and expenditure.


C.I.I. agrees to
10. Count / Maintain / Solve an advance cash flow to the conference account until receipt of
fees or other income.
11. Manufacture / Accept / Train overall financial responsibility for the conference.
12. Authorize / Distribute / Receive C.P.C.O. to act on their behalf.




                                                                                               64
                                Contracts – special vocabulary.
Match the words with the definition


1. Situation in which people solve a dispute                      litigation
2. Settling of a dispute by an outside person                     abide by
3. Stopping something that has been planned from going ahead      arbitration
4. Section of a contract                                          settlement
5. A particular condition or requirement                          binding
6. Companies or people involved in a legal agreement              breach
7. A rule or agreement which has legal force is …                 clause
8. An agreement between two parties which ends a dispute          cancellation
9. To follow rules, laws or agreements                            court
10. All kinds of legal action (court case, trial etc)             stipulation
11. To break a rule                                               parties
12. Place where trials take place                                 agreement


C. Fill in these sentences with some of the words above (you may need to use some words
more than once.)

1. A contract is a(n) …………………. (1) between two ……………… (2).
2. The conditions of the contract are ……………… (3) on both …………… (4). If one party
does not …………….. (5) the terms of the contract this is called a …………… (6) of
contract.
3. If there is a dispute the problem can be resolved by ………………, (7) but if this fails the
dispute can lead to ………………….(8) However in most cases a ………………… (9) is
reached without having to go to ………….(10)




                                                                                          65
                             Discussing a Musician’s Contract


    Hungarian Agent acting for                                    European record company
       Hungarian musician                                                   executive
A               3                       Number of CD’s                          1


B              15%                          Royalties                          5%


C   At record company’s expense             Website                    At artist’s expense


D          All EU states                 Distributed in                  Central Europe


E           € 1 million                Marketing budget                    € 200,000


                           Discussing a Sportsperson’s Contract


    Hungarian Agent acting for                                       European sports club
     Hungarian sportsperson                                                 executive
A               3                      Number of seasons                        1


B           € 500,000                    Remuneration                      € 200,000


C        € 5,000 per match                 Win bonus                € 5,000 at end of season


D      Free to sign with any         Endorsement contract           Can only sign with club’s
             company                                                       permission


E     For all European media           Newspaper column            Only for Hungarian media,
                                                                  articles must be submitted for
                                                                           inspection




                                                                                               66
OTHER SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL

Small business questionnaire

A. The business
Cross out the one which does not apply to you
Limited Company/Partnership/Sole Trader
    •     What does your business do? .............................................................................................
    •     Name of business ...............................................................................................................
    •     Date you started (or will start) trading ...............................................................................


B. Aims
   ....................................................................................................................................................
   ....................................................................................................................................................


C. Capital structure
   Limited Company
    •     Shareholders .......................................................................................................................
    •     Paid-up value of shares held...............................................................................................
   Partnerships and Sole Traders
    •     Name (s) .............................................................................................................................
    •     Amount of capital...............................................................................................................


D. Employees
    •     Number of employees (including directors or partners).....................................................


E. Your product or service and the market place
    •     Your products or services; including proposed price: ........................................................
   ....................................................................................................................................................
    •     Market size and potential, where your market is, who are your customers, and whether the
          market is growing or getting smaller:.................................................................................
   ....................................................................................................................................................
    •     Major competitors - their prices, strengths and weaknesses: .............................................
   ....................................................................................................................................................



                                                                                                                                                          67
F. Financial details
   •     Turnover expected in first year ..........................................................................................


G. Marketing
   •     Marketing and sales methods including the costs involved: ..............................................


H. Production
   •     Please describe briefly your methods of production, if any. ..............................................
  ....................................................................................................................................................


I. Premises
   •     Valuation ...........................................................................................................................
   •     Mortgage you owe plus name of mortgagee (if any) .........................................................
   •     Rent per year ......................................................................................................................
   •     How often do you pay? ......................................................................................................


J. Plant and machinery, equipment and vehicles
   •     Description of equipment you have....................................................................................
   •     Current value ......................................................................................................................


K. Assets you have as security
  ....................................................................................................................................................


L. Financial needs
   •     Total cost of project............................................................................................................

   •     Amount you need and what you need it for .......................................................................
   •     To be provided by:
   •     Your own resources............................................................................................................
   •     Grants and so on.................................................................................................................
   •     Other sources (please give details).....................................................................................
   •     What do you need from the bank? .....................................................................................
   •     Overdraft (depending on your cashflow) ...........................................................................
   •     Loan and term (years).........................................................................................................




                                                                                                                                                         68
Letter – organising a conference and inviting guests

Anti-noise systems

You are Kate Ireland and you work as a public relations officer for a company that produces
anti-noise systems (Hushup Ltd, 79 Bridgeway, Swindon SNl 3RT). Your boss has asked you
to invite an old and valued customer (Roger Taylor, Purchasing Manager, MRP Electronics,
Old House, Severn Way, Bristol BR8 2GP) to a conference on anti-noise systems that your
company will be sponsoring.

In your letter you should:
    1. Introduce the conference, and give details; subject, time, place
    2. Enclose conference brochure
    3. Enclose free entry ticket
    4. Invite Mr. Taylor to visit your stand, and your special presentation (give subject, time
        and place)
    5. Give contact details if he needs anymore information.


                                          Írásbeli feladat
(E-mail formátumban)
Ön egy biztosítási cégnél dolgozik a humánerıforrás osztályon. A múlt hónapban egy másik, külföldi
cég megvásárolta az ön céget. Az új tulajdonos úgy döntött, hogy új munkarendet fog bevezetni a
cégnél. Önnek írnia kell egy e-mailt angol nyelven az összes alkalmazottnak, amelyben tájékoztatja az
újrendet.
Az álabbi pontok mindegyiket meg kell említeni egy rövid indokolással:


    1. A jövı hónaptól új munka rend lesz (az új tulajdonos miatt)
    2. Heti 42 órát kell dolgozni 40 helyett (a rugalmasság érdekeiben)
    3. Több lehetıség adódik a cégnél a más külföldi kirendeltségeknél dolgozni (hogy tanulhassunk
       a kollégáink tapasztalatából más országokban)
    4. Minden alkalmazott köteles egy nyelvvizsgát letenni (a cég többet fog dolgozni nemzetközi
       téren)
    5. Az évi jutalom 15%-al magasabb lesz, mint a múlt évi (így a cég ösztönözni fog a jobb
       teljesítményre)
    6. Minden alkalmazottal lesz egy részletes megbeszélés a humánerıforrás osztályon (hogy
        hogyan fejleszthetjük a személyi képességeket és a munkával kapcsolatos elégedettséget)




                                                                                                  69
Discourse markers

Which words are possible? In some cases more than one is right.

