; Sanitary Survey Monmouth Beach To Sandy Hook State of New
Documents
Resources
Learning Center
Upload
Plans & pricing Sign in
Sign Out
Your Federal Quarterly Tax Payments are due April 15th Get Help Now >>

Sanitary Survey Monmouth Beach To Sandy Hook State of New

VIEWS: 3 PAGES: 84

  • pg 1
									           Sanitary Survey
     Monmouth Beach To Sandy Hook
(A011 – An Atlantic Ocean Shellfish Growing Area)
                    May 2005




Department Of Environmental Protection                            State Of New Jersey
Bradley M. Campbell, Commissioner                   Richard J. Codey, Acting Governor
     New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection
                  Land Use Management
              Water Monitoring and Standards
               Post Office Box 409, Trenton
                 Water Monitoring Project


           Leslie J. McGeorge, Administrator




                May 2005

        SANITARY SURVEY
MONMOUTH BEACH TO SANDY HOOK
              1998 - 2001


   Water Monitoring Report Prepared by:
               Mike Curtis
             Project Manager




    Bureau of Marine Water Monitoring
      PO Box 405 Stoney Hill Road
         Leeds Point, NJ 08220
     Robert Connell, Jr., Bureau Chief
           STATE OF NEW JERSEY

 RICHARD J. CODEY, ACTING GOVERNOR




              SANITARY SURVEY

   MONMOUTH BEACH TO SANDY HOOK

(A011 – An Atlantic Ocean Shellfish Growing Area)



                    1998 - 2001




   New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection
              BRADLEY M. CAMPBELL
                  COMMISSIONER
               This report was funded

           by a State General Appropriation

               Federal Clean Water Act

                       and the

Monmouth County Hard Clam Relay and Depuration Fund




                       i
                                 TABLE OF CONTENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY                                                1

INTRODUCTION                                                     1
Purpose                                                          1

Background                                                       2

Functional Authority                                             4

Importance of Sanitary Control of Shellfish                      5


PROFILE                                                          6

Location                                                         6

Description                                                      6

History                                                         10


METHODS                                                         11

BACTERIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION AND DATA ANALYSIS                 14
  Sampling Strategy – NSSP Criteria                             14

Marine Biotoxins                                                16


SHORELINE SURVEY                                                16

Evaluation of Biological resources                              16

Land Use                                                        17

Changes since last survey                                       24

Identification and Evaluation of Sources                        26
   DIRECT DISCHARGES –Treatment Facility Wastewater Effluents   26
   Two Rivers Water Reclamation Authority                       28
   Monmouth County Bayshore Outfall Authority                   32
   Township of Middletown Sewerage Authority                    36
   Bayshore Regional Sewerage Authority                         37
   INDIRECT DISCHARGES                                          40
   Spills or Other Unpermitted Discharges                       40
   Storm Water Inputs                                           41
   Stormwater Impact Studies                                    43


HYDROLOGY AND METEOROLOGY                                       47



                                              ii
Patterns of Precipitation                            47

Precipitation Analysis                               48

Tidal Effects                                        51


WATER QUALITY STUDIES                                54

Bacteriological Quality                              54
  Compliance with NSSP Approved Criteria             54

Related Studies                                      59


INTERPETATION AND DISCUSSION OF DATA                 61

Bacteriological                                      61


CONCLUSIONS                                          63

Bacteriological Evaluation                           63


RECOMMENDATIONS                                      67
  Recommended Classification Change                  67
  Legal Description for Recommended Change:          68
  Recommended Changes in Monitoring Schedule         72


LITERATURE CITED                                     74

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS                                      75

APPENDICES                                           76




                                               iii
                                  TABLE OF FIGURES

Figure 1: State of New Jersey Shellfish Agencies                                                  5
Figure 2: Location of Shellfish Growing Area A011 - Monmouth Beach to Sandy Hook - Monmouth
     County, New Jersey                                                                           8
Figure 3: Current Classification for Shellfish Growing Area A011 - Monmouth Beach to Sandy Hook
     - Monmouth County, New Jersey                                                                9
Figure 4: Current Sampling Stations for Shellfish Growing Area A011 - Monmouth Beach to Sandy
     Hook - Monmouth County, New Jersey                                                          13
Figure 5: Suction Dredging from Ship off the Coast of Sea Bright, NJ                             18
Figure 6: Beach Replenishment from Suction Dredge, Sea Bright, NJ                                19
Figure 7: Structures, Shore and Vegetation for Shellfish Growing Area A011 - Monmouth Beach to
     Sandy Hook - Monmouth County, New Jersey                                                    22
Figure 8: Coastal Land Use Patterns for Shellfish Growing Area A011 - Monmouth Beach to Sandy
     Hook – Monmouth County, New Jersey                                                          23
Figure 9: Coastal Municipalities for Shellfish Growing Area A011 - Monmouth Beach to Sandy
     Hook - Monmouth County, New Jersey                                                          25
Figure 10: New Grit Chamber following Upgrade for Two Rivers Water Reclamation Authority 31
Figure 11: Old Aeration System, Utilized Prior to Renovation of Two Rivers Water Reclamation
     Authority                                                                                   31
Figure 12: New Aeration System (Fine Bubble Diffused Air System) as Part of Plant Upgrade for
     Two Rivers Water Reclamation Authority                                                      32
Figure 13: Monmouth County Bayshore Outfall Authority Discharge Line - Shellfish Growing Area
     A011 - Monmouth Beach to Sandy Hook - Monmouth County, New Jersey                           35
Figure 14: Direct Discharges to Waters in or near Shellfish Growing Area A011 - Monmouth Beach
     to Sandy Hook - Monmouth County, New Jersey                                                 39
Figure 15: Spills or Other Unpermitted Discharges                                                41
Figure 16: Areas Impacted by Stormwater                                                          44
Figure 17: Indirect Discharges (Storm Water Outfalls) to Bay or River Sources near Shellfish
     Growing Area A011 - Monmouth Beach to Sandy Hook - Monmouth County, New Jersey              45
Figure 18: Stormwater Drain - Indirect Discharge is received by the Navesink River, Sea Bright, New
     Jersey                                                                                      46
Figure 19: Potentially impacting Sewage Spills or Overflow from Sewerage Infrastructure Damage
     or Malfunction                                                                              46
Figure 20: Sampling Station Impacted by Tidal Changes in Shellfish Growing Area A011 -
     Monmouth Beach to Sandy Hook - Monmouth County, New Jersey                                  53
Figure 21: Current Sampling Stations for Shellfish Growing Area A011 - Monmouth Beach to Sandy
     Hook - Monmouth County, New Jersey                                                          56
Figure 22: Sampling Stations that did not Meet Approved Criteria for APC Year Round Data (w/in
     Prohibited Classification) in Shellfish Growing Area A011 - Monmouth Beach to Sandy Hook -
     Monmouth County, New Jersey                                                                 57
Figure 23: Nutrient Sampling Station for Shellfish Growing Area A011 - Monmouth Beach to Sandy
     Hook - Monmouth County, New Jersey                                                          60
Figure 24: Current Classification for Shellfish Growing Area A011 - Monmouth Beach to Sandy
     Hook - Monmouth County, New Jersey                                                          66
Figure 25: Proposed Changes to Classification for Shellfish Growing Area A011 - Monmouth Beach
     to Sandy Hook - Monmouth County, New Jersey                                                 70
Figure 26: Proposed Changes to Plot Coordinates and Classification for Shellfish Growing Area
     A011 - Monmouth Beach to Sandy Hook - Monmouth County, New Jersey                           71
Figure 27: Proposed Changes to Sampling Stations for Shellfish Growing Area A011 - Monmouth
     Beach to Sandy Hook - Monmouth County, New Jersey                                           73




                                                iv
                                  TABLE OF TABLES

Table 1: Commercial Data for Surf Clams Showing Pounds of Meat and Ex-vessel Value for New
     Jersey Landings                                                                            10
Table 2: Criteria for Adverse Pollution Condition Sampling Strategy when Utilizing 3 -Tube Decimal
     Dilution Method                                                                            16
Table 3: Criteria for Systematic Random Sampling Strategy when Utiliing 3 - Tube Decimal Dilution
     Method                                                                                     16
Table 4: Population Information for Shellfish Growing Area A011 – Monmouth Beach to Sandy
     Hook – Monmouth County, New Jersey                                                         26
Table 5: Seasonal Averages for Five Day Biological Oxygen Demand, Suspended Solids and Effluent
     Fecal Coliform for Two Rivers Water Reclamation Authority                                  30
Table 6: Meteorologically Related Flows for Two Rivers Water Reclamation Authority              30
Table 7: Seasonal Averages for Five Day Biological Oxygen Demand, Suspended Solids and Effluent
     Fecal Coliform for Township of Middletown Sewerage Authority                               37
Table 8: Meteorologically Related Flows for Township of Middletown Sewerage Authority           37
Table 9: Seasonal Averages for Five Day Biological Oxygen Demand, Suspended Solids and Effluent
     Fecal Coliform for Bayshore Regional Sewerage Authority                                    38
Table 10: Meteorologically Related Flows for Bayshore Regional Sewerage Authority               38
Table 11: Map Key(s) - Direct Discharge(s) to Waters of Shellfish Growing Area A011 – Monmouth
     Beach to Sandy Hook, Monmouth County, New Jersey                                           40
Table 12: Average Mid-Atlantic Storm Event Information.                                         47
Table 13: Storm Event Volume for 2-Year Storm Event Recurrence (source: USGS)                   47
Table 14: Precipitation Data for Shellfish Growing Area A011 – Monmouth Beach to Sandy Hook –
     Monmouth County, New Jersey                                                                50
Table 15: Bottom Sampling Station Showing Tidal Effects (Total Coliform) in Shellfish Growing
     Area A011 - Monmouth Beach to Sandy Hook - Monmouth County, New Jersey                     54
Table 16 : Water Quality Summary (Total Coliform) for Sampling Stations that did not Meet
     Approved Criteria for APC Year Round Data (w/in Prohibited Classification) in Shellfish
     Growing Area A011 - Monmouth Beach to Sandy Hook - Monmouth County, New Jersey
     (02/15/98 - 06/26/01)                                                                      58
Table 17 : Water Quality Summary (Total Coliform) for Shellfish Growing Area A011 - Monmouth
     Beach to Sandy Hook - Monmouth County, New Jersey (02/15/98 - 06/26/01)                    58
Table 18: Data Summary - Nutrient Sampling Station for Shellfish Growing Area A011 - Monmouth
     Beach to Sandy Hook - Monmouth County, New Jersey                                          61




                                                v
                             EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The enclosed water quality analysis for the Atlantic Ocean from Monmouth Beach to
Sandy Hook (A011), provides the Bureau of Marine Water Monitoring (BMWM) the
opportunity to upgrade a portion of these shellfish growing waters to an Approved
classification (note: A011 waters are currently classified as Prohibited). As A011 is an
Atlantic Ocean Shellfish Growing Area, it should be noted that classifications for ocean
waters for New Jersey are either Approved or Prohibited. The data utilized for analyses in
this report represent samples collected between February 1998 and June 2001.
Interpretation of these data indicate the waters proposed in this report for upgrade from
the Prohibited classification currently meet the criteria for re-classification to Approved.
The Two Rivers Water Reclamation Authority discharge pipe is located just to the South
of A011 and the Monmouth County Bayshore Outfall Authority discharge pipe (utilized
by the Township of Middletown Sewerage Authority and Bayshore Regional Sewerage
Authority) is located within A011. Wastewater treatment plant outfalls require the
designation of safety zones or Prohibited areas that act as buffer zones. These buffers are
used as a precaution to protect public health in the event of accidental effluent discharge
of untreated sewerage. It should be noted that the upgrade proposed in this Sanitary
Survey maintains the appropriate Prohibited acreage surrounding the two wastewater
treatment outfalls in/near this shellfish growing area. Specifically, a portion of the waters
northeast of the Two Rivers Water Reclamation Authority discharge pipe and east of the
Monmouth County Bayshore Outfall Authority discharge pipe are proposed for upgrade
to Approved classification. This will open up approximately 3695 additional acres of
Approved shellfish growing waters for the State of New Jersey.