1. We are writing to you ……………………… clarify certain confused points.
   a) to             b) in order to c) so as to      d) for
2. Our delivery has been delayed ……………………….. the recent bad weather.
   a) because        b) because of   c) for  d) by
3. These questions cannot be dealt with in writing. ……………. we feel it would be better
   for us to have a meeting.
   a) Consequently b) That is why          c) This is because d) So that
4. I am sending your the report, ………………. you will have the chance to study it before
   the next Parliamentary session.
   a) because        b) for        c) since d) so
5. Most companies have extended holidays in August. ………………… there is not much
   chance of work being completed by then.
   a) So            b) Therefore c) thus       d) So that
6. We have not finished the project ………………. consistent illness among our staff.
   a) because        b) owing to c) for   d) because of
7. Unfortunately your application for assistance arrived after the closing date.
   ……………….. we are unable to consider it.
   a) As a result   b) That is because      c) Consequently        d) For this
8. …………………… your institute needs advice in dealing with European Law, you will
   no doubt be pleased to know that we have a full team of experts in this field.
   a) For            b) Since             c) As          d) Because of




                                                                                    70
The same and different
1 Sometimes I pay and sometimes she pays, but it all …………………….. in the end.
       A amounts               B evens out            C stands out           D balances
2 What’s ……………………. this word?
       A opposite from         B contrary to          C the contrary of      D the opposite of
3 He ……………………. because he was the only old person there.
       A. contrasted           B. stood up            C varied               D stood out
4 It’s funny you should say that. I’ve just had the …………………… thought.
       A like                  B identical            C like                 D similar
5 House prices ………………………….. greatly from one area to the next.
       A contrast              B vary                 C distinguish          D stand out
6 This particular flower is famous for its……………….. smell.
       A distinguished         B differential         C distinctive          D different
7 I had …………………. temporary jobs when I was a student.
       A different             B distinctive          C various              D varying
8 We sell a ……………. of different wines form around the world.
       A variation             B variety              C variance             D variant
9 The two pictures are very ………….. but if you look carefully you’ll notice one or two differences.
       A identical             B equal                C same                 D alike
10 Eighty kilometres is the ……………… fifty miles.

       A equivalent of         B equivalent from       C equal of            D equal from
11 Although technically speaking he wasn’t sacked, it ……………..the same thing.

       A evens out to          B amounts to           C points to            D signifies




                                                                                                 71
Suitability
1. He changed jobs because he decided that being a computer programmer wasn't ………………..for
   him.
   A fit               B. right                       C convenient          D suited
2. He isn't ………………………….such a responsible job. He's hopeless at making decisions.
   A fit for     B convenient for          C fitted in             D suited
3. I turned down the job because it was ……………………. It wasn't what I was looking for.
    A. unsuitable       B unfit                C inappropriate        D unsuited
4. I once knew a man called Mr. Good – a rather …………………. name considering he was sent to
    prison for fraud!
    A. unfit           B inappropriate             C inconvenient   D unsuited

5. These flats are clearly …………………. for people to live in - they should be pulled down
   immediately.
   A. unfit            B inappropriate      C inconvenient         D unsuited

6. She hasn't made many friends at university - she doesn't really seem to …………………
   A suit           B match                      C fit in              D take to

7. I don't think his speech was really …………………….. for a wedding - it was too depressing.
   A fit                B convenient         C appropriate         D suited


Fill each of the blanks with one suitable word.


1. If Tuesday doesn't ................. you, we could meet on Wednesday instead.
2. She spent a long time looking for a sofa that would .................. the carpets.
3. Would it be more …………………. for you if I came to your house, instead of you to mine?
4. You can't put the table in that corner because it won't ………………. - it's too big.
5. He called at a very ……………………… time - we were right in the middle of dinner.
6 Making jokes at granddad’s funeral was in very ……….... …………… .
7 You look great in that dress, it really ………..... you.
8 Where I'm living is …………………….. work because I don't have to trave1 far.
9 I saw a few flats but none of them were ………………………… for me. They were all too small.
10 You can't possibly wear those trousers. They ………….. with your jacket.




                                                                                         72
Factory Location
EXERCISE 1
Match the words in the box with the definitions below:
       components              layout                  subcontractors
       facility                lead time               utilities
       infrastructure          retailers               wholesalers

= a factory or plant in which production is carried out
= companies providing goods or services for another organisation
= shops and stores which sell to the final customer or end user
= roads, railways, airports, telecommunications, and so on
= services supplied to houses, factories and public buildings, such as electricity, gas, water and
   sewage, and telephone lines
= intermediaries between producers and retailers, who stock goods, and deliver them
= the pieces or parts that make up a manufactured product
= the placement of departments, workstations, machine s and so on in a factory
= the time needed to manufacture or deliver a product

EXERCISE 2
Complete the text using the words in the box above.
The decision to make a new product usual involves changing equipment and altering the ( 1) . . . . . . . .
. of an existing factory, or constructing a new production (2) . . . . . . . .. . When deciding where to
locate a plant or factory, a company has to take into consideration a number of factors, including the
efficiency of the region's (3) . . . . . . . . . , including telecommunications, and road and rail transport; its
(4) . . . . . . . .. - the supply of energy and so on, the cost of land and construction and local tax rates.
Land usually becomes cheaper the further you go from a city centre, but a company must make sure
that it will be able to find appropriate labour skills at a suitable price. It also needs to determine the
availability and cost of raw materials, (5) . . . . . . . . . and supplies, and the (6) .. . . .. . . . to acquire
them. The company must also take into account the cost of transporting raw materials and components
from suppliers and (7) . . . . . . . . . , and shipping or distributing products to (8) . . . . . . . . .' warehouses,
(9) . . . . . . . . . , or other plants in the network. Transport costs and time constraints make it logical to
produce close to the customer.

Plant Location Decisions

                  Criterion ›             1                 2                  3                  4              5
 Location              -
     1
     2
     3


                                                                                                                  73
                                         Making Predictions
1 The plane was late taking off, due to ………………. mechanical problems.
   A inevitable              B unforeseen   C unimagined   D unpredictable
2 The ending of the joke was so …………. that no one laughed.
   A predictable            B potential    C foreseen              D anticipated
3 The job has no……………. .
   A perspective     B outlook                  C prospects        D expectations
4 If he carries on like that, he's running the ………… of a heart attack.
    A odds                      B risk           C gamble          D liability
5 I've got to work late tonight - something has …………….. .
    A come out                B turned out       C come up         D turned off
6 There's not much ……………… of him finding a cheap hotel in such an expensive city.
   A potential         B chance        C outlook           D scope
7 She's got the ………….. to do well.
   A potential           B prospect             C outlook          D scope
8 I don't think that the situation will change in the ……………….. future.
    A known                     B predictable       C foreseen  D foreseeable
9 The weather ………………….. said it was going to rain today.
   A prediction     B prospect        C forecast                   D scope
10 I can't imagine …………….. anywhere except London
   A living            B to live        C live                     D that I live
11 The newspapers are ………………. that there will be a general election in two months.
   A turning up         B forecasting  C imagining          D telling
12 My ……………. was right. The result of the game was exactly what I said it would be.
   A anticipation    B prospect           C prediction     D outlook
13 For me, the film didn't ……………… all the enthusiastic publicity it received.
   A come up                B live up    C turn up to        D live up to
14 Don't worry about not finding a job yet. I'm sure something will turn …………. soon.
   A up                     B out                C about            D in
15 I ……………… that the score would be 2-0 but 1 was wrong.
   A told             B predicted       C looked out     D cropped up
17 He was late so often that it was …………….. that he would lose his job eventually.
   A forecast                 B inevitable C potential        D anticipated
18 I didn't ………….. that such a simple matter could become as complicated as it has.
   A foresee              B gamble           C forecast        D tell




                                                                                       74
New and Old

1 A lot of houses in this area are …………………… because nobody has bothered to look after them
   A second-hand           B antique    C dilapidated D out of date
2 My contract ……………… at the end of the year, so I don't know what I’ll do after that.
   A expires      B runs down        C invalidates        D completes
3 I'm not going to take the car to a garage because I think I can …………………. it myself:
    A renew                B do up            C repair            D renovate
4 It was a very fashionable film years ago, but it looks ……………….. now.
    A outdated            B dilapidated       C dated        D antique
5 The shop is being …………………….. . The whole interior is being changed.
   A refurbished      B repaired  C fixed             D mended
6 On the computer system at work, information is …………………… every hour.
   A renewed            B renovated        C updated   D done up
7 This train ticket is ………………… until the end of the month.
   A updated             B worthy     C valid            D validated
8 The insurance on the car runs out next week. I'd better …………………….
   A update it           B renovate it      C renew it       D run it in
9 This is a ……………….. neighbourhood. Most of the buildings are in bad condition.
   A damaged      B dated           C run-down          D run-out
10 We had to …………… the room because the wallpaper was in terrible condition.
   A renovate     B renew           C redecorate       D mend
11 Is this information ………………..? Does it include the most recent changes?
   A modern             B up to date C brand-new         D renewed
12 There's no need to throw that shirt away. It can easily be …………………….
   A done up              B renewed           C mended          D cured
13 They took us to see an ……………. monument which was built almost a thousand years ago.
   A outdated            B antique   C antiquated     D ancient
14 My passport is …………. so I can't use it any longer.
   A ancient         B outdated           C out of date     D dated
15 I read a newspaper every day because I like to know the ………….. news.
   A last                B ultimate          C latest        D newest




                                                                                         75
Letter writing phrases


Here are some useful phrases you can use in business letters


Job application


I am writing to apply for the position of………….
I think I would be suitable for the job.
I have the relevant experience.
I worked as a ………………
I am particularly interested in ……………….
As you will notice on my enclosed curriculum vitae…………
I would be pleased to discuss my curriculum vitae.
I will be available for interview …………..


Importing / placing an order


We have obtained your catalogue…….
We are one of the main importers of ………………….
We are especially interested in ……………………
We would like to place an introductory order with you ……………..
Please let us know if you can deliver within 10 weeks.
Could you please quote your prices c.i.f. London?
We will purchase on a regular basis.
Please note that early delivery is really essential.
We are currently seeking a partner in the Scandinavian region.
We are a major import-export company specialising in……………
We would be very grateful if we could ……………..
In particular we would appreciate a copy of your advertised brochure.
Please let us know your terms of trade, including quantity discounts, delivery dates and any
credit facilities
We would be very glad if you could …….




                                                                                               76
Problem : complaint


When we came to examine the goods, we found that …………. were broken.
The damage is probably due to ……………..
This is not the first time that ………………….
We will return them to you and we hope you can send the replacements very soon
We very much hope that in the future ……………….
I am afraid we will have to consider using another supplier.
We are not prepared to pay for the consignment until replacements are sent


Problem : apology


We have had several problems lately with …………….
As a result we may not be able to …………………
I am afraid we would like to ask you to ……………
We are very sorry about the ……………….
To compensate you for the inconvenience, we ……………..
Would you please inform me if the new conditions are acceptable


Other expressions


I am pleased to tell you that………………
I understand that you are planning to …………………
Our company has been producing …………………. for many years
We are prepared to make the necessary arrangements
We are not in the position to cover any expenses incurred
I am writing to you to obtain more information
We are planning to arrange …………..




                                                                                 77
                                       C Level English Test


                                               Writing


TIME: 50 MINUTES


   WRITE ON THE ANSWER SHEET. YOU CAN USE THIS SHEET FOR YOUR DRAFT


A feladat megoldásához egy- és kétnyelvő általános szótár használhátó


Ön Kiss Marton/Mária, a Debrecen városának mőemlékeinek felelıse. Ön az angol Superbright plc
cégtıl megrendelt a legmodernebb kültéri világítási rendszer a város történelmi mőemlékeinek. A
rendszer két hónappal a szállítás után meg nem tökéletesen mőködik.
Sürgısen szüksége van segítségre.
Írjon egy udvarias, de sürgetı e-mailt 120-150 szóban.


    •   Emlékeztesse a céget a megrendelésre
    •   Írjon le a problémát: alapvetıen jó minıség, de megbízhatatlan és nehéz az idızítés ki- és
        bekapcsolás kor.
    •   A megfelelı útmutató könyv hiányzik a cég weboldalról
    •   Küldjenek ide egy szakember minél hamarabb
    •   Ha a cég problémamentes megoldást tud ajánlani, akkor az önkormányzat több termékek meg
        fog rendelni tılük
    •   A város nem fogja befizetni a fennmaradó 50% ha nem oldódik meg a probléma két héten
        belül




                                                                                               78
                                    Linking words and phrases 1
Bristol Small Tools

Memo from:       General Manager
Date:            25 May 1982
To:              Managing Director
Ref No:          GRS/45/at

    (1)............. we have agreed in principle to try and cut down on staff, there are two serious
problems in the Buying Department.
    (2)........, the clerk in charge of ordering from the stores is also responsible for the filing of
information. (3) ……………., at the end of the month, when most people want replacements from the
stores, and (4) ............ require information from the files, he is unable to keep up with the demand. (5)
…………, he is practically unoccupied during the first week of every month, when he could be
helping someone else, (6) ………… I suggest we try to re-organise his job.
   (7)…………, the stores supervisor is getting rather old for the job, and (8) ……….., he is still
suffering from the same old complaint, (9) ……………… kleptomania. I          (10)      …………….
recommend that he be invited to retire early, (11),………………. we’ll, have no stores left!
   (12) …………….., if we were to appoint a much younger and more qualified man to replace him,
there would be several advantages over the present arrangements. (13) …………, we could put him in
charge of his own ordering, and (14) …………… reduce the burden on the buying clerk. We might
(15) ………… ask him to take a more active part than his predecessor in the annual stocktaking.
     I would argue, (16) ......... ………, that we approach the union, and suggest that Higgins should be
retired early, and (17) ..................... that his job should be upgraded to Clerical Grade G7.
(18)………….., we could ask the Personnel Department to draw up a new job specification on these
lines.


1. a) In spite of         b) While                         c) Because
2. a) Firstly             b) At first                      c) Namely
3. a) So that             b) Consequently                  c) Because
4. a) also                b) on the other hand             c) therefore
5. a) Also                b) In contrast                   c) Otherwise.
6. a) so                  b) although                      c) but
7. a) Consequently        b) Secondly                      c) After all
8. a) thirdly             b) on the contrary               c) furthermore
9. a) for example         b) also                          c) i.e.
10. a) therefore          b) so                            c) also
11. a) if not             b) otherwise                     c) consequently
12. a) For example        b) Therefore                     c) Now
13. a) E.g.               b) Namely                        c) For instance
14. a) thus               b) in the same way               c) similarly
15. a) also               b) secondly                      c) too
16. a) finally            b) therefore                     c) at last
17. a) consequently       b) moreover                      c) then
18. a) In spite of this   b) Meanwhile                     c) Therefore




                                                                                                         79
                                   Linking words and phrases 2



In the following sentences the linking words and phrases are missing.



1. Most of the interesting things take place on Saturday and Sunday…………….., a weekend is the
   best time for a visit.
        a) For example           b) Namely                c) I.e.                d) In other words

2. This film is for adults only, ……………. people over 16 years of age.
        a) such as               b) i.e.                  c) e.g.