                                  INTRODUCTION


PURPOSE

This shellfish growing area report is part        harvesting while insuring public health
of a series of studies having a dual              and safety with regard to human
purpose. The first and primary purpose            consumption of those harvests.
is to comply with the guidelines of the
National Shellfish Sanitation Program             The second purpose is to provide input
(NSSP), which are established by the              to the Integrated Water Quality
Interstate       Shellfish      Sanitation        Monitoring and Assessment Report,
Conference (ISSC). Reports generated              which is prepared pursuant to Sections
under this program            form     the        305(b) and 303(d) of the Federal Clean
basis for classifying waters for shellfish        Water Act (P.L. 95-217).          The
                                                  information contained in the growing


                                             1
area reports is used for the 305b portion        portion of the report describes the
of the Integrated Report, which provides         watershed that drains to that estuary.
an assessment to Congress every two
years of current water quality conditions        The Department participates in the
in the State's major rivers, lakes,              cooperative National Environmental
estuaries, and ocean waters. The reports         Performance        Partnership     System
provide valuable information for the             (NEPPS) with the USEPA which
305(b) portion of the Integrated Report,         emphasizes ongoing evaluation of issues
which describes the waters that are              associated       with       environmental
attaining state designated water uses and        regulation, including assessing impacts
national clean water goals; the pollution        on      waterbodies     and     measuring
problems identified in surface waters;           improvements in various indicators of
and the actual or potential sources of           environmental health. The shellfish
pollution. Similarly, the reports utilize        growing area reports are intended to
relevant information contained in the            provide a brief assessment of the
305(b) portion of the Integrated Report,         growing area, with particular emphasis
since the latter assessments are based on        on those factors that affect the quantity
instream monitoring data (temperature,           and quality of the shellfish resource. The
oxygen, pH, total and fecal coliform             shellfish growing area reports provide
bacteria, nutrients, solids, ammonia and         valuable information on the overall
metals), land-use profiles, drainage basin       quality of the saline waters in the most
characteristics and other pollution source       downstream sections of each major
information.                                     watershed. In addition, the reports assess
                                                 the quality of the biological resource and
From the perspective of the Shellfish            provide a reliable indicator of potential
Classification Program, the reciprocal           areas of concern and or areas where
use of water quality information from            additional information is needed to
reports represent two sides of the same          accurately assess watershed dynamics.
coin: the growing area report focuses on
the estuary itself, while the 305(b)

BACKGROUND

As a brief history, the NSSP developed           through workshops held periodically
from public health principles and                until 1977. Because of concern by many
program controls formulated at the               states that the NSSP guidelines were not
original    conference     on   shellfish        being enforced uniformly, a delegation
sanitation called by the Surgeon General         of state shellfish officials from 22 states
of the United States Public Health               met in 1982 in Annapolis, Maryland, and
Service in 1925. This conference was             formed the ISSC. The first annual
called after oysters were implicated in          meeting was held in 1983 and continues
causing over 1500 cases of typhoid fever         to meet annually at various locations
and 150 deaths in 1924. The tripartite           throughout the United States.
cooperative program (federal, state and
shellfish industry) has updated the              The NSSP Guide for the Control of
program procedures and guidelines                Molluscan Shellfish sets forth the
                                                 principles and requirements for the
                                             2
sanitary control of shellfish produced             classified as restricted, prohibited
and shipped in interstate commerce in              or otherwise closed.
the United States. It provides the basis
                                                 3. The regulation and supervision of
used by the Federal Food and Drug
                                                    shellfish    resource   recovery
Administration (FDA) in evaluating state
                                                    programs.
shellfish sanitation programs. The five
major points on which the state is               4. The ability to restrict the harvest
evaluated by the FDA include:                       of shellfish from areas in a public
                                                    health emergency, and
  l. The classification of all actual and
     potential shellfish growing areas           5. Prevent the sale, shipment or
     as to their suitability for shellfish          possession of shellfish that cannot
     harvesting.                                    be identified as being produced in
                                                    accordance with the NSSP and
  2. The control of the harvesting of
                                                    have the ability to condemn, seize
     shellfish from areas that are
                                                    or embargo such shellfish.




                                             3
FUNCTIONAL AUTHORITY

The authority to carry out these               shellfish grounds under the Authority of
functions is divided between the               N.J.S.A. 50:2 and N.J.A.C. 7:25. This
Department of Environmental Protection         bureau, in conjunction with the BMWM,
(DEP), the Department of Health and            administers the Hard Clam Relay
Senior Services, and the Department of         Program.
Law and Public Safety. The Bureau of
Marine Water Monitoring (BMWM),                The Bureau of Law Enforcement, in the
under the authority of N.J.S.A. 58:24,         DEP’s Division of Fish and Wildlife,
classifies the shellfish growing waters        and the Division of State Police, in the
and administers the special resource           Department of Law and Public Safety,
recovery programs.           Regulations       enforce the provisions of the statutes,
delineating the growing areas are              and rules mentioned above.
promulgated at N.J.A.C. 7:12 and are
revised annually. Special Permit rules         The Department of Health and Senior
are also found at N.J.A.C. 7:12 and are        Services is responsible for the
revised as necessary.                          certification of wholesale shellfish
                                               establishments and, in conjunction with
The Bureau of Shellfisheries, in the           the BMWM, administers the depuration
Division of Fish and Wildlife, issues          program.
harvesting licenses and leases for




                                           4
                                                            Governor
                         Department of                                    Department of Health    Department of Law
                    Environmental Protection                               and Senior Services     and Public Safety

            Land Use                 Natural & Historical                  Division of Consumer    Division of State
           Management                    Resources                            Health Services           Police

         Water Monitoring               Division of Fish
          And Standards                   & Wildlife                        Shellfish Program      Marine Bureau

         Bureau of Marine      Marine Fisheries           Bureau of
         Water Monitoring      Administration          Law Enforcement
                                                             Marine
                                  Bureau of
                                                           Enforcement
                                 Shellfisheries
                                                             Regions


                                                       LOCATION

                               Nacote Creek
          Leeds Point            Bivalve               Nacote Creek             Trenton            Field Stations



                                                      ACTIVITIES

           Water
                                 Licenses,             Enforcement:                                Enforcement:
          Monitoring                                                           Certified
                                  Leases,                                      Dealers;
                                                        Resource
            Special                                                                                   All New
                                                       Management,
            Permits              Resource                                                              Jersey
                                                                              Depuration
                                  Plants                                                              Statutes
                                                            Special             Plants
         Classification
                                                            Permits
            Charts

FIGURE 1: STATE OF NEW JERSEY SHELLFISH AGENCIES




         IMPORTANCE OF SANITARY CONTROL OF SHELLFISH

         Emphasis is placed on the sanitary                               begins with fecal contamination of the
         control of shellfish because of the direct                       shellfish growing waters. Sources of
         relationship between pollution of                                such contamination are many and varied.
         shellfish growing areas, and the                                 Contamination reaches the waterways
         transmission of diseases to humans.                              via runoff and direct discharges.
         Shellfish borne infectious diseases are
         generally transmitted via a fecal-oral                           Clams, oysters and mussels pump large
         route. The pathway is complex and                                quantities of water through their bodies
         quite circuitous.     The cycle usually                          during the normal feeding process.


                                                                      5
During this process the shellfish also             3. An assessment of water quality.
concentrate microorganisms, which may                 Complete       intensive   sanitary
include pathogenic microbes, and toxic                surveys are conducted every 12
heavy metals/chemicals. It is imperative              years with interim narrative
that a system is in place to reduce the               evaluations completed on a three
human health risk of consuming                        year basis. If major changes to the
shellfish from areas of contamination.                shoreline or bacterial quality
                                                      occur, then the intensive report is
Accurate classifications of shellfish                 initiated prior to its l2 year
growing areas are completed through a                 schedule.
comprehensive sanitary survey. The
principal components of the sanitary            The following narrative constitutes this
survey report include:                          bureau's assessment of the above
  1. An evaluation of all actual and            mentioned components to comply with
     potential sources of pollution,            the three year reappraisal. Additionally,
                                                a partial shoreline survey was completed
  2. An evaluation of the hydrology of          for the purpose of upgrading and
     the area and                               reclassifying a portion of the shellfish
                                                growing waters.

                                      PROFILE


LOCATION

This Sanitary Survey covers the ocean           limit (Please Note: all references to
shellfish    growing     waters     from        “miles” in this report are in Nautical
Monmouth Beach to Sandy Hook. It                Measure, whereby, one nautical mile
extends along approximately 10.45 miles         equates to 6,086 feet).
of the Atlantic Ocean covering an area
from Monmouth Beach in the South,               Shellfish Growing Area A011 consists
North to Sandy Hook (approx. 7.85 mi.),         of 27,387 acres that have been classified
then again North (approx. 2.60 mi.) off         entirely as Prohibited prior to this report.
Sandy Hook and offshore (East) from             This area is also displayed on charts #1
these locations, encompassing that area         and #2 of the 2004 Shellfish Growing
of water located within this portion of         Water Classification Charts.
the State’s three (3) mile jurisdictional



DESCRIPTION

The Prohibited waters of A011 are               Monmouth Beach in the south toward
bordered to the west by a peninsula type        Sandy Hook in the north. The Atlantic
land formation that        runs from




                                            6
Ocean waters of A011 mix readily with            are absent along the ocean shoreline of
the waters of Sandy Hook and Raritan             A011.      Any waters having been
Bays to the west and the Lower New               impacted by indirect sources are
York Bay to the North. Further, the New          primarily directed to the bayside. Storm
York Bight and the shipping lanes                water runoff eventually enters the waters
associated with ingress and egress into          of A011 after being substantially diluted
New York and northern New Jersey are             by the waters of the Shrewsbury,
close by to the Northeast.                       Navesink, Raritan, and Hudson rivers.

Several rivers feed into the bays that           The data utilized for this report suggests
eventually mix with the waters of A011.          there are currently no significant impacts
These would include the Shrewsbury,              to the waters of A011 from either direct
Navesink, Raritan, and Hudson rivers.            or indirect sources. As a result, a
                                                 reduction in overall Prohibited acreage
About 50 percent of the land adjacent to         (currently 27,387 acres) is suggested in
this shellfish growing area consists of a        this Sanitary Survey. The area to the
number of seashore towns in a more               northeast of the Two Rivers Water
urban setting. This would be the sector          Reclamation Authority Discharge Pipe
from Monmouth Beach in the south to              and east of the Monmouth County
the base of Sandy Hook. Sandy Hook               Bayshore Outfall Authority Discharge
comprises the central to northerly sector        Pipe is proposed for reclassification to
and it is primarily a national recreation        Approved acreage.
area. As a result, the central to northern
section is far less populated and contains       This reduction will upgrade 3695
far fewer building structures.                   shellfish growing water acres from
                                                 Prohibited to Approved, providing year
There are direct source inputs into this         round access for ocean shellfishery
shellfish growing area. These inputs             harvests in this area. With this, the new
come from the outfalls for the Two               figure that is proposed for Prohibited
Rivers Water Reclamation Authority and           acreage within A011 shellfish growing
the Monmouth County Bayshore Outfall             waters would be 23,692.
Authority discharge pipes, which are
located in A011. Indirect source inputs




                                             7
FIGURE 2: LOCATION OF SHELLFISH GROWING AREA A011 - MONMOUTH BEACH   TO   SANDY HOOK -
MONMOUTH COUNTY, NEW JERSEY




                                        8
FIGURE 3: CURRENT CLASSIFICATION FOR SHELLFISH GROWING AREA A011 - MONMOUTH BEACH TO
SANDY HOOK - MONMOUTH COUNTY, NEW JERSEY




                                         9
HISTORY

Historically, Approved ocean waters                      this Bureau and enforced by the Division
(such as those outside this growing area)                of Fish and Wildlife.
have been used for harvesting surf clams
(Spisula solidissima) and blue mussels                   In addition to being the State’s largest
(Mytilus edulis) by dredge boats                         molluscan fishery, New Jersey’s surf
licensed by the Division of Fish and                     clam fishery historically leads all other
Wildlife. Surf clams (for bait purposes                  surf claming states in total landings
only - non-human consumption) can also                   (Normant, 2001). Table 1 denotes
be harvested from Prohibited areas                       commercial landings in pounds of meat
under a special program administered by                  and ex-vessel value for New Jersey surf
                                                         clams from 1993 through 2002.
TABLE 1: COMMERCIAL DATA FOR     SURF CLAMS SHOWING POUNDS OF MEAT AND EX-VESSEL VALUE
FOR NEW JERSEY LANDINGS


            Year             Lbs. of Surf Clams Landed                   Ex-vessel Value

            1993                    47,978,097                           $ 21,802,735

            1994                    48,572,236                           $ 26,840,477

            1995                    46,329,437                           $ 27,443,281
            1996                    48,740,881                           $ 28,983,170

            1997                    45,603,401                           $ 27,168,453

            1998                    44,751,327                           $ 23,060,750

            1999                    49,299,900                           $ 25,371,922

            2000                    58,047,629                           $ 31,371,354
            2001                    52,872,341                           $ 29,326,676

            2002                    53,590,740                           $ 29,172,373



Although the Two Rivers Water                            zones are designed to assure that the
Reclamation Authority (TRWRA) and                        Bureau has sufficient time to cease
the Monmouth County Bayshore Outfall                     shellfish harvesting in the vicinity of the
Authority (MCBOA) discharge pipes                        outfalls. As such, surf clam harvesting
have not shown a strong influence on the                 from      contaminated      waters     and
waters of A011 within recent years,                      subsequent human ingestion is unlikely
closed safety zones are still required to                with the aid of safety zones, proper
surround these outfalls. Primarily, these                warning      systems     and     proactive
safety zones have been designed and                      communication.
utilized through the years as buffers and
to delineate shellfish growing waters                    The last Sanitary Survey for A011 was
capable of impact from pathogens in                      completed in 1979. The current
sewage. Should these Monmouth County                     classification       (Prohibited)    was
wastewater       treatment       facilities              designated for all waters contained
malfunction, their designated safety                     within this site at that time. The BMWM



                                                 10
has continued to review this growing             technology also provides improved
area during annual reporting sessions            communication and notification when
since its last classification review in          considering equipment failure or system
1979.                                            disruption. This greatly enhances
                                                 response time by all parties involved.
Once a growing area is classified as             These improvements will be discussed
Prohibited, there are no requirements for        further in the section titled Identification
water      quality    monitoring     and         and Evaluation of Sources but it is
classification review. However, if a             important to note they have lessened
shellfish growing area is under review           potential for accidental discharge from
for an upgrade in classification, an in-         treatment facility infrastructure.
depth analysis must be undertaken.
These reports are generally described as         Data available from annual reporting
Sanitary Surveys or Partial Sanitary             periods for this shellfish growing area
Surveys.                                         suggested there was potential for an
                                                 upgrade to the water classification, but
Within recent years, annual reporting            additional data were necessary to meet
sessions have indicated that portions of         NSSP requirements for evaluating water
the waters contained within A011 should          quality. A more succinct monitoring
be examined more closely due to their            program for A011 was undertaken
potential for upgrade. Discussions               between 1998 and 2001 to obtain the
during these meetings suggested the              appropriate data needed to determine if
“blanket buffer” (Prohibited waters)             an upgrade was warranted. This report
encompassing all of A011 could be                presents that analysis. It examines
reduced in size without removal of the           microbiological data gathered by
Prohibited acreage       necessary to            USEPA’s Edison, NJ Office.
surround the discharge pipes of the Two
Rivers Water Reclamation Authority,              Microbiological data from the USEPA
and the Monmouth County Bayshore                 office in Edison was utilized as the
Outfall Authority.                               USEPA currently collects the samples
                                                 for A011 as an integral part of their
Another primary consideration for                involvement        in     the    National
classification upgrade focussed on the           Environmental Performance Partnership
improved technologies (infrastructure            System (NEPPS). This information,
and system notification applications)            along with various site inspections and
utilized by wastewater treatment                 other       related      BMWM/USEPA
facilities today, as compared to those           monitoring efforts for phytoplankton and
found two decades ago. Updated                   nutrients, will be presented as well.



                                     METHODS
Water sampling was performed in                  Approximately 284 water samples were
accordance with the Field Procedures             collected for total and fecal coliform
Manual (NJDEP, 1992).                            bacteria between 1998 and 2001 and
                                                 analyzed by the 5-tube decimal dilution


                                            11
method according to APHA (1970). The               bottom stations are monitored during
5-tube decimal dilution method is utilized         each year.
for analyzing samples taken from A011
growing      waters      because       that        Water quality sampling, shoreline, and
methodology is utilized by the USEPA.              watershed surveys were conducted in
As noted in the History section, the               accordance with the NSSP Guide for the
USEPA currently gathers the samples and            Control of Molluscan Shellfish, 1999.
runs the analysis for sampling stations in
A011. The data are then forwarded to the           Data management and analysis was
BMWM for evaluation.                               accomplished using database applications
                                                   developed for the Bureau. Mapping of
Figure 4 shows the Shellfish Growing               pollution data was performed with the
Water Quality Monitoring Stations from             Geographic Information System (GIS:
Monmouth Beach to Sandy Hook                       ARCVIEW).
(A011). Approximately 20 surface and




                                              12
FIGURE 4: CURRENT SAMPLING STATIONS FOR SHELLFISH   GROWING AREA A011 - MONMOUTH BEACH
TO SANDY HOOK - MONMOUTH COUNTY, NEW JERSEY




                                         13
BACTERIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION AND DATA ANALYSIS


The water quality of each growing area              Evaluation of Prohibited areas is not
must be evaluated before an area can be             necessary unless a state intends to
classified as Approved, Seasonally                  upgrade that area. Criteria for bacterial
Approved, Seasonal Special Restricted or            acceptability of shellfish growing waters
Special Restricted. In New Jersey, these            are provided in the NSSP Guide for the
classifications are stated as Approved,             Control of Molluscan Shellfish, 1999.
Seasonal (Nov-Apr), Seasonal (Jan-Apr),
and Special Restricted.


SAMPLING STRATEGY – NSSP CRITERIA

Each shellfish producing state is directed          NSSP sampling strategies and analytical
to adopt either the total coliform or fecal         criteria were developed to ensure that
coliform criterion for classifying shellfish        shellfish harvested from the designated
growing waters. Combinations of these               waters would be free of pathogenic
classification programs may also be used.           (disease-producing)     bacteria.   The
Presently, New Jersey bases all growing             authority for State shellfish control
water classifications on total coliform             (BMWM – in relation to NJ shellfish
data and analysis. The BMWM does                    growing water classifications) also has
make corresponding fecal coliform                   the option of choosing one of two water
determinations for each sampling station,           monitoring strategies for each growing
utilizing these data as adjunct                     area in order to determine appropriate
information. Since 2000, New Jersey has             classifications.
been using fecal coliform data more
readily for analyzing (not classifying              The strategies are Adverse Pollution
or       re-classifying) its Atlantic Ocean         Condition (APC) and Systematic
Shellfish Growing Areas. As ocean                   Random Sampling (SRS).                Each
growing areas generally have sewerage               classification criterion is composed of a
treatment facility outfalls within their            measure of the statistical ‘central
perimeter, the use of fecal coliform data           tendency’ (geometric mean) and the
as an adjunct analysis helps to aid our             relative variability of the data set.
identification of the types of bacteria
present within outfall locations.                   For the Adverse Pollution Condition
                                                    Sampling        Strategy,    variability is
With regard to the time frame analyzed in           expressed as the percentage that exceeds
this report, classifications and re-                the variability criteria.          For the
classifications for growing areas in the            Systematic Random Sampling Strategy,
Atlantic continue to be based on total              variability is expressed as the 90th
coliform, though. This holds true for this          percentile. Tables 2 and 3 are based on
Sanitary Survey and its proposed                    the 3-tube decimal dilution test and the
upgrade.                                            statistical criterion for both APC and SRS
                                                    strategies as 3-tube analysis represents
                                                    the most commonly used test for the

                                               14
majority of New Jersey’s shellfish                  database to obtain a sample size of 30 for
growing waters. However, the statistical            statistical analysis. Table 3 delineates the
criteria for the 5-tube decimal dilution            3-tube decimal dilution criteria with
analysis (method used for growing area              regard to SRS strategy for Approved and
A011) is also described within this                 Special Restricted waters. Again, areas to
section .                                           be Seasonally classified must be sampled
                                                    and meet the Approved criterion during
The APC Strategy requires that a                    the time of the year that they are
minimum of five samples be collected                approved for the harvest of shellfish.
each year under conditions that have
historically resulted in elevated levels of         Shellfish     Growing       Area      A011
coliform for the particular growing area.           (Monmouth Beach to Sandy Hook) is
The results must be evaluated by adding             sampled under the Adverse Pollution
the individual station sample results to            Condition Strategy. APC Strategy is
the preexisting bacteriological sampling            utilized in this location because of the
results to constitute a data set of at least        presence of direct discharges in this
15 samples for each station.                        growing area. BMWM data analysis is
                                                    currently based on the 5-tube decimal
Adverse pollution conditions are usually            dilution test (for total and fecal coliform
related to tide and rainfall although they          analysis) which again is the method used
could be from variation occurring during            by the USEPA (Edison, NJ office) who
a specific time of the year or a point              currently collect and process most of the
source of pollution. Please refer to Table          samples for Shellfish Growing Area
2 for the criteria utilized in the APC              A011. Statistical error is also reduced
strategy for the 3-tube decimal dilution            with this method, as opposed to 3-tube
test     regarding    the     classification        decimal dilution.
parameters for Approved and Special
Restricted waters. Areas to be Seasonally           For the 5-tube decimal dilution test
classified must be sampled and meet the             utilizing APC strategy for Approved
Approved criterion during the time of the           waters, the total coliform median or
year that they are approved for the                 geometric mean MPN of the water shall
harvest of shellfish.                               not exceed 70 per 100 mL and not more
                                                    than 10 percent of the samples can
The SRS Strategy requires that a random             exceed an MPN of 230 per 100 mL.
sampling plan be in place before field              Only the Approved criterion has been
sampling begins. This strategy can only             noted for the 5-tube method as NJ ocean
be used in areas that are not affected by           shellfish growing areas are classified as
point sources of contamination.         A           either Approved or Prohibited.
minimum of six samples per station are to
be collected each year and added to the




                                               15
TABLE 2: CRITERIA FOR ADVERSE POLLUTION CONDITION SAMPLING STRATEGY            WHEN   UTILIZING 3 -
TUBE DECIMAL DILUTION METHOD

                           Total Coliform Criteria                 Fecal Coliform Criteria

                      Geometric mean     No more than       Geometric mean        No more than
                       (MPN/100 mL)     10% can exceed        (MPN/100 mL)       10% can exceed
                                          (MPN/100 mL)                             (MPN/100 mL)

 Approved Water            70                  330                 14                    49
  Classification

 Special Restricted        700                3300                 88                   300
      Water
   Classification




TABLE 3: CRITERIA FOR SYSTEMATIC RANDOM SAMPLING STRATEGY               WHEN   UTILIING 3 - TUBE
DECIMAL DILUTION METHOD

                           Total Coliform Criteria                 Fecal Coliform Criteria

                      Geometric mean     Maximum 90th       Geometric mean        Maximum 90th
                       (MPN/100 mL)       percentile          (MPN/100 mL)         percentile
                                          (MPN/100 mL)                             (MPN/100 mL)

 Approved Water            70                  330                 14                    49
  Classification

 Special Restricted        700                3300                 88                   300
      Water
   Classification



MARINE BIOTOXINS

The Department collects samples at                   Monitoring in accordance with the NSSP
regular intervals throughout the summer              requirements.    An annual report is
to determine the occurrence of marine                compiled and is available electronically at
biotoxins. These data are evaluated                  www.state.nj.us/dep/wmm/bmw
weekly by the Bureau of Marine Water


                                 SHORELINE SURVEY

EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES

The primary biological resource of                   in New Jersey (including Area A011) is
commercial importance for ocean waters               the surf clam. The New Jersey Surf


                                               16
Clam Advisory Committee, comprised                  aesthetics (e.g. non-toxic Red or Brown
of     industry       and     government            Tides – causing water discoloration), and
representatives, in conjunction with the            the potential for lost revenues in tourism.
Commissioner for the New Jersey
Department         of      Environmental            Brown Tides usually start up in the back
Protection, sets the quotas for harvest.            bays during early to mid spring. As these
                                                    tides grow in size, they frequently work
Quotas had been set at 600,000 industry             their way toward the ocean via inlets.
bushels for several years preceding and             This usually occurs during late spring or
including 1998. 1999-2001 quotas were               early summer. Red Tides often develop
increased to 700,000. 2002-2003 quotas              in more open ocean waters and are
have once again been set at 600,000.                generally witnessed at later times in the
Since New Jersey’s surf clam industry is            summer. Again, the public generally
at the national forefront in total landings,        becomes more concerned with the
monitoring,        management,          and         discoloration of the water created by
conservation of this resource is very               larger non-toxic Red or Brown Tide
important to the State.                             populations, once factors of toxicity
                                                    have been ruled out. However, as noted
There are occasional occurrences of                 above, New Jersey does perform marine
algal blooms in all ocean waters in New             water monitoring for any notable
Jersey. These algal blooms are more                 presence of toxic marine phytoplankton
common in ocean waters in the late                  to assess the potential for toxicity in
summer months during periods of hot                 shellfish. No occurrences of algal
weather, although some can occur during             blooms connected with the presence of
the preceding weeks or months. The                  biotoxins have been recorded for the
primary adverse effect of algal blooms              time period covered by this report.
on New Jersey’s ocean waters relates to

LAND USE

The land adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean             development (primarily residential with
shellfish growing area known as A011                some commercial business supporting
could be described as having coastal                recreational use and commerce).
geophysiology similar to that of a barrier          Beaches within this region are an
island. Although there are many                     economic priority as with all NJ coastal
similarities, it is actually a peninsula            regions, and are maintained as a
type land mass with the Atlantic Ocean              recreational resource.
on the East, Sandy Hook Bay, the
Navesink and Shrewsbury Rivers on the               While this report was being completed,
western side, the Raritan River and bay             there was a beach replenishment project
to the northwest, and the Hudson River              underway that involved dredging sand
to the North.                                       from the ocean floor and placing it along
                                                    the shores of coastal communities
The barrier island-like shoreline,                  adjacent to A011. This project
forming and abutting this shellfish                 encompassed beaches to the south of
growing area, consists of urban