3. Fresh field mushrooms are readily available during only one season, ……………….. the autumn.
        a) namely                b) for instance          c) in other words

4. For a baby, breast milk has many advantages over bottle milk. ………….., it builds up the baby's
   defences against disease.
        a) I.e.                  b) Namely.               c) For example         d) In other words

5. Everybody takes part in the dancing, …………….            , everybody except the musicians.
        a) in other words        b) or rather             c) namely              d) for instance

6. Manmade fibres …………… nylon and Terylene can be combined with cotton to give greater
   strength.
        a) such as               b) i.e.                  c) namely              d) or rather

7. Universities and Colleges of Advanced Technology,………………., places of higher learning, are
   financed partly by the state and partly out of private funds.
        a) that is to say        b) for example           c) namely              d) e.g.

8. Some metals, ………………platinum, are more expensive than gold.
        a) i.e.                  b) such as               c) in other words      d) viz.

9. In August everyone goes away, …………….. , everyone not connected with the tourist industry.
        a) for example           b) i.e.                  c) or rather           d) in other words

10. The town’s traditional handicrafts depend on two materials, ………………… leather and silk.
        a) viz.                  b) e.g.                  c) such as             d) in other words




                                                                                                     80
Put an appropriate word or phrase in the following sentences to bring out the relationship between the
   parts.

11. There is only one town in England with more than five million inhabitants, …………………….,
   London.

12. Late at night buses and trains can be dangerous. ………………………. if you want to avoid
   trouble, take a taxi.

13. The tour will include visits to several places of interest,……………………………, the British
   Museum and the Tower of London.

14. This brochure mainly concerns self-employed people, ……………….people who work but who
   are not employed by someone else.

15. A discount is given to students,…………………………, to people who have a student’s card,
   which is not always the same.



Complete the following sentences with an appropriate word or phrase.



16. The offer in this brochure concerns only household appliances, i.e.
   ……………………………………………………………………………………........................

17 The offer in this brochure concerns only household appliances, e.g.
   ………………………………………………………………………………….…………….......
18. Foreigners often find the months of July and August much too hot. In other words,
   …………………………………………………………………………………............................

19. Only three countries have sent people into space, viz. ……………………………………………

20. I like all sorts of food, or rather,………………………………………………………………….

21. Many large sea birds, such as ………………, can stay in the air for very long periods of time.

22. There is only one metal that is liquid at room temperature, namely ………………………………..

23. Winter sports, e.g. ………………………., are very popular these days.




                                                                                                   81
                                LINKING WORDS AND PHRASES 3

In the following sentences the linking words and phrases are missing. Decide which of the words
   would be possible.

Note that in some cases more than one of the words given may be possible.

1. We are writing to you ……………………………… clarify, certain confused points.
        a) to                     b) in order to           c) so as to          (d) for

2. Our reply has been delayed …………………………………… the recent postal strike.
        a) because of             b) owing to              c) for               d) by

3. These matters are difficult to deal with in writing. …………………………………….. we feel that
   it would be better for us to have a meeting.
        a) This is why            b) That is why           c) This is because   d) Consequently,

4 I am sending you my curriculum vitae, as well as other information, …………………………. you
   will have a chance to study it before our interview .
        a) so that                b) because               c)for                d) since

5. Unfortunately, your letter arrived after the final date for applications.
   ……………………………….. we cannot consider you for the post.
        a) As a result            b) That is because       c) Consequently                d) For this

6……………………………. you are an import-export company, you will no doubt be pleased to
   know that I speak several foreign languages.
        a) For                    b) Since                 c) As                d) Because of

7. I have had no regular work during the last year ………………….. persistent illness.
        a) because                b) owing to              c) for               d) because of

8. You suggest a visit in the first week of June. ………………………… June 2nd is a public holiday in
   our country, we would like to suggest the second week instead.
        a) For                    b) Because               c) Unfortunately     d) Since'

9. Most companies take their holidays in August. ………………………….. there is little chance of
   much work being completed by then.
        a) So                     b) Therefore             c) Thus              d) So that

10. I am enclosing a photocopy of the letter ……………………………………………………………..
   you can judge its tone for yourself.
        a) so that                b) in order for          c) because           d) since




                                                                                                        82
                                      Linking words and phrases 4

Nuclear Wastes
         There are three separate sources of hazard related to the use of nuclear reactions to supply us
with energy. (1)…......., the radioactive material must travel from its place of manufacture to the power
station. (2)……………..the power stations themselves are solidly built, the containers used for the
transport of the material are not. Unfortunately, there are normally only two methods of transport
available, (3)……………… road or rail, and both of these involve close contact with the general
public, (4)............ the routes are bound to pass near, or (5)................................. through, heavily
populated areas.
        (6) …………….., there is the problem of waste. All nuclear power stations produce wastes,
which in most cases will remain radioactive for thousands of years. It is impossible to de-activate
these wastes, and (7).................................... they must be stored in one of the ingenious but
cumbersome ways that scientists have invented. (8). ................, they may be buried under the ground,
dropped into disused mineshafts, or sunk in the sea.(9). ………... , these methods do not solve the
problem; they merely store it, (10).............................. an earthquake could crack open the containers
like nuts.
         (11)……………… , there is the problem of accidental exposure due to a leak or an explosion
at the power station. As with the other two hazards, this is extremely unlikely and (12).................. does
not provide a serious objection to the nuclear programme, (13) ………………..it can happen, as the
inhabitants of Harrisburg will tell you.
         Separately, and during short periods, these three types of risk are no great cause for concern.
Taken together, (14).................., and especially over much longer periods, the probability of a disaster
is extremely high.


1. a) So                  b) Firstly                 c) Rather
2. a) Secondly            b) But                     c) Although
3. a) for example         b) such as                 c) namely
4. a) because of          b) although                c) since
5. a) even                b) for instance            c) on the other hand
6. a) Secondly            b) Thirdly                 c) In that case
7. a) because             b) so                      c) after
8. a) Besides             b) For example             c) However
9. a) By the way          b) Lastly                  c) However
10. a) though             b) since                   c) after
11. a) Thirdly            b) Also                    c) For instance
12. a) so                 b) instead                 c) even
13. a) although           b) nevertheless            c) but
14. a) although           b) though                  c) even though


                                                                                                               83
                                   Linking words and phrases 5

World Cup Games
Dear Sir.,
        I have pleasure in informing you that your application to stage a series of World Cup matches
at your ground has been provisionally accepted by the arrangements Committee. (l) ……………….. I
think you have been fortunate, since there were many other clubs interested in obtaining this
concession. (2) ………….., your ground is not totally suitable for the purpose, but (3) …………….., I
am sure that you will make every effort to remedy such shortcomings as there may be. (4)
………………., you will derive great benefit from this opportunity, since your club will be one of the
centres of world attention.
        (5) ………….. there are some serious modifications to be made to your main grandstand and
other facilities. (6) …………………..,the Press Committee insists that proper provision should be
made for the hundreds of journalists who will be covering the matches. (7) …………………, this will
include telephones, typewriters, secretarial and translation services, as well as canteen facilities, but
the Press Committee will contact you direct with details. (8) ………………., this will require
considerable expenditure on your-part, but, (9) ……………………., it would be in your interest to
comply in full with the Press Committee's requirements so that all the reporters feel at home with you.
        (10) ………………., I am sure that I will be able to persuade the President of the committee to
ratify the provisional acceptance provided you make it obvious that you are willing to cooperate,
though, of course, I cannot say this openly.