                                               17
A011 beginning at Deal and then                   distance from the dredge ship to the
northward to Sandy Hook.                          upgrade location is approximately
                                                  1.35 nautical miles. Although suction
Suction Dredging was the method used              dredging generally stirs up little
for this project. Dredge lines pump sand          sediment, materials released into the
and water toward shore from about one             ocean from this process should have
quarter mile offshore. Suction dredging           more than enough distance to settle on
in this location does not involve                 the ocean floor, outside the upgrade area.
impairment of Approved waters as there
is a blanket of Prohibited waters                 Projects of this sort involve substantial
extending from the north to south along           cost. This simply emphasizes the
this sector of New Jersey coastline.              importance of NJ beaches and their
Further, it should not have a negative            priority as an economic and recreational
impact on the area proposed for                   resource.
classification upgrade in this report. The




FIGURE 5: SUCTION DREDGING FROM SHIP OFF THE COAST OF SEA BRIGHT, NJ




                                             18
FIGURE 6: BEACH REPLENISHMENT FROM SUCTION DREDGE, SEA BRIGHT, NJ


When considering the geomorphology of              park facilities. Sandy Hook also serves
this location, it is obvious that                  as the location for the NJ Marine
interactions of the ocean, bay and rivers          Sciences Consortium and the National
have exerted a strong physical influence           Ocean and Atmospheric Administration,
in shaping the area. Further, these bodies         along with the Northeast Fisheries
of water have helped mold the manner in            Science Center.
which people have lived, worked, and
developed the land through the ages.               Larger urban communities exist to the
                                                   north, northwest, and west of A011. The
Land use surrounding A011 is somewhat              largest of these would be New York City
divided. The northern extent (Sandy                to the north.
Hook - a 1665 acre barrier beach
peninsula) contains the Gateway                    The land use in the southerly and central
National Recreation Area. In years past,           communities      bordering    A011     is
the US Army had active military                    predominantly urban.        Smaller scale
installations on Sandy Hook. Today,                urban     development      is   generally
individuals from the US Coast Guard                associated with the southeastern
and National Park Service, combined,               communities from Monmouth Beach to
comprise an average year - round                   Sea Bright Boro and the southwestern or
population of approximately 130                    intercoastal towns from Rumson Boro to
residents on Sandy Hook. However,                  Atlantic Highlands Boro.
there are multitudes of visitors to this
location every year that visit the national

                                              19
Historically, the land and waters                 Aside from contributing to productivity,
comprising the southern portion of A011           wetland and estuarine zones provide
have provided a haven for vacationing,            valuable habitat for many marine species
hunting, commercial/sport fishing and             during some point of their life cycle.
urban real estate ventures. For some, the         Further, plant species within these zones
location has provided year-round                  often cleanse contaminants from the
residence but for many, it has provided a         ecosystem while enhancing water quality
place to relax and enjoy time away from           prior to its reaching the ocean.
work in a shore rental or secondary
home. Although year-round residency               A limited area of wetlands is present in
has grown over the years, population              close proximity to urban development in
increase is apparent in warmer seasons            A011. The most notable of which is
associated with secondary homeowner               situated to the West of Monmouth Beach
and rental use.                                   outside the Shrewsbury River. Also, a
                                                  fairly large area of estuarine waters
Increased population could cause impact           exists to the west beginning again at the
to the waters of this growing area.               Shrewsbury River, and extending to
However, higher population fluctuations           Sandy Hook Bay. Again, wetland areas
in the summer months would seem                   such as these are capable of cleansing
unlikely to affect potential surf clam            water prior to its reaching the confines
harvests, as harvesting takes place in            of ocean growing areas like A011.
winter time in this growing area.
                                                  As mentioned previously, there are
The spread of development within the              numerous        mainland      communities
land bordering A011 has slowed due to             situated just to the west of A011, and
the land available for building but there         larger cities to the north, and northwest.
are some new construction projects.               Presently, the Data Listings suggest that
Because of their coastal location, homes          the nature of land use in these areas may
and businesses within these areas can             impact the back bay waters and rivers to
require repair on a fairly frequent basis.        the west and northwest [waters to the
There are also reconstruction or                  north (New York) are outside BMWM
construction projects created from tear           classification jurisdiction] of this
down or refurbishment projects.                   growing area. Specifically, the industry
                                                  and cities located to the north and
Impact from construction is unlikely              northwest, along with the agriculture,
though, as projects bordering on eco-             horse farms, and large estates located to
sensitive areas are required by local,            the west of this site (up the Shrewsbury
state and federal regulations to utilize          and Navesink Rivers), provide nutrient
specific set backs and buffers as a means         loading. Additionally, industrial and
of protecting flora and fauna specific to         commercial locations/operations can
wetland, riparian or estuarine locations.         provide      other     inputs    affecting
The value of these buffers can never be           surrounding water quality. The distance,
understated because their utilization             however, from input sources to this
minimizes the impact of construction on           growing area provides substantial
the ocean growing area.                           dilution, though.



                                             20
BMWM data also suggest that current               As land use is altered and populations
wastewater treatment infrastructure for           grow, communities expand, which
surrounding communities is sufficient             generally leads to the extension and
and it generally services most of the             availability of city sewer lines to homes.
local population. Recent site reviews and         It is interesting to note land use change
current information for the sewerage              and population increase can often lead to
treatment     facilities servicing the            conversion from septic and well to
communities bordering A011 suggests               municipal sewer and water systems in
that these plants are able to and can             areas not currently serviced by this
operate efficiently with regard to design,        infrastructure. In an ideal world, this
current population demands, and                   should lead to better water quality and
emergency events (e.g. storm situations           improved public health. This is not
– plant/operator failure). However, the           always the case, though, as poor land
potential for greater impact increases as         use, municipal planning, and engineering
year-round populations continue to                can create additional problems. Further,
grow, which exerts demand on the land             population growth can often stress
and facilities servicing areas adjacent to        ecosystems causing negative impact to
or near A011.                                     the environment.

Pockets of homes well to the west of              In the towns surrounding A011,
Shellfish Growing Area A011 utilize               Sewerage     treatment     plants    have
septic systems.     Septic is primarily           generally been designed or have been
utilized in areas of lower population             upgraded to accommodate population
density, where there is, generally, less          growth or seasonal fluctuation. Seasonal
availability for access to city sewage            fluctuation with regard to capacity
infrastructure. Although there is impact          loading (for treatment plants) is
from septic, farm, and agricultural use           especially important within New
further to the west, these impacts are            Jersey’s coastal communities due to
greatly reduced by distance and dilution          increased public use of coastal land areas
prior to reaching shellfish growing area          during the summer.
A011.




                                             21
FIGURE 7: STRUCTURES, SHORE AND VEGETATION FOR SHELLFISH GROWING AREA A011 -
MONMOUTH BEACH TO SANDY HOOK - MONMOUTH COUNTY, NEW JERSEY




                                    22
FIGURE 8: COASTAL LAND USE PATTERNS FOR SHELLFISH GROWING AREA A011 - MONMOUTH BEACH
TO SANDY HOOK – MONMOUTH COUNTY, NEW JERSEY




                                        23
CHANGES SINCE LAST SURVEY

As the last Sanitary Survey for Shellfish        (-2.7%) and Oceanport Borough (-
Growing Area A011 was written back in            5.5%). The range for population increase
1979, there are considerations that              was from 1.6% (Atlantic Highlands
warrant     discussion.      Acceptable          Borough)     to    16%     (Shrewsbury
bacteriological water quality data are           Borough).
now available to support the BMWM’s
proposal for reclassifying a portion of          When summarizing the data presented in
the waters in A011 to an Approved                the U.S Census Bureau, Census 2000,
status. Also, there has been an overall          coastal communities bordering     A011
population increase in the nearby                showed       the    largest increase in
communities to the west of this growing          population. The average growth for these
area. This is significant because                areas was 8.53%.            Non-coastal
population expansion usually places              municipalities showed an expansion in
greater     demand      on   community           population of 5.88%.
infrastructure such as inflow to
wastewater treatment facilities. Growth          Despite increased population in nearby
in the populace can also impact our              municipalities, the enclosed data and
environment (e.g. water supply, land             subsequent analyses suggests water
availability, etc.).                             quality within the southeastern sector of
                                                 A011 warrants the upgrade proposed in
Comparisons between the 1990 Census              this Sanitary Survey. Acceptable water
and the 2000 Census suggest that                 quality within an area experiencing
population in Monmouth County grew               population growth is indicative of
from 553,124 in 1990 to 615,301, as              municipal planning and infrastructure
reported in 2000. This accounts for an           designs (storm water management –
increase of 62,177 or 11.2%. Of the              wastewater treatment facilities, etc.) that
municipalities shown in Figure 9, all but        are capable of supporting the populace
two showed an increase in population             of the municipality. The interaction
over the last ten years. No figures are          between municipal planning, design, and
shown on 1990 and 2000 Census for                technological    improvements        when
Gateway        National      Recreation          coordinated properly can account for
Area/Sandy Hook. Population figures in           healthy ecosystems. This will be
these areas for 2000 were gathered by            discussed further in the sections that
personal communication with the US               follow on direct and indirect discharge
Coast Guard and National Park Service.           sources.

The areas reporting a decrease in
population were Middletown Township




                                            24
FIGURE 9: COASTAL MUNICIPALITIES FOR SHELLFISH GROWING AREA A011 - MONMOUTH BEACH TO
SANDY HOOK - MONMOUTH COUNTY, NEW JERSEY




                                         25
TABLE 4: POPULATION INFORMATION FOR SHELLFISH GROWING AREA A011 – MONMOUTH BEACH               TO
SANDY HOOK – MONMOUTH COUNTY, NEW JERSEY

                     Community                 Area         Population     Population Density/Sq. Mi.
                                              (sq. mi.)    (2000 Census)
Atlantic Highlands Boro                         1.22           4,705                3,856.56
Highlands Boro                                  .72            5,097                7,079.17
Middletown Twp.                                40.32          66,327                1,645.02
Rumson Boro                                     7.12           7,137                1,002.39
Fair Haven Boro                                 2.10           5,937                2,827.14
Red Bank Boro                                   2.15          11,844                5,508.84
Little Silver Boro                              3.33           6,170                1,852.85
Shrewsbury Boro                                 2.19           3,590                1,639.27
Oceanport Boro                                  3.80           5,807                1,528.16
Gateway National Recreation Area/Sandy Hook     2.76            130                  47.10
Sea Bright Boro                                 1.02           1,818                1,782.35
Monmouth Beach Boro                             1.94           3,595                1,853.09
Long Branch City                                5.33          31,340                5,879.93




  IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF SOURCES

  DIRECT DISCHARGES –TREATMENT FACILITY WASTEWATER EFFLUENTS

  Treatment     plant    inspections   are            of their facility. This sewerage treatment
  performed according to the protocol                 plant was formerly known as the
  contained in the Guide for the Control of           Northeast Monmouth County Regional
  Molluscan Shellfish. Evaluation and                 Sewerage Authority. Its name changed
  compliance of shellfish growing areas is            on November 1, 2001. Although this
  ascertained using NSSP criteria as                  facility discharges in to the Atlantic
  established in the above mentioned                  Ocean just south of A011, their outfall is
  guide. These inspections are important in           close enough (approximately .67
  determining plant efficiency, which                 nautical miles) to have an influence on
  determines the eventual effluent quality            water quality within the southern sector
  discharged into ocean waters off the                of the growing area.
  coast of New Jersey.
                                                      Separate reviews were performed for the
  The Two Rivers Water Reclamation                    Township of Middletown Sewerage
  Authority  (TRWRA) was visited on                   Authority (TOMSA) and Bayshore
  November 13, 2002 for a site evaluation             Regional Sewerage Authority (BRSA)
                                                      on November 14 and 15, respectively.


                                              26
Effluents from TOMSA and BRSA pass               and discharge lines discussed herein
through the Monmouth County Bayshore             have certainly improved function in
Outfall Authority (MCBOA) discharge              wastewater treatment, effluent dispersal
pipe, located in A011. As such, a                and discharge. These factors support the
separate review for MCBOA was also               upgrade proposed in this report.
undertaken on the 14th of November.
The wastewater treatment facilities              The Monmouth County wastewater
mentioned above represent the only               treatment plants mentioned herein utilize
significant potential point sources of           secondary activated sludge treatment.
contamination in or near the A011                Secondary treated effluents are then
growing area.                                    released through ocean outfalls (both the
                                                 TRWRA and MCBOA outfalls are 48”
There were infrastructural problems with         in diameter) approximately 0.37
the MCBOA discharge line within the              (TRWRA) to 0.98 (MCBOA) nautical
time frame this report was written. Many         miles offshore allowing for additional
of these complications occurred between          mixing and dilution.
1997 and 1998. Prior to receiving some
badly needed repairs and upgrades, the           The Two Rivers Water Reclamation
older      infrastructure     comprising         Authority outfall is positioned at
MCBOA’s line caused accidental                   coordinates of latitude N 40° 20’ 04”
discharge of secondary treated effluent          and longitude W 73° 57’ 58”. The
into Raritan Bay on a number of                  discharge location for the Monmouth
occasions. Discharges during this time           County Bayshore Outfall Authority is
frame more directly involved MCBOA               situated at latitude N 40° 24’ 6.57” and
but as MCBOA services the Township               longitude W 73° 57’ 21.78”. As
of Middletown Sewerage Authority and             mentioned previously, significant buffers
Bayshore Regional Sewerage Authority,            (Prohibited areas) have been established
complications and accidental discharge           around all ocean outfalls as safety zones.
occurred which involved those facilities,
as a result of their dependence on the           The TRWRA southern discharge pipe
MCBOA line.                                      and outfall are situated in the Atlantic
                                                 Ocean, southeast of Sailors Way and
Within the period of time this report            Monmouth Beach Borough. The
was written, multiple upgrades took              MCBOA northern discharge pipe and
place for MCBOA and the facilities it            outfall are located in the Atlantic Ocean,
services (TOMSA, BRSA). Further, the             northeast from the intersection of the
Two     Rivers      Water     Reclamation        Atlantic Highlands Bridge where Sea
Authority was under going some                   Bright ends and Sandy Hook begins (due
extensive        renovation.       These         east of the intersection of Center and
modifications will be discussed in               Cornwell Streets). Updated summaries
greater detail within sections for each          of the TRWRA, MCBOA, TOMSA and
treatment facility or authority. However,        BRSA facilities follow below.
it should be noted that infrastructural
upgrades and renovation to the plants




                                            27
TWO RIVERS WATER RECLAMATION AUTHORITY

The Two Rivers Water Reclamation                  additional flows for this plant are
Authority (TRWRA) was built in 1969.              represented in Tables 5 and 6.
It is located in Monmouth Beach and
serves Tinton Falls, Fort Monmouth,               The effluent standards applicable to
Red Bank, Eatontown, Fair Haven, Little           direct discharges to surface water from
Silver, Rumson, Oceanport, Shrewsbury,            publicly or privately owned domestic
Shrewsbury Township, West Long                    treatment works, as per NJPDES permit
Branch, Monmouth Beach and Sea                    regulations (Subchapter 12 – 7:14A-
Bright.                                           12.2), are as follows: monthly average
                                                  values for BOD5 shall not exceed 30
Plant flows average 8.4 MGD. This                 mg/L, weekly average values shall not
represents approximately 74% of the               exceed 45 mg/L, and monthly average
plant’s currently permitted 11.4 MGD.             values for percent removal shall not be
Plant upgrades (described below) will             less than 85%. Monthly average values
increase capacity of the plant, permitting        for Total Suspended Solids (TSS) shall
13.83 MGD. Maximum peak hourly                    not exceed 30 mg/L, weekly average
flow reported during a dry period was 16          values for TSS can not exceed 45 mg/L,
MGD, while 30 MGD has been reported               and the monthly average for percent
during     storm      events     involving        removal of TSS is to be no less than
substantial precipitation.                        85%. The effluent standards for Fecal
                                                  Coliform suggest that the geometric
Summer resort-oriented communities in             mean      shall    not    exceed    200
the area have sanitary sewers, which in           colonies/100mL on a monthly basis, and
turn, are connected to the above                  the weekly geometric mean shall not
described regional system or those                exceed 400 colonies/100mL.
described within this section. Population
growth in shore communities during the            TRWRA is a Secondary, Activated
summer can have an affect on peak                 Sludge Plant producing secondary
hourly flows, especially on holidays, as          treated effluent. A gravity and belt filter
can the influent a plant receives during          press thickens sludge. Thickened sludge
or after storm events. Although peak              is trucked offsite for incineration.
hourly flows can occasionally reach               TRWRA uses a discharge line and
numbers that exceed design flow,                  outfall off the coast of Monmouth Beach
treatment facilities must still produce an        for effluent disposal. Again, Prohibited
effluent that meets all NJPDES permit             areas have been designated by the
requirements, including limitations for           BMWM as buffers around all
fecal coliform. This facility and those           wastewater treatment ocean outfalls to
discussed within this section do meet             protect public health in the event of a
those requirements. Effluent quality and          system failure.




                                             28
The facility is staffed 24 hours a day and        Sodium hypochlorite is used for
is equipped with 18 pump stations.                chlorination; chlorination is continuous
Alarm systems are in place should a               and has never been interrupted. The
malfunction or breakdown occur.                   plant currently uses two, 2,200 gallon
Automatic alarms are on-line for high             tanks for chlorination. The maximum
water, power failure, and breakdown. In           dosage capacity at peak hourly flow
the event of an automatic alarm, plant            (PPM) is 2.0 to 2.5. Chlorine residual in
staff are notified via SCADA                      effluent [PPM with Detention Time
(Supervisory       Control    and     Data        (DT)] is 1.0. Chlorine residual is
Acquisition).                                     recorded six times per day.

Essential equipment        has    backup          Bacterial testing is performed eight
equipment in the event of breakdown or            times per month. The MPN/100 mL
needs arise for scheduled maintenance.            (summer and winter) for fecal coliform
For instance, pumping stations utilize            can be seen in Table 5.
dual pumps and standby generators are
also available for emergency use along            The Two Rivers Water Reclamation
with two portable generators. Plant               Authority underwent an upgrade and
personnel are trained to rectify possible         overall expansion project that began in
malfunctions and equipment failures that          2003. Funding for this project was
might occur within the system. This               provided from $41,420, 000 received
training is updated on a routine basis            from      the    NJ      Environmental
and is kept technologically current.              Infrastructure Trust. TRWRA was
                                                  allowed to begin this reconstruction
In the event of an emergency or accident          based on demonstrated compliance with
involving treatment plants or their               the Wastewater Management Plan and
infrastructure, trained personnel from            the “no unreasonable degradation”
these      facilities   ensure     prompt         provision of the Clean Water Act.
rectification of problems. Should                 Completion of the project took place
situations      arise   which     involve         around March 05. However, many
notification of State authorities due to          aspects of refurbishment have already
discharge, disclosure of incident, and            been accomplished as can be seen in
surrounding factors such as location of           Figures 10 and 12. The upgrades and
spill, reason for spill, total quantity of        expansion were proposed to include the
waste discharged, location of spill to            following:
shellfish growing waters, and knowledge
of whether discharge has been stopped             Design of new influent pumps and
are important communication links                 drives, new headworks facility including
between the State and sewerage                    screenings, grit and scum handling
treatment facilities. Fast response time          systems, new activated sludge aeration
is an essential component in the Bureau's         basins, new aeration blower facility, new
ability to ensure that no contaminated            secondary clarifiers and sludge pumping
shellfish are harvested from areas open           station, new effluent pumps, manual
to the shellfishing industry.                     emergency effluent screens, and new
                                                  plant water system within existing
                                                  effluent pumping station, new sodium
                                             29
hypochlorite disinfection facility, new               control system and process control
sludge thickening system, improvements                center within existing administration
to sludge storage and dewatering                      building, and various structural and
systems, new electrical distribution                  infrastructural improvements to heating,
systems and emergency generator                       air conditioning, site lighting, doors,
facility, design of odor control systems              windows, etc..
for the headworks, aeration basins,
sludge thickening and storage facilities,
new plant wide process monitoring and


TABLE 5: SEASONAL AVERAGES FOR FIVE DAY BIOLOGICAL OXYGEN DEMAND, SUSPENDED SOLIDS
AND EFFLUENT FECAL COLIFORM FOR TWO RIVERS W ATER RECLAMATION AUTHORITY



                                Summer Months                        Winter Months

                               (June, July, August)           (December, January, February)

      BOD5 (mg/L)                      22.67                              18.33

Suspended Solids (mg/L)                25.67                                21

 Effluent Fecal Coliform                    4                                4
 (MPN Counts/100 mL)


TABLE 6: METEOROLOGICALLY RELATED FLOWS               FOR   TWO RIVERS WATER RECLAMATION
AUTHORITY


                                            Dry Weather                  Wet Weather

  Average Daily Flow (MGD)                           8.4                         N/A

  Peak Hourly Flow (MGD)                             16                          30




                                                30
FIGURE 10: NEW GRIT CHAMBER   FOLLOWING   UPGRADE   FOR   TWO RIVERS WATER RECLAMATION
AUTHORITY




FIGURE 11: OLD AERATION SYSTEM, UTILIZED PRIOR   TO   RENOVATION   OF   TWO RIVERS WATER
RECLAMATION AUTHORITY




                                          31
FIGURE 12: NEW AERATION SYSTEM (FINE BUBBLE DIFFUSED AIR SYSTEM)        AS   PART   OF   PLANT
UPGRADE FOR TWO RIVERS WATER RECLAMATION AUTHORITY


MONMOUTH COUNTY BAYSHORE OUTFALL AUTHORITY

The Monmouth County Bayshore                      specific sewage treatment needs for the
Outfall Authority (MCBOA) was created             county through 2000. It was built to
by the Monmouth County Board of                   facilitate 28 MGD from all serviced
Chosen Freeholders in 1969 to act as a            wastewater treatment plants. Supportive
separate county authority in order to help        infrastructure for MCBOA accepts the
clean up Raritan Bay. Authority offices           secondary treated effluent from the
are situated in Belford.                          Township Of Middletown Sewerage
                                                  Authority (TOMSA) in Belford, and
The more direct goal of MCBOA was to              Bayshore Regional Sewerage Authority
help prevent either raw sewage or treated         (BRSA), Union Beach.
effluents from reaching the bay by
creating an outfall line for deposition of        MCBOA presides over a 14 mile
treated secondary effluents, received             effluent pipeline that runs between
from two sewerage treatment facilities,           BRSA to the northwest and TOMSA to
into the Atlantic Ocean. It was realized          the southeast. From TOMSA in Belford,
that effluents would receive greater              the discharge line runs just northeast
dispersion and dilution in the ocean,             Atlantic Highlands Bridge where it
resulting in improved water quality for           heads into the Atlantic Ocean to an
the Raritan and Sandy Hook Bays.                  outfall .98 nautical miles offshore (5964
                                                  ft.) The depth of the ocean exceeds 35
The outfall line had also been intended           feet where the outfall is positioned.
to support population growth and                  Effluent         discharge     begins  at

                                             32
approximately 640 feet from the end of            was accomplished at a cost of $467,000.
the discharge pipe via multi-port                 The cost for pump station modification
diffusers.                                        was $2,415,500 and manhole and line
                                                  rehabilitation totaled $492,925. At this
MCBOA is currently averaging 20 MGD               time, there are monies being expended
(secondary treated effluent) between the          on a current project which entails the
two wastewater treatment facilities.              replacement of the roof at the Union
Treated effluent is collected by MCBOA            Beach Pump Station (total cost $18,800).
at each treatment facility and pumped
toward the ocean outfall. Two primary             In 1997, it became evident that the
variable speed pumps and a variable               MCBOA discharge infrastructure was
speed backup pump, which can be                   not going to last through 2000, based on
utilized for emergency duty during                original design and proposal. On several
power outages or storm periods are now            occasions from 1997 through 1998,
in service at MCBOA’s Belford and                 MCBOA was accountable for numerous
Union Beach Pumping Stations for this             unpermitted discharges to State surface
process. There is also a Balancing Pond,          waters.     Accidental    discharge     of
or Retention Basin, at both TOMSA and             secondary treated effluent from MCBOA
BRSA, which were originally designed              infrastructure and similar discharge
to facilitate peak flows, smooth out daily        resulting from corrective measures
flow variations, and provide storage              ranged from 100 gallons to 15 million
during wet and peak storm flows.                  gallons during this time frame. This
                                                  affected the sewerage treatment facilities
Previously, a minimum of two constant             that MCBOA services (TOMSA and
speed pumps were utilized at pumping              BRSA). Most of these discharges
stations with one variable speed backup           impacted      Raritan   Bay,    although
pump. Variable speed pumps require                Compton’s Creek was a recipient of
less adjustment to flow conditions and            discharge on one occasion.
have been installed within recent years
in order to balance or match effluent             Effluent discharges affect water quality
flow at any given time. This helps                in surrounding waterbodies and can
prevent bypassing and keeps pumps                 contribute to incidence of higher
processing as needed. Variable speed              coliform bacteria within receiving
pumps are also intended to match                  waters. Because of concern regarding the
average daily flow rates from treatment           potential for pathogen presence in
facilities in order that discharge and            shellfish, the BMWM suspended
dilution will be more uniform.                    shellfish harvests in large areas of the
                                                  Raritan Bay on several occasions
Both the pumping stations and variable            between 1997 and 1998.
speed pumps were upgraded or
refurbished in recent years. Further, the         Repairs were an end result of
pipeline and all manholes along the               negotiations between NJDEP and
pipeline were also repaired in recent             MCBOA officials to facilitate a time
years. The costs of these repairs and             frame in which MCBOA would update,
descriptions are as follows: repair of            refurbish, and make necessary repairs to
diesel engines, gears, and pumps at both          its discharge pipeline, and operative
Belford and Union Beach Pump Stations
                                             33
infrastructure. These repairs were               discharge line have been working much
undertaken between 1/11/99 to 2/11/99.           more effectively in servicing the
                                                 TOMSA and BRSA treatment facilities.
Additional temporary discharges, which
affected both the Raritan and Sandy              There was one event on November 9,
Hook Bays, were permitted during the             2002 when the Union Beach Pumping
repair process. These discharges were            Station was affected by a two hour
spread out over a two-month repair               power outage. However, this was a result
process and emanated from the Union              of power problems experienced by
Beach Pumping Station and the Belford            Jersey Central Power & Light. During
Pumping Station, respectively. It was            this time, the Union Beach Retention
estimated that each pumping station              Basin was of a low enough level that
would discharge approximately 10 MGD             impact from down time did not cause
during its 30 day repair time frame.             discharge of any sort.
Further, there were additional discharges
that occurred during reconstruction at           Details of the Township of Middletown
Air – Release Blow – Off Valves                  Sewerage Authority and Bayshore
staggered along the discharge pipeline.          Regional Sewerage Authority, which are
These discharges would occur as line             serviced by MCBOA, follow in this
pressure, present at the beginning of            section.
construction stages, was released.