Yours faithfully,
Peter Marks
P J W Marks (Secretary to the Arrangements Committee)


1. a) Evidently           b) Generally speaking     c) If I may say so
2. a) Obviously           b) Personally             c) Strictly speaking
3. a) technically         b) admittedly             c) personally
4. a) Naturally           b) Apparently             c) Frankly
5. a) Ideally             b) Unfortunately          c) In theory
6. a) Understandably      b) Eventually             c) Presumably
7. a) To be honest        b) Presumably             c) Surely
8. a) In theory           b) Obviously              c) Eventually
9. a) admittedly          b) in my opinion          c) roughly speaking
10 a) In short            b) Confidentially         c) Apparently



                                                                                                     84
PUNCTUATION


dear sirs my recent order which arrived safely contained two items one Red Pyjama and
one White Stripe Pyjama our daughter is four and a half months old weighs 7 kilos and
is 61 centimetres long in other words she is a fairly average size for her age given this
we were confident that the right size of pyjama for her would be the 70cm which you
claim will last until our baby is some nine months old to our great disappointment the
Red is a tight fit now while the White Stripe is a comfortable fit now and may last say
one or two months misleading labelling and predictions are unfortunate in any
circumstances but doubly so when the customer lives abroad apart from the trouble and
cost of returning the things the fact is that our daughter needs the garments that we
ordered now and we can thus hardly afford any delay could you please let me know
whether it is your normal policy to overestimate the age and size for which a particular
garment is suitable if this is so then we can simply take it into account when we make
orders in the future I would like to point out that we are in general happy with your
goods it is only the question of size which we find extremely irritating yours faithfully
Robin Purcel




                                                                                        85
                                              Üzleti levél



Ön a HTV cégnek dolgozik, mint külügyi referens. A HTV készíti elı és forgalmazza a magyar
változatait azoknak a külföldrıl érkezı DVD filmeknek. A londoni filmfesztiválon ön több érdekes
brazil filmet látott a Riomedia Spa.-tól. Írjon egy levelet a Riomedia-nak amelyben Ön:



    •   bemutatja cégét és annak tevékenységeit (filmszöveg fordítása, szinkronizálása, film
        forgalmazása Magyarországon)

    •   dicséri a Riomedia filmjenek londoni sikereit

    •   ajánl egy együttmőködési projektet (pl. egy vagy két film erejéig)

    •   röviden leírja cégé szolgáltatásainak árait

    •   meghívja a Riomedia egyik képviselıjét, hogy legyen ön cégének a hivatalos vendég a jövı
        évi budapesti filmfesztiválon




                                                                                             86
                                            Writing a report


Summary:


I have been asked to write a report about the possibility of launching a new soft drink on the
Hungarian market in 2010


Introduction:


The report will:
    1. look at the results of a marketing survey carried out in Budapest and Szeged in 2009
    2. make recommendations

Findings:


A survey was carried out in 2009 in Budapest and Szeged which revealed that many people over 30
were dissatisfied with the range of soft drinks available on the market. They considered them either
too expensive, or too ‘youth-orientated’.


Conclusion:


There appears to be a need for a new brand of soft drink for the older market.


Recommendations:


I recommend we develop a new range of fruit based soft drinks, and also a new brand name and
marketing concept designed to emphasise the value for money aspect of the product.




139 words




                                                                                                       87
                                             Education and career
              Be prepared to speak about your professional background and future aspirations


1.
I’m studying at the University of Debrecen, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration /
     Economics Faculty


2.
I’m in my second year / final year
I’m a second year student


3.
At the moment I’m specialising in ……..
I’m particularly interested in …………
I’ve always been very interested in …………….
I’m not quite sure what I want to do, but I think I’d prefer to work in the public / private / financial /
     industrial sector


4.
At the moment I’m working on (writing) my dissertation / thesis. It’s about ………..


5.
I particularly enjoy ………… / I find …………… quite difficult


6.
I chose ……………… because I’ve always been interested in / had an interest in…
I think it will help find a good job
I think it’s an interesting subject which can help you in many different ways.


7. and 8.
At the moment I’m concentrating on my studies / dissertation, but in a couple of months I’ll start to look
     for a job.
Yes, I’ve already done a few internet searches and I’ve sent my CV off to various companies.


9.
I think the course here will give me a good understanding of the Hungarian economy.
I’ll be able to analyse information more quickly and more accurately.

                                                                                                             88
Maybe it will help me to make better decisions.
It’s always good to have a theoretical background, but I think you can only really learn through practical
      experience.


10.
I’d like to work in the financial sector because you can use the skills you have learnt, you have to think
      quickly, there is usually quite a lot of variety in the work and or course the financial rewards are quite
      good.
The disadvantage is that it’s quite risky, and there is a lot of stress.


11.
My ideal job would be for a small to medium size company where I would be able to use my initiative
      and also work in a small team
Ideally I’d like to work for a large company because there’s more chance for promotion and you can learn
      a lot more.
I think I’d probably prefer to be self-employed, because it gives you so much more freedom to do the
      things you want to do.


12.
I think I’m quite good at understanding problems.
I usually manage to find ways of doing things quite efficiently
I always think carefully before taking a decision


I’m not so good at working in a big group
I don’t find it easy to tolerate other people if they’re slow or not concentrating on the job
I tend to give up if things get difficult




                                                                                                              89
                         Expressing opinions in a short talk


1. State the issue, explaining its relevance / topicality, and if necessary explaining why
   it causes disagreement/controversy.

       •   “One of the most widely-debated issues facing us today is ….”
       •   “In recent years the issue of … has been widely discussed …”
       •   “Changes in the economy/ in society have led to a debate about the role of / the
           best way to….”
       •   “Many people have very different opinions on the subject of …”
       •   “The question of … has always provoked argument / debate …”

2. Present different opinions

       •   “Many (people) have argued / argue that …
       •   “There is a widespread belief that...”
       •   “Opinion is divided but most people seem to believe / think ….”
       •   “There is general agreement that ….”
       •   “Most people believe that …,”
       •   “Although experts have argued that … the general public / ordinary people
           think …”
       •   “According to some experts …”

3. Present your own opinion


       •   “In my opinion…
       •   “I tend to think that …”
       •   “From my perspective, the situation is …”
       •   “I have always believed that …”
       •   “I have come to the conclusion that …. “
       •   “I am not convinced by these arguments, because I think….”
       •   “I have changed my opinion recently …”
       •   “I am sceptical about this. / I doubt that this is true.”

3. Conclude

       •   “All things considered, …”
       •   “Considering all the arguments, on balance I would say…”
       •   “In conclusion, I would argue that…”
       •   “All in all I tend to agree with people who …”




                                                                                        90
Discussing and Arguing


Introducing an Issue


      •   It has recently been argued             •    People have stated that…
          claimed                                      claimed that…
          stated                                       said that...
      •   A recently published article book            argued that....
          argues that... .. .
      •   A programme shown last week             •    It is frequently argued that.... It has
          discussed the idea of... .                   frequently been argued that...


Developing an argument


Addition AND                                  Reminding / Emphasising
Furthermore
What's more                                   We should not forget that...
Moreover                                      We must bear in mind that...
Besides                                       We must emphasise..;
In addition to this                           We must stress the fact that...