Since completion of the repairs, the
MCBOA pumping stations and the




                                            34
FIGURE 13: MONMOUTH COUNTY BAYSHORE OUTFALL AUTHORITY DISCHARGE LINE - SHELLFISH
GROWING AREA A011 - MONMOUTH BEACH TO SANDY HOOK - MONMOUTH COUNTY, NEW JERSEY




                                       35
TOWNSHIP OF MIDDLETOWN SEWERAGE AUTHORITY

The Township of Middletown Sewerage               9 backup generators, 3 are diesel, 5 are
Authority (TOMSA) is located in                   propane, and 1 is run by natural gas.
Belford and was constructed in 1969.
The communities or townships it                   Automatic alarms are on line for high
services are Middletown Township,                 water, power failure and breakdown.
Highlands and Atlantic Highlands. In              Plant operators handle alarms and the
addition to maintenance at the treatment          collection crew is on call in the event of
facility, TOMSA oversees 300 miles of             an automatic alarm occurring during
sewer line and 7000 manholes as part of           those hours on Saturday or Sunday when
its service maintenance.                          the plant is not staffed. Essentially,
                                                  duplicate units or backup machinery is
Plant flows average 7.5 MGD. This                 available for all emergency or
represents approximately 69 % of the              necessitated repairs.
plant’s design flow of 10.8 MGD.
Average daily flows (MGD) reported                Sodium hypochlorite is used for
were 6.94 for the summer and 6.42 for             chlorination; chlorination is continuous
the winter. The maximum peak hourly               and has never been interrupted. If the
flow reported for the summer was 8.49             plant experiences low chlorine effluent
MGD, and during the winter, TOMSA                 residual, Chlorinator Alarm Systems will
reported 7.10 MGD. Effluent quality and           notify plant personnel. The plant uses
additional flows for the plant are                two, 6,500 gallon tanks for chlorination
represented in Tables 7 and 8.                    and two manual chemical pumps.
                                                  Recordings for chlorine residual are
TOMSA produces secondary treated                  taken six times per day.
effluent as a Secondary, Activated
Sludge Plant. Sludge is shipped to a              Bacterial Testing is performed daily. The
landfill in Morrisville, PA. Effluent is          MPN/100 mL (summer and winter) for
removed via the MCBOA discharge line              fecal coliform can be seen in Table 7.
and deposited by an outfall situated in
the Atlantic Ocean, northeast of the              The Township of Middletown Sewerage
Atlantic Highlands Bridge located at the          Authority had a series of renovations and
southerly portion of Sandy Hook. The              upgrades between 2000 and 2003.
facility is staffed 24 hours a day Monday         During each renovation, monitoring
through Friday and 16 hours a day on              controls were updated to most efficiently
Saturday and Sunday.                              match new machinery or infrastructure.
                                                  TOMSA          also installed a SCATA
TOMSA utilizes thirteen pump stations.            System that is interactive with pump
All pump stations operate with dual               stations at all times (total cost $200,000).
pumps. The stations are all located in            In 2000, they installed a $500,000 belt
Middletown Township. Nine out of the              filter press. During 2002, they installed
thirteen pump stations have standby               new boilers for heating sludge at a cost
power (generators) available on site              of $500,000. This resulted in less fluid
and     there is a portable generator             content, thus reducing overall costs of
available for the other 4 stations. Of the        sludge shipment for incineration. They
                                                  also installed a new mixing system in the
                                             36
digester during 2002 that improves                2002. For 2003, TOMSA has also
sludge quality. This cost $1,000,000.             planned on installing two new bar
TOMSA also replaced two dissolved air             screens ahead of their influent pumps,
flotation thickeners with gravity belt            which will result in less strain on
thickeners (thickens sludge producing             influent pumps. The total cost for this
better end product for removal and                project will be $1,000,000.
transport) at a cost of $600,000 during


TABLE 7: SEASONAL AVERAGES FOR FIVE DAY BIOLOGICAL OXYGEN DEMAND, SUSPENDED SOLIDS
AND EFFLUENT FECAL COLIFORM FOR TOWNSHIP OF MIDDLETOWN SEWERAGE AUTHORITY



                                Summer Months                          Winter Months

                               (June, July, August)         (December, January, February)

       BOD5 (mg/L)                    8.10                                 10.96

 Suspended Solids (mg/L)              8.92                                 13.97

  Effluent Fecal Coliform                 <1                                <1
  (MPN Counts/100 mL)


TABLE 8: METEOROLOGICALLY RELATED FLOWS          FOR   TOWNSHIP   OF   MIDDLETOWN SEWERAGE
AUTHORITY


                                       Dry Weather                      Wet Weather

 Average Daily Flow (MGD)                       6.36                        7.86

 Peak Hourly Flow (MGD)                         6.80                       10.77

BAYSHORE REGIONAL SEWERAGE AUTHORITY

The Bayshore Regional Sewerage                    Plant flows average 8 MGD, which
Authority (BRSA) is located in Union              represents 50 % of the plant’s design
Beach. BRSA services Holmdel, Union               flow (16 MGD). Average daily flows
Beach, Hazlet, Keansburg, Aberdeen,               (MGD) reported were 7.5 for the
Matawan, Keyport and a portion of                 summer and 8 for the winter. Peak
Marlboro. It was constructed in 1972              hourly flows reported for the summer
and, according to Acting Executive                and winter were 10 MGD. Effluent
Director, Pete Peterson, the plant                quality and additional flows for the plant
underwent multiple upgrades in 1996               are represented in Tables 9 and 10 .
which “basically doubled capacity”.


                                           37
BRSA is staffed 16 1/2 hours a day. The             Sodium hypochlorite is used to
facility produces secondary treated                 chlorinate. Chlorination is continuous
effluent as a Secondary, Activated                  and they utilize four, 4,200 gallon tanks,
Sludge Plant. As with the TOMSA,                    and four pumps. Treatment with sodium
effluent is discharged by the MCBOA                 hypochlorite at BRSA is automatic,
outfall situated in the Atlantic Ocean,             controlling NaOCl feed proportionally to
northeast of the Atlantic Highlands                 flow. Were there to be an emergency
Bridge.                                             (low     chlorine    effluent     residual,
                                                    chlorinator or chlorinator recorder
BRSA utilizes 3 pump stations. They are             malfunction),      Chlorinator      Alarm
located in West Keansburg, Hazlet, and              Systems will notify plant personnel.
Matawan. All pump stations operate                  Chlorine residual in effluent was 2.0
with dual pumps. Each pump station has              PPM with detention time (Chlorine
standby power. They utilize back up                 content remaining in effluent, were there
generators that run on natural gas, diesel          to be an emergency requiring effluent to
or gasoline.                                        remain in outfall line). Recordings for
                                                    chlorine residual are taken 6 times per
Automatic alarms are on line for high               day.
water, power failure and breakdown.
The plant operator is notified in the               Bacterial testing is performed daily. The
event of an automatic alarm. Duplicate              MPN/100 mL for fecal coliform
units or backup machinery is available              (summer and winter) can be seen in
for emergency repairs.                              Table 9.


TABLE 9: SEASONAL AVERAGES FOR FIVE DAY BIOLOGICAL OXYGEN DEMAND, SUSPENDED SOLIDS
AND EFFLUENT FECAL COLIFORM FOR BAYSHORE REGIONAL SEWERAGE AUTHORITY



                                  Summer Months                      Winter Months

                                 (June, July, August)         (December, January, February)

        BOD5 (mg/L)                      < 25                              < 25

 Suspended Solids (mg/L)                 < 30                              < 30

  Effluent Fecal Coliform                    <1                             <1
  (MPN Counts/100 mL)


TABLE 10: METEOROLOGICALLY RELATED FLOWS FOR BAYSHORE REGIONAL SEWERAGE AUTHORITY


                                         Dry Weather                   Wet Weather

 Average Daily Flow (MGD)                          7                          16

 Peak Hourly Flow (MGD)                            10                         40


                                              38
FIGURE 14: DIRECT DISCHARGES TO WATERS IN OR NEAR SHELLFISH GROWING AREA A011 -
MONMOUTH BEACH TO SANDY HOOK - MONMOUTH COUNTY, NEW JERSEY



                                      39
TABLE 11: MAP KEY(S) - DIRECT DISCHARGE(S) TO WATERS OF SHELLFISH GROWING AREA A011 –
MONMOUTH BEACH TO SANDY HOOK, MONMOUTH COUNTY, NEW JERSEY

         Facility Name                  Waste Type                   Waste Quantity         Discharge
                                                                   (Design Flow - MGD)

 Two Rivers Water Reclamation      Residential Wastewater                 11.4           Secondary Treated
          Authority              Influent w/ Light Industrial                                Effluent
                                            Input

   Township of Middletown          Residential Wastewater                 10.8           Secondary Treated
  Sewerage Authority via the     Influent w/ Light Industrial                                Effluent
  Monmouth County Bayshore                  Input
  Outfall Authority Discharge
             Pipe
  Bayshore Regional Sewerage       Residential Wastewater                  16            Secondary Treated
  Authority via the Monmouth     Influent w/ Light Industrial                                Effluent
   County Bayshore Outfall                  Input
   Authority Discharge Pipe




        INDIRECT DISCHARGES


        SPILLS OR OTHER UNPERMITTED DISCHARGES

        Potential indirect sources of pollution                 action to eliminate contamination is
        can include sites contaminated with                     required of responsible parties at
        hazardous materials or spills that might                contaminated locations, though. The
        occur in close proximity to this area.                  BMWM works closely with NJDEP Site
        Although the waters of A011 are                         Remediation Program to ensure that
        classified as Prohibited at present, there              potential contaminants from such sites
        were no spills recorded that resulted in                do not reach shellfish growing waters.
        impact to the waters of A011 during the
        time period covered in this report. Of the              Generally, the sediment surrounding
        contaminated sites identified for this                  underground fuel tanks will absorb
        region, few are located in close                        contaminants discharged to soil. As
        proximity to the shoreline of A011. Any                 such, there is reduced risk for these
        that are closer to the shoreline have                   contaminants to reach marine waters by
        primarily been identified as service                    soil absorption. Further, the distance
        stations with storage tanks that leaked or              from these locations to this shellfish
        fuel storage locations with leakage.                    growing area is such that if ground
                                                                waters were contaminated, dilution
        At present, there are no indications of                 would occur between the petroleum
        impact to these shellfish growing waters                leaching source and the waters of A011.
        from contaminated sites. Remedial

                                                        40
Were petroleum products to reach the             dwellers). However, colder water
waters of this shellfish growing area,           temperatures can cause petrochemicals
they are likely to cause minimal impact          to sink to the bottom.
to shellfisheries during the short term.
Petrochemical materials do not mix well
with water, having a tendency to float on
the surface (shellfish are bottom




FIGURE 15: SPILLS OR OTHER UNPERMITTED DISCHARGES


STORM WATER INPUTS

The main source of indirect discharge in         A shoreline investigation conducted on
the area nearby this site is stormwater          November 11, 2002 revealed no
runoff. Management of stormwater                 stormwater outfalls discharging into the
runoff along this section of coastline           ocean. A small amount of storm runoff
(adjacent to A011) consists of directing         enters the ocean waters from non-
flow into rivers and back bays (away             channeled runoff but the majority is
from the ocean).                                 channeled into storm drains within most


                                            41
surrounding communities. Outfalls for             role in water quality data in the northern
these storm drains empty into bay or              extreme of this growing area. Rain
river sources near this shellfish growing         events are of particular interest when
area (see Figure 17).                             reviewing the monitoring data for
                                                  stations in the northerly quadrants of
Runoff from Sandy Hook should                     A011. Specifically, bacteriological water
generally be less impacting than other            quality (as indicated by coliform counts)
areas to the west of A011. As Sandy               can be negatively influenced during
Hook is not comprised of large                    periods following storm activity.
commercial or industrial infrastructure,
the absorption ability of substantial sand        Potential for pathogenic bacteria also
deposits, which comprise the area, filter         results from illegal or incidental
and absorb a major percentage of                  discharge of on-board sewerage from
impurities. The most probable area                boats (commercial and non- commercial
contributing to impacted stormwater               fishing, crabbing, clamming and
runoff on Sandy Hook would be the US              recreational). This can occur within back
Coast Guard facility. The Coast Guard is          bay marinas and on the open water
situated on the northwest side of Sandy           (shipping lanes are right outside the
Hook alongside Sandy Hook Bay,                    ocean waters of A011). Also, indirect
though. This allows for substantial               discharge can result from a line break or
dilution of stormwater inputs before              pump station malfunction in any of the
reaching Shellfish Growing Area A011.             sewerage treatment facility infrastructure
                                                  serving communities near this site.
There are landfills situated to the
northwest (Staten Island Area) of A011,           It should be noted that Sandy Hook has a
which have or had potential for                   wastewater treatment plant, which
contributing negative influence on the            services all establishments located
water quality in the northern portion of          within the 1665 acre peninsula. The
the growing area. The last active use of          facility is known as the Sandy Hook
any landfill in proximity to A011 ended           Wastewater Plant, and is operated by the
with the closure of the Fresh Kills               Water and Wastewater Division of the
Landfill during spring of 2001. It had            National Park Service for the Sandy
been legally mandated to close by                 Hook Unit - Gateway National
December 31, 2001. Although runoff                Recreational Area. This plant was not
from landfill sites on Staten Island still        mentioned in the section on Direct
might contribute to impacted water                Discharge        as       it     utilizes
quality in the northern and northeastern          absorption/dispersal pools rather than
perimeters of this growing area during            pumping effluent discharge directly into
larger storm events, this likelihood has          the Atlantic. There are eight pools or
been reduced with the closure of Fresh            Percolation Lagoons, which are utilized
Kills Landfill.                                   on a rotating basis. Treated effluent
                                                  eventually passes to ground water via
The nearby shipping lanes, former                 these pools.
landfills and larger urban communities
to the North (New York) and northwest             This facility also incorporates water
(Raritan Bay area) may play an integral           treatment within its operative processes.


                                             42
Water derived from a well, located at             given body of water. There are instances
some distance to the south of the                 when large migrating bird populations
Percolation Lagoons, is treated for the           utilize the Atlantic Flyway, which
purpose of public use and consumption.            includes A011’s ocean waters to the east
Treated well water at Sandy Hook is               and the back bays or rivers to the west.
reportedly of good quality which                  Population densities during Spring and
suggests there is no direct impact to             Fall migrations are such that coliform
ground water from effluent percolation.           levels in the nearby waters may be
With this, it appears unlikely that any           affected. Coliform level increase might
impact to nearby ocean waters would               also be noted during periods of nesting
result from percolation processes utilized        that can occur during Spring. Although
in wastewater treatment. If coliform              migration and nesting do take place
bacteria is discharged into Percolation           along the coastline, greater impact from
Lagoons, it is apparently absorbed via            this activity should be witnessed in the
natural processes and eliminated.                 back bay areas and nearby rivers where
                                                  many species tend to feed, breed, and
It is unlikely that this plant would cause        rest. As such, the open ocean waters of
impact to the ocean waters of A011                A011 are not as prone to impact from
according to Sandy Hook Wastewater                these activities or dilution is such that
Treatment Plant Operator, Brian                   impact is lessened. Further, coliform
Hoffman. In the event of a plant mishap           input into the back bays or river sources
via infrastructural problems or error, the        is likely to be diluted as it makes its way
distance to this growing area coupled             to the Atlantic. Additionally, there were
with absorption and dilution processes            no mass migratory avian populations
should eliminate bacterial loading.               noted along the shoreline during the
Nonetheless, it warrants mentioning due           investigation conducted for this Sanitary
to the potential for indirect discharge.          Survey. That survey took place during
                                                  the early fall.
Avian populations may also contribute
to the coliform bacteria count within a

STORMWATER IMPACT STUDIES

Non-point source pressures on shellfish           discharge excessive bacteriological loads
beds in New Jersey can originate in               during storm events. In some cases,
materials that enter the water via                specific discharge points can be
stormwater. These materials include               identified. When specific outfalls are
bacteria and other waste that enters the          identified as significant sources, the
stormwater collection system.                     Department works with the county and
                                                  municipality to further refine the
Historical data comparing the difference          source(s) of the contamination and
between coliform levels measured after            implement remediation activities.
rainfall with those during dry periods
were compared to generate the map in              It should be noted that a particular short-
Figure 16. The Bureau of Marine Water             term data set may not indicate significant
Monitoring has begun to identify                  rainfall impact even if the historical data
particular stormwater outfalls that


                                             43
indicates that a significant impact occurs          miss the full impact of the ‘first
in a particular area. This is due to one or         flush’.
more of the following f actors:                     Rainfall data are based on the
       Data during the short term may               closest established NOAA station.
       consist of primarily rainfall data           Since rainfall patterns along the
       or dry weather data. In this case,           coastline, particularly during the
       if there are insufficient data points        summer months, tends to include
       in each category, the test for               locally heavy rainfall, the rainfall
       significance cannot be done.                 amounts recorded at the NOAA
       Data collected after rainfall in the         station may not accurately reflect
       normal sampling regime may                   the rainfall at the sampling
                                                    station(s).




FIGURE 16: AREAS IMPACTED BY STORMWATER




                                               44
FIGURE 17: INDIRECT DISCHARGES (STORM WATER OUTFALLS) TO BAY OR RIVER SOURCES NEAR
SHELLFISH GROWING AREA A011 - MONMOUTH BEACH TO SANDY HOOK - MONMOUTH COUNTY, NEW
JERSEY




                                        45
FIGURE 18: STORMWATER DRAIN - INDIRECT DISCHARGE   IS RECEIVED BY THE   NAVESINK RIVER, SEA
BRIGHT, NEW JERSEY




FIGURE 19: POTENTIALLY IMPACTING SEWAGE SPILLS          OR   OVERFLOW     FROM   SEWERAGE
INFRASTRUCTURE DAMAGE OR M ALFUNCTION




                                         46
                        HYDROLOGY AND METEOROLOGY

PATTERNS OF PRECIPITATION
Precipitation patterns in the coastal                  associated with thunder and lightening
areas of New Jersey are typical of the                 activity. Winter storms are frequently
Mid-Atlantic coastal region. Summer                    linked to northeasters. Hurricanes can
storms are localized and often                         occur during the summer and early fall.
               TABLE 12: AVERAGE MID-ATLANTIC STORM EVENT INFORMATION.

               SOURCES: USEPA; US DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE

                  Annual Average Number of Storms             60
                  Average Storm Event Duration                10 hours
                  Average Storm Event Intensity               0.08 – 0.09
                                                              inches/hour
                  Average Storm Event Volume                  0.65 inches



Although the average storm event                         between two and three inches, while
lasts approximately 10 hours, with an                    the 2-year 24-hour return volume
accumulation of 0.65 inches, it is not                   varies between three and four inches.
unusual for an individual storm                          Storm     volumes     greater    than
volume to be 2 – 3 inches. Note the                      approximately 3.5 – 4.0 inches are
data below that shows the 2-year                         much less frequent.
return, 6-hour storm event to be
TABLE 13: STORM EVENT VOLUME FOR 2-YEAR STORM EVENT RECURRENCE (SOURCE: USGS)

         Location                2-Year, 1-Hour          2-Year, 6-Hour         2-Year, 24-Hour
                                    Rainfall                Rainfall               Rainfall
  Millville                           1.33                    2.33                   3.02
  Cape May                            1.33                    2.41                   3.10
  Atlantic City                       1.47                    2.67                   3.65
  Long Branch                         1.55                    3.02                   4.15
  Newark                              1.21                    2.34                   3.25
  Sandy Hook                          1.37                    2.73                   3.68



Weather pattern change can cause                       duration. A weather-altering event such
drought in some areas of the world and                 as El Niño is an example of a globally or
increased storm activity in other locals.              broad        ranging      climatological
These changes can be short or long in                  development that can cause significant
                                                       change in weather. This can also have an
                                                       effect on hydrology (water tables, water


                                                  47
flow, chemistry, etc.), and recorded              New Jersey has experienced drought
precipitation amounts. When using a               conditions since 1979, when the last
small grouping of yearly time frames, as          growing area report was written for
is the nature of this report, hydrology           A011. Nonetheless, when averaging the
characteristics, and rainfall accumulation        data for precipitation amounts, the
appear fairly constant.                           results do show a fairly consistent
                                                  pattern for A011, during the time frame
                                                  represented in this report.
PRECIPITATION ANALYSIS

Available precipitation inputs to the area        TRWRA, TOMSA, and BRSA treatment
for the period 2/25/98 through 6/26/01            plants are capable of processing their
are shown in Table 14. As combined                influent loading. Effluents emptying into
yearly averages for precipitation                 the Atlantic Ocean from the TRWRA
accumulation have shown little change,            and MCBOA discharge pipes should be
there has been no drastic change in               picked up directly by surface and bottom
hydrology either.                                 stations A8A, A10A, A8C, and A10C
                                                  (eight stations). Bacterial data available
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric              for analysis (15 or more samples
Administration      (NOAA)       weather          required for APC Sampling Strategy)
stations reporting data for precipitation         was acceptable (Approved waters) for
accumulation in this region of New                both total and fecal coliform criteria (for
Jersey are as follows: the primary                six of the eight stations) during the four
weather station for this area is # 7865           years of sampling data contained within
(Sandy Hook), and the secondary                   this Sanitary Survey. It should be noted
weather station is # 8816 (Toms River).           that bottom stations A8A and A10A had
Secondary station data are used when              only four dates each for sampling. These
data from the primary station are                 stations were added in October of 2000,
incomplete.                                       and provided an insufficient number of
                                                  sampling dates for analysis. Although
Larger storm events, hurricanes or                coliform counts for stations in close
winter nor’easters can cause elevated             proximity to outfalls were higher on
coliform levels within some sections of           specific dates, the overall water quality
the Atlantic Ocean growing areas. With            analysis was acceptable (utilizing
A011, the stations in the northern and            Approved water classification criteria)
northeastern sections of the monitoring           for the six stations where enough data
area show this type of response.                  existed for analysis. On the dates where
However, for this report, the correlation         higher coliform levels were noted, there
coefficient did not show a significant            were occasions of storm event activity
rainfall correlation for the time frame           preceding sampling dates by one to two
used in this Sanitary Survey.                     days. However there were dates when
                                                  counts were elevated and significant
Bacteriological quality around the two            precipitation amounts were not noted
sewerage treatment outfalls (TRWRA                prior to sampling. As such, it seems
and MCBOA) located in or near this                implausible to relate occasionally higher
shellfish growing area suggests that the          coliform counts to treatment facility



                                             48
capacity   overload   from   stormwater          frequently during the winter season, as
loading.                                         mentioned above.