Concession BUT                                Concluding
However                                       So we have discussed / dealt with /
Nevertheless                                  considered the issue.
Despite this                                  In conclusion we can say:.,
In spite of this                              To sum up we can say...
...although...                                Finally...
                                              All things considered...
Reason + Consequence BECAUSE
consequently
as a result of this
so
therefore
that's why
since,
as,



                                                                                                 91
Notes for role plays
WORK
    •   Working conditions
    •   Job interview

PRACTICAL TASKS
    •   Delivery of a product
    •   Complaints about products

ADVERTISING AND MARKETING
    •   Packaging
    •   Design
    •   Advertising media
    •   Sponsorship
    •   Endorsement
    •   Becoming an agent
    •   Presenting a new product

FINANCE AND COMPANY STRATEGY
    •   Applying for credit
    •   Company costs and strategy
    •   Company location

OTHERS
    •   Franchising
    •   Insurance


    Useful phrases

Greeting
Good morning
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________


Opening
How can I help you?
Where would you like to start?
I think we should start with the delivery date.
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________


Prioritising
                                                                              92
The main thing (most important thing) for us is the delivery date.
The question / issue of cost is very important for us.
___________________________________________________________________________


Agreeing
That’s fine.
Yes, we could accept that.
That would be fine for us.
___________________________________________________________________________


Disagreeing
I have a slight problem with the date.
I’m not really very happy with the design / about the new project.
I’m afraid we can’t accept that.
We don’t usually take small orders.
I’m sorry, that’s totally unacceptable for us.
As a rule we don’t take accept small quantities.
OK, but I’d prefer it if you could give us 50.
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________


Making a constructive suggestion
I think this could be improved / we could improve this.
Would it be a problem for you if we sent the product by special delivery?
What if we gave you 150?
Suppose we gave you a bigger discount?
Would you like us to offer you more pay?
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________


Finalizing
OK, so I think that’s everything.
OK, I think we’ve covered everything.
Is there anything else we should discuss?
___________________________________________________________________________




                                                                              93
                               Discussing a Purchasing Contract


       Hungarian Company                                          European company dealing
        importing perfume                                                 in perfume
A               2500                     Number of Bottles of                1750
                                          perfume required


B           France, Italy                 Country of Origin         50% China, 50% mixed
                                                                           European


C      150 Euros / 100 bottles                  Prices              250 Euros / 100 bottles


D   POS boards and posters, free         Marketing material       Samples (15 Euros per 100)
              samples


                                     Discussing Office Renting


    Hungarian Agent acting for                                      London letting agent
    Hungarian company setting
       up branch in London
A    Central London, near or in                Location           London, near or in financial
          financial district                                           district 35% extra


B   ₤10 per sq. metre per month                  Cost             ₤20 per sq. metre per month


C             1 month                      Period of notice                2 months


D       50 work stations with            Equipment provided          25 work stations with
    broadband internet, 2 servers,                                broadband internet (at extra
    photocopier, air conditioning,                                  cost), air conditioning
         vending machines




                                                                                                 94
TAPESCRIPTS                                            like Singapore and Hong Kong. Fijians. were
                                                       known for their friendliness and hospitality.
                                                       Er. . this is something I noticed particularly
Fiji (p. 12)
                                                       when I was there before, but now alas you're
                                                       beginning to see a sullenness creep into their
Presenter: Fiji is a group of tropical islands in      character. People seem to dislike the visitors
   the Pacific Ocean. Bill White has just              and 'friendly Fiji', as advertised in the holiday
   revisited Fiji, where he worked during the          brochures, is no longer so apparent. These
   early 70s. And he's been noticing how the           advertisements have d . . have devalued it.
   island and islanders have changed. Bill, is
   Fiji the tropical holiday paradise that the
   holiday brochures tell us about?
Bill: Well, in many ways it still is - if you can
   get away from the main island and the capital
   Suva. Don't forget there are after all over 800
   islands in the group, of which only one
   hundred are inhabited. One of the troubles is
   there's always been tension between the
   Indians, who comprise 50% of the
   population, and the Fijians, who surprisingly
   make up only 42%. The Indians tend to run
   the commercial life of the island; they have
   the businesses and the shops, whereas the
   Fijians own the land and are farmers and
   fishermen. The impact of tourism has now
   become very noticeable, though it is quite a
   late development. It only started in the late
   60s. Um ... this came about because flights
   between America and Australia had to stop
   there to refuel. And visitors began to stop
   over in Fiji, to sample which was then. . er . .
   an unspoilt 'tropical paradise'. The tourists . .
   er . . now mainly tend to come from Australia
   and New Zealand, amounting to about
   200,000 each year. And tourism is the major
   dollar earner of the islands now. However,
   for every dollar earned, 75 cents of that goes
   straight out of the country again to pay for
   what the tourists consume. You see, the
   visitors tend not to eat the local Fijian
   produce. They eat New Zealand meat and
   salads, drink Australian beer and orange
   juice, and the local farmers have been, well,
   just unable to cope with the international
   demands of the visitors. Fiji is a very fertile
   island but . . er . . agriculture, for some
   reason, has not been able to adapt. And it's
   cheaper to import food by air. There have
   been some bad effects of tourism on the
   people. Ah . . for example, the children tend
   to play truant from school to act as guides for
   the shoppers - that is local shopkeepers will
   pay them to grab tourists and pull them into
   their souvenir shops. Haha . . ironically. .
   many of the souvenirs they buy are not made
   locally at all, but are imported from places
                                                                                                    95
                                             Negotiating a loan (p. 23)
                                                           like being even better - about 25 per cent
                                                           higher than last year. That means a net profit
A: We've been short of space for some time now
                                                           of around £30,000.
   and finally we've decided we must move to
   bigger premises. We've looked at a number            B: That sounds very healthy. Have you done any
   of properties in the area and come down in              projections?
   favour of this one in the centre of town.
                                                        A: Yes, we have. As you know, it's difficult to
B: How much are they asking for it?                        forecast accurately in our line of business,
                                                           but we reckon turnover should continue to
A: £300,000. But we think we'll get it for
                                                           increase at this sort of rate for the next five
   £280,000.
                                                           years and our margins, if anything, should get
B: I see. That's a major investment for a firm of          better.
   your size.
                                                        B: Good, perhaps you can leave the figures with
A: We realise that, but we see it as a valuable            me?
   resource for the business which will help us
                                                        A: Of course.
   to expand, and at the same time a sound
   investment.                                          B: What worries me is your cash flow - at
                                                           present you're operating at close to the limit
B: I understand. Are you looking for a loan to
                                                           of your £50,000 facility - in fact, sometimes
   cover the total price?
                                                           you're straying the wrong side of it. Do you
A: Well, we've considered that. We could raise             see any improvement in that area?
   £50,000 by cutting back on management
                                                        A: Well, as you know, in our line of business
   bonuses and one or two investment projects.
                                                           we're always going to have a cash flow
B: But ideally you'd like to borrow the full               problem. As we expand, it's difficult to avoid
   £300,000?                                               pushing up the need for working capital.
A: That's right.                                        B: I realise that, but you're thinking of taking on
B: What sort of term were you thinking of?                 an additional major drain on cash. On the
                                                           present figures, you may well have problems
A: Well, either fifteen or twenty years. Could             financing the payments.
   you give me a quote for both terms?
                                                        A: We're confident we can get the sales to
B: Yes, just a moment, I’ll check my tables.               justify this investment. Also I'm sure you'll
   Well, over fifteen years on fully fluctuating           find the security on the building is more than
   interest it'd be £3,500 a month, that's based           enough. We've had the property valued and
   on 2 per cent above current base rate. And              been told it's worth at least £350,000. On top
   over twenty years it'd be £3,000 a month.               of that, our fixed assets stand at £75,000 on
A: Yes, that's roughly what we calculated. I               the last balance sheet.
   think we'd prefer the twenty year loan
                                                        B: That's true, but what worries me is your
B: Right, let's come back to that. Have you             current liabilities - to the bank and also your
   brought some up-to-date figures for me?              current creditors. According to these figures,
A: Yes, I have. As you can see, turnover is up on       that stands at nearly £90,000.
   last year by about 20 per cent and profits look




                                                                                                     96
Presenting a Cash Flow Forecast (p. 26)                  precisely but it should be round about that
                                                         figure for each month. Then there’s the rate
                                                         on the factory. We’ve managed to get a very
C. We’ve worked out the cash flow for the six            good deal, just 14,000 pounds for the year,
   months beginning June this year.                      with half of it payable at the beginning of
BM. Mhm                                                  June - the second half in December. Of
                                                         course we need to equip the plant, and I’ve
C. As I’ve already mentioned, I plan to put in           budgeted 20,000 pounds outlay in the first
   30,000 pounds of my own capital to start up           month for machinery and equipment. Of
   the venture. As one would expect the sales            course, that’s a one-off payment and I don’t
   will not begin to pitch up until the second           anticipate further investment for a least a
   month, but after that they rise quite rapidly,        year. Certainly it should sustain production
   to reach 18,000 by the end of the six month           running at about 30,000 pounds’ worth of
   period.                                               monthly sales.
BM. And do you think this level of sales is           BM. Sorry to interrupt again; have you thought
  sustainable over the winter?                          of leasing some of the equipment? That
C. Yes, certainly. In fact we hope to boost them        would spread the cost a bit.
   further early next year.                           C. Yes, we looked into that but with interest
BM. Good. Anyway, I’m sorry, I interrupted               rates so high at the moment we really feel
  you.                                                   that we’re better off buying the stuff outright.

C. Right. On the cost side the first month is         BM. Fair enough
   going to prove a big drain. We have to start       C. So, that just leaves my own needs, and as you
   paying wages almost immediately at a rate of          can see, I’ve planned to take out 1,000
   6,000 pounds per month. In the first month            pounds a month to keep body and soul
   we need to buy in 3,000 pounds’ worth of              together
   raw materials, although by the third month –
   August – that should settle down to about          BM. Are you sure that’s enough?
   1,000 per month. Other costs include               C. Yes, I reckon we can just about manage on
   production and administrative overheads               that. So that means we’ve got closing cash
   which I’ve set at 1,500 and 1,000 pounds per          balances rising to a peak of 31,700 pounds
   month respectively.                                   negative in October and after that our needs
BM. Sorry to interrupt again; how accurate do            should come down quite rapidly, so that I
  you think those figures are?                           anticipate by the end of the six months we’ll
                                                         need a facility of around 22,000.
C. Well, if anything they’re a little on the high
   side. We’re obviously going to put quite a lot     BM. Well, thank you Mr. Cairns. What you
   of effort into selling and distribution. So I’ve     seem to be saying is that you’d like a facility
   set that at 1,800 per month, that includes           of around 30,000 pounds?
   advertising costs. It’s difficult to forecast      C. Yes, that’s right …




                                                                                                     97
  Improving the customer's way of life (p. 46)
Presenter: During her visit to the Far East recently        Ingrid: Well, they've been careful to provide
   Ingrid Fleming spent a day in Japan's largest               brochures and store directory in English as well as
   department store, Mitsukoshi, and the oldest too, I         in Japanese. If you say to someone . . er . . 'Do you
   believe, Ingrid?                                            speak English?' they smile at you and then they
Ingrid: Yes, that's right, Bill. Three hundred years ago       rush off to find somebody who does. At the
   it started as a simple kimono store and then it             information desk they don't just tell you where
   expanded. Now it's the largest department store             certain departments are, they ask . . they answer any
   chain in the Far East. Its main store is in down town       question you want to ask. Oh, and one other thing I
   Tokyo and it has fourteen branches throughout               found lovely: in the lifts they have girls who
   Japan and fourteen associated stores and seven              announce what's on each floor in a sort of
   overseas stores.                                            recitation, a sing-songy recitation, and they're
Presenter: Is there even one in London?                        dressed identically in a uniform of skirts with a
Ingrid: Oh, yes.                                               waistcoat, a little bowler hat with flowers and
Presenter: Er.. tell me, how is Mitsukoshi different           beautiful little white gloves - just like dolls. And
   from. . from, say, Harrods?                                 then as you come out of the lift or . . or as you step
Ingrid: Well, they don't really aim to sell goods to           off the escalator there's a . . a girl whose job is
   satisfy everyday needs, like a supermarket. They            simply to say 'Welcome!' Haha, it's wonderful, it's
   hope to 'find ways of enhancing the quality of              wonder. . oh, and they have racks of yellow
   customers' lives'. Now, unlike Harrods, the main            umbrellas for customers to borrow to cross over to
   Mitsukoshi store has a theatre, it has a cinema, a          the annexe in rainy weather. Oh, it's amazing, it's
   museum, an art gallery. It offers concerts, lectures        wonderful. Oh and you have to go to the roof
   and classes. In fact, all the Japanese department           garden, there's a play area for children there and a
   stores are in the business of not just selling, but of      beer garden with a view of the city.
   improving the customers' way of life.                    Presenter: Er.. Mitsukoshi's the only store to have
Presenter: And how do they set about this?                     these though, I suppose?
Ingrid: Well, one example: they have a Ladies Club          Ingrid: Oh, no no no. You get the lift girls in . . in . . in
   with lectures and classes in education and in               every department store and. . you know, with
   literature and in traditional arts and crafts, in           different coloured uniforms and roof gardens too.
   painting, flower-arranging, calligraphy. And they           Some stores even have their own railways.
   have exhibitions - I saw one called 'The Life and        Presenter: Have their own railways?
   Times of Queen Victoria' and there was one called        Ingrid: Mhm. They're built by one of the private
   'The Gold of Peru' and another on Russian                   commuter railway companies. Odakyu or Keido in
   Romantic paintings. And then there's a theatre with         Tokyo or Hanshin or Kintetsu in Osaka. You see,
   its own staff shows and visiting troupes and                you take the lift to the basement and you step out
   traditional theatre and classical dance - everything        onto the platform where your train is waiting. All
   like that. And . . and with the ticket you also get a       the stores are huge, have at least eight floors and the
   lunch bag. In the lunch bag there's sushi - thaťs raw       most amazing variety of goods on offer, Japanese
   fish with rice and there's wine and sandwiches, and         ones and imported ones.
   a magazine, in case the show's a bit boring.             Presenter: And when are these palaces open?
Presenter: Hahaha. What other facilities do they have?      Ingrid: From 10 o'clock in the morning till 6 or 6.30 in
Ingrid: Well, they'll look after your baby while you're        the evening. And the restaurant floors are open
   shopping. They put the baby in a 'dream room for            later, till about 10.30 at night.
   resting babies'. And they arrange your wedding:          Presenter: Every day of the week?
   they provide rooms for the ceremony and the              Ingrid: No, they're closed on one day of the week, but
   reception. And there's a wide choice of restaurants:        they're open on Sundays and on national holidays
   the main store even has an Italian and Chinese              when they're crowded with families of shoppers.
   restaurant and a McDonald's.                             Presenter: Mm. What can we learn from the Japanese
Presenter: Oh. H . . how do they cater for their foreign       example, do you think?
   visitors?                                                Ingrid: Well, you see, I think the Japanese department

                                                                                                                            98
store really is a feature of the Japanese way of life. I     think the best thing is to go to Mitsukoshi in Regent
don't think it can be transplanted to the West. I            Street. You see, it's like stepping into a different
mean, here stores compete in terms of price and              world. The staff will spend hours and hours dealing
range of choice. Now, in Japan the competition               with worried Japanese tourists who've lost their
between the department stores is different, they             luggage or passports or can't find their relations in
compete on service and on quality. If you want               London or can't find accommodation. You know,
discount prices there you. . you can go to a different       it's wonderful but it's no way to compete with the
type of store. You know, h . . here we shop around           prices of John Lewis’s or Selfridges, you know,
to find the cheapest prices. In Japan, people don't          which are just round the corner in Oxford Street.
care about that so much. You see, if you. . well, to       Presenter: Mm. Ingrid, many thanks for joining us.
see how the idea can be transplanted to London, I               Ingrid: Thank you, bye bye.




                                                                                                              99
Ocean City (p. 60)                                        be kept alive: the services, the. . er . . electrics, the
                                                          gas, the sewers, telecommunications - all down at
Presenter: We've all read the science fiction stories     the bottom. Now, the city would be supported
where colonies are established in space to solve the      on10,000 steel poles, each one of them 50 metres
over-population problem an Earth. Well, a Japanese        apart but not resting on the ocean floor but floating.
expert has now came up with a scheme that sounds          Now to achieve . . haha . . a level, each pole would
very similar but which is feasible using present-day      contain a water tank which would balance the
technology: a city in the middle of the ocean. Mike       enormous weight of the structure. And the level of
Hood reports.                                             water in each pole would be controlled by computer
Mike: Japan's main problem is cramming its large          to ensure that the structure floats steadily, on an
and ever-growing population into a very limited           even keel, so in fact there would be no sense of
amount of space. Only 18% of the 380,000 square           being afloat. The city would not be affected by
kilometres of land which make up the area of Japan        rough sea because of its enormous size and the
can be used for living space. Over two-thirds of          height above sea level. Models of this city have
Japan's land area is mountainous and therefore            been tested in water tanks which have simulated the
unsuitable for housing the 120 million people             worst sort of storms that the Pacific can throw at
which go to make up Japan's population. But now a         you. To build a single city would require 60 million
solution has been hit upon. Japan's foremost expert       tonnes of steel - now, to give you some idea of this,
on new technology, Kiyohide Terai, has set up a           that would be two-thirds of Japan's annual output
study group with some of Japan's most prominent           and five times the annual output of the UK. So,
industrialists: the heads of world famous                 where would the money come from? Well, the idea
companies, such as Sony, Mitsui, Nippon Steel,            is would be financed by an off-shore fund and offer
Nippon Telegraph & Telephone and the Asahi                tax benefits or t e Investors. It could in fact become
publishing group. Their answer is not a city in           a tax haven like the Cayman Islands and perhaps,
space but a vast steel metropolis built 300               looking further. . further ahead, could perhaps
kilometres off-shore in the Pacific Ocean to house        replace Hong Kong as a financial centre.
up to two million people. If the initial city is a        Presenter: Mmh.. yes. Sounds wonderful, Mike,
success, more identical cities will be a built until      but. . wh . . oh . . will people want to live there?
Japan's overcrowding problem is solved. The cost          Mike: Well, Terai says and hopes that they will.
of a single city at today's prices is estimated at f100   Um . . they're trying to make it as much like the
billion. Now, Ocean City, as the project is called,       mainland as possible. It won't be like being on an
would look something like this: it would consist of       ocean liner, there'll be golf courses, swimming
four decks built on stilts. Each deck would be five       pools, the parks. . er . . horse-riding club s and of
kilometres square, thaťs just over three miles, and a     course it would have one distinct advantage over
20-metre gap between each deck. Now the top               mainland Japan: there wouldn't be any earthquakes.
deck, the deck open to the sky, would have the
housing, the... the shops, the parks and perhaps
even an airport. The second deck would house the
transport system and this would consist of tube
trains, only robot trains, unmanned. Below that on
the third deck is where the city would earn its
living. This would house the industry: not factories
as we know them, but the high technology. . er . .
factories that Japan has become famous for
computer science, silicon chips. The bottom deck is
the beating heart of the city, this is where it would


                                                                                                               100
Plant location decisions (p. 73)                            initial investment cost. Again Scotland comes
                                                            out best with slightly 1ower costs, mainly due to
A: Right, ladies and gentlemen, I suggest we get            lower labour costs and cheaper land prices.
  down to business. As you know, the most                   France is weighted a little higher in terms of
  important item on our agenda today is the                 investment costs while Germany is very much
  location of the new plant. Susan will bring you           higher. These first two factors are of course
  up to date with our latest thinking. Susan. .. .          contributing factors to manufacturing costs -
B: Thank you. Well, I'll be brief. We've narrowed           here again we see a slight advantage gained by
  down the decision to three locations. Scotland,           Scotland with France very close behind and
  just outside Edinburgh; France, near our existing         Germany lagging behind in third place. So that
  distribution centre in Lyon, and thirdly Germany          brings me to the final factor, which is also the
  in the south near Nuremburg. I'd like to outline          most complex. . .
  the factors that 1 feel should be taken into            C: Just before you move onto tax, can I ask you
  account when coming to our final decision. To             about the plant construction?
  help us to see this clearly I've prepared a             B: Of course, go ahead.
  transparency. Now, as you can see, I've broken          C: I was wondering whether with investment costs?
  down these factors along the top here.                  B: That's a good question and one which I have
  First of all, arguably the most vital in terms of         taken into account when weighting tax benefits,
  efficiency of our whole operation, I've put               so if may go on?
  communications - meaning the ease of supply             C: Please. -
  and delivery from and to the European market            B: Right, as I was saying, tax is rather more
  and internal information systems. As you can              complex. It's not just a question of comparing
  see, Lyon with its central European position              corporate tax rates in the different locations - on
  scores highest in this area, with Scotland coming         this basis Scotland comes out slightly ahead of
  off worst. We'll have to come back to this point          France and a long way ahead of Germany. It's a
  to discuss it in more detail as it is crucial to our      question of looking at the whole incentive
  future.                                                   package. Now Scotland provides tax relief on
  The second factor is the labour force. Here there         important investment when employment is
  are really two considerations: firstly availability       offered - this is one of the reasons the plant
  and secondly. Scotland comes out on top with a            construction costs are lower than the others, On
  relatively high unemployment figure and a good            the other hand, France has a very attractive
  skill base. There is little to choose between             package over the first five years of operation
  France and Germany.                                       which means that we virtually pay no tax on
  The third factor is plant construction cost, i.e. the     profits during these initial years.




                                                                                                             101

				
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