Contributing factors to the occurrence of        The only hurricane that passed through
elevated coliform levels after storm             the area in recent years was Floyd during
events within certain sectors of A011            1999. However, much of the hurricane’s
possibly include an interaction of               intensity had been lost prior to its
hydrological     and       meteorological        reaching New Jersey. Further, large
processes.    These     would     include        winter nor’easters have been far less
precipitation    events      contributing        intense during the time frame covered
stormwater outflows from nearby bays             within this report (1997 - 2001). As a
and rivers along with tidal and seasonal         result, there is no significant data
influences.   This     scenario    seems         collection from a period of significantly
plausible when reviewing the data and            elevated storm intensity shown for this
the station locations where bacterial            review period.
quality exceeds APC criteria for either
total and fecal coliform or both. When           Sampling stations (bottom stations) have
doing so, higher bacterial counts are            been added to A011 within the last three
observed northeast of the tip of Sandy           years. Although surface stations already
Hook where the waters of the Atlantic,           existed within this growing area, these
Sandy Hook Bay, and Raritan Bay mix,             additional bottom stations were proposed
continuing down through the central              to more precisely monitor coliform
eastern sector of the growing area.              levels within the growing area water
Higher bacterial counts seem to                  column. As clams are sessile organisms
circumvent the southerly portion of              and the ocean has considerable depth,
Sandy Hook but can be noted again                the addition of bottom sampling in
toward Sea Bright and Monmouth                   conjunction with surface monitoring
Beach.                                           allows for a better analysis of A011. The
                                                 addition of bottom stations within this
Sampling occurring two days after storm          growing area has also enabled the
events can provide data showing                  BMWM to compile additional data
elevated coliform counts at certain              regarding tide, season, and rainfall,
stations as noted above although rainfall        creating a more complete synopsis of
correlations were not present. The               interactions within this growing area.
season when these higher counts are              With this, it would appear that there is
obtained is almost always the winter.            no reason to further alter the sampling
                                                 regime utilized in obtaining future data
Stormwater outfalls in the Raritan and           for reports because of the need for
Sandy Hook Bays are likely to be                 additional data or adjustments with
responsible for fact that the highest            regard to where the data are collected.
coliform counts occur in the northern
stations of this growing area. Although,         Rainfall’s overall contribution to
statistically, there was no significant          elevated coliform counts within A011 is
difference noted in the data between the         again more specific to the northern
winter and summer seasons, higher                sector of the growing area, and more
coliform numbers do appear more                  apparent after rain events taking place



                                            49
two days prior to sampling. This implies                           The interaction of factors for A011,
that some travel time is involved                                  which could influence or increase
between the sources of stormwater input,                           coliform counts after rain events (tide,
and this growing area. This information                            season, storm water runoff, wind, and
supports previous discussions in this                              potential landfill wash), occur over such
report regarding source inputs being                               a distance that impact to this growing
derived from other growing areas                                   area is minimized with back bay and
containing the Raritan and Sandy Hook                              oceanic mixing. Further, hydrology has
Bay’s or the Navesink & Shrewsbury                                 changed little during the period
Rivers. Again, bacterial counts in these                           documented in this report as seen from
instances were also generally highest in                           the average consistency of precipitation
the winter season.                                                 amounts and lack of larger impact-
                                                                   related storms.
TABLE 14: PRECIPITATION DATA FOR SHELLFISH GROWING AREA A011 – MONMOUTH BEACH                            TO
SANDY HOOK – MONMOUTH COUNTY, NEW JERSEY
Rainfall Recorded at NOAA’s Station(s) 7865 (Sandy Hook) and 8816 (Toms River)


                                                           Precipitation in Inches

  Sampling Date             Day of Sampling                   24 Hours Prior            48 Hours Prior

       2/15/98                        0                                0                      0
       2/21/98                        0                              1.17                    1.17
       3/25/98                        0                                0                      0
       4/3/98                         0                                0                     0.47
       4/13/98                        0                                0                      0
       1/5/99                         0                              3.36                    3.45
       2/21/99                        0                                0                      0.9
       1/6/00                         0                                0                      0.7
       3/19/00                        0                              0.3                      1.4
       5/12/00                        0                              0.35                    0.35
       5/21/00                      0.75                             1.2                     1.46
       10/6/00                        0                                0                     0.29
      12/15/00                        0                              0.5                      0.8
       1/22/01                        0                                0                      0.8
       2/7/01                         0                                0                      0
       2/27/01                        0                                0                      0
       6/12/01                        0                                0                      0
       6/26/01                        0                                0                     0.02




                                                            50
TIDAL EFFECTS

Bottom station A6C is represented in               movements from the rivers and back bay
Figure 20 as a station where a significant         areas that feed A011, contribute higher
difference was detected between ebb tide           coliform counts as the tide moves non –
and flood tide coliform levels. The t-             point inputs from these sources toward
Statistic Probability was ≤ 0.05 (0.049)           A011. Tidal exchange for A011 involves
meaning that the difference was detected           the mixing of waters from the Sandy
with over 95% confidence.                          Hook, Raritan, and Hudson bays with
                                                   the Atlantic Ocean. Prior to this
For station A6C, the total coliform                interaction, additional sources including
geometric mean was higher on the flood             both urban and suburban communities
tide at 14.9 MPN/100 mL as opposed to              contribute additional inputs to four rivers
2.0 MPN/100 mL on the ebb tide. While              (the Shrewsbury, Navesink, Raritan, and
a significant difference was detected              Hudson rivers) that feed into the larger
between ebb and flood tide conditions,             bays noted above. Tidal exchanges
the NSSP criteria (both total coliform             provide a mechanism to mix impacted
and fecal coliform) for Approved waters            water with higher quality water. As a
were not exceeded under either tidal               result, significant amounts of mixing and
condition.                                         dilution occur for the waters in this area.
                                                   It is apparent though that the waters to
In A011, there also appears to be                  the north and northeast of Sandy Hook
interaction between tidal movements                are the most impacted.
after precipitation events. It was noted
that out of 16 sampling dates for bottom           As proposed in the section on
station A6C, there were three dates                Precipitation Analysis, there appears to
where the fecal coliform exceeded 14               be an interaction of hydrological and
MPN/100 mL (2/21/98, 4/3/98 and                    meteorological       processes       (tide,
10/6/00). On all three dates, it rained two        precipitation, and seasonal interactions)
days prior to sampling and on 2/21/98, it          at work in A011. In particular, tide
also rained the day before sampling.               appears to play an important role as
Scores for Fc on those dates were 22.0             higher bacterial counts appear to move
MPN/100 mL, 27.0 MPN/100 mL, and                   from the north to the east central portion
28.0 MPN/100 mL respectively.                      of A011 (where station A6C bottom is
Correspondingly, total coliform counts             located - Tidal Component station), then
were highest on those same dates with              move south-southwest off the coast of
50.0 MPN/100 mL, 240.0 MPN/100 mL,                 Sea Bright and Monmouth Beach.
and 28.0 MPN/100 mL respectively.
With this, there was one date (4/3/98)             As previously suggested in the
when Tc exceeded 70/MPN/100 mL.                    Precipitation Analysis section, higher
                                                   coliform levels off the coast of Sea
Noting the fact that higher coliform               Bright and Monmouth Beach could be
counts can occur in this growing area              due to increased influent loading at
within a two day period following a                sewerage treatment facilities from
precipitation event may imply tidal                stormwater runoff. However, higher
                                                   coliform levels are not always present at



                                              51
stations off Sea Bright and Monmouth              t-probability denoting a statistically
Beach after rainfall events. Further,             significant difference. Tidal exchange
stations near wastewater treatment                allows the waters of A011 to begin
outfalls show lower coliform levels               mixing in the northern section and, when
when compared to more northerly                   reviewing the data for bacterial quality,
stations after storm events. This analysis        it suggests that more impacted waters to
suggests tidal movement from north to             the north are subsequently diluted as the
south is less likely due to direct                flow continues in a southerly direction.
discharge.                                        The following map shows bottom station
                                                  A6C as a location impacted by tidal
Variation is noted at bottom station A06          change.
as the data suggests this location shows a




                                             52
FIGURE 20: SAMPLING STATION IMPACTED BY TIDAL CHANGES IN SHELLFISH GROWING AREA A011 -
MONMOUTH BEACH TO SANDY HOOK - MONMOUTH COUNTY, NEW JERSEY




                                          53
TABLE 15: BOTTOM SAMPLING STATION SHOWING TIDAL EFFECTS (TOTAL COLIFORM) IN SHELLFISH
GROWING AREA A011 - MONMOUTH BEACH TO SANDY HOOK - MONMOUTH COUNTY, NEW JERSEY


  Station    t-Statistic   Geometric Mean    Geometric Mean     # Samples       # Samples
            Probability        Ebb               Flood             Ebb            Flood

   A6C         0.049            2.0                14.9             10              6


                             WATER QUALITY STUDIES
BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY

COMPLIANCE WITH NSSP APPROVED CRITERIA

The Adverse Pollution Condition (APC)              MPN/100 mL. As mentioned in previous
strategy was utilized to classify the              sections, the percentile portion of the
waters contained within this growing               criteria using APC methodology
area. This methodology was utilized for            suggests that no more than 10% of the
sampling to monitor for the possibility of         samples can exceed 230 as the MPN/100
contamination due to the presence of               mL – total coliform and no more than
direct    discharges.     Again,     these         10% can exceed 43 as the MPN/100 mL
discharges come from the Two Rivers                – fecal coliform (for 5-tube decimal
Water Reclamation Authority Discharge              dilution tests).
Pipe (located in the Atlantic Ocean – just
south of A011 - approximately 0.37                 Surface station A1A exceeded the
nautical miles southeast of Sailors Way            percentile criteria twice out of seventeen
and Monmouth Beach Borough), and the               samples with 900 MPN/100 mL on
Monmouth County Bayshore Outfall                   4/3/98 and 280 MPN/100 mL on
Authority Discharge Pipe (located in the           4/13/98. Station A2C bottom also
Atlantic Ocean – south, central portion            exceeded the percentile criteria twice
of A011 - approximately 0.98 nautical              with 240 MPN/100 mL on 2/21/98 and
miles northeast of the intersection of the         300 MPN/100 mL on 4/3/98. Geometric
Atlantic Highlands Bridge where Sea                means were acceptable with surface
Bright ends and Sandy Hook begins).                station A1A showing 13.9 MPN/100 mL
                                                   and bottom station A2C at 7.2 MPN/100
The water quality data collected for this          mL. It should be noted that all stations in
area, between February 1998 and June               this growing area are located in waters
2001, showed that sample results from              that are currently classified as
all but two stations (station A1A –                Prohibited. The stations that exceeded
surface and station A2C – bottom) were             APC year-round criteria were in the
within the APC year-round criteria (total          northern sector of the growing area.
coliform) for Approved waters. Surface             Their location is approximately 5.2
station A1A and bottom station A2C                 nautical miles from the area proposed for
both exceeded the percentile portion for           upgrade in this report.
Approved criteria with both stations
presenting a score of 11.8% > 230                  Complete tabulated listings for water


                                              54
quality summaries represented by total             evaluate (15 or more samples needed -
coliform bacteriological data (from                some stations did not exist prior to
2/15/98 – 6/26/01) can be found in Table           2000), four stations exceeded the
17. The results were compiled from                 percentile criteria for fecal coliform and
Assignment        561      and      detail         none exceeded for geometric mean. The
approximately 17 different sampling                stations that exceeded the percentile
runs representing approximately 268                criteria were A1A (surface), A4C
samples from 10 surface and 10 bottom              (bottom), and A6C (surface). These
stations. These stations were analyzed             stations showed 11.8 % > 43 MPN/100
for both total and fecal coliform and are          mL. The fourth station exceeding the
represented in Figure 21.                          percentile criteria for fecal coliform was
                                                   A4C (surface) at 12.5% > 43 MPN/100
Again, all but two stations exhibited              mL. Stations A1A (surface), A4C
acceptable (Approved) year round water             (bottom), and A6C (surface) were
quality for total coliform on summary              sampled 17 times and each exceeded the
evaluation using APC criteria. The mean            percentile criteria on two occasions with
or average of all geometric means was              regard to the primary data time frame
6.94 MPN/100 mL. The mode for geo -                used for this report (9/1/97 – 8/30/01).
mean, or most commonly repeated                    Station A4C (surface) was sampled 16
geometric mean, was 4.5 MPN/100 mL.                times and the percentile criterion was
The highest geometric mean recorded                exceeded on two occasions. The dates
for total coliform was 16.8 MPN/100                and MPN/100 mL for each of these
mL and the lowest was 3.0 MPN/100                  stations are as follows: station A1A
mL. This provides a range of geometric             (surface) – 130 MPN/100 mL - 5/21/00
means (not the range of the data) of 13.8          and 50 MPN/100 mL – 6/12/01, station
MPN/100 mL (16.8 – 3 = 13.8). MPN’s                A4C (surface) – 130 MPN/100 mL –
of 70/100 mL and 14/100 mL are used as             2/21/98 and 50 MPN/100 mL – 6/12/01,
cut off points for acceptable water                station A4C (bottom) – 50 MPN/100 mL
quality when analyzing total coliform              – 4/3/98 and 50 MPN/100 mL – 10/6/00,
and fecal coliform, respectively. As the           station A6C (surface) – 80 MPN/100 mL
above summarization’s for geometric                – 2/21/98 and 50 MPN/100 mL –
mean are well within the NSSP                      6/12/01.
standards using APC strategy, the water
quality within shellfish growing area              Stations showing elevated fecal coliform
A011 was more than acceptable with                 data presented in this report are located
regard to classification parameters for            to the north of the area proposed for
this reporting period.                             upgrade in this report. Fecal coliform
                                                   data have proven to be a useful tool
The raw data listings for this growing             when analyzing the complete picture for
area show instances of elevated fecal              our ocean shellfish growing areas, and
coliform      levels.    Although       the        were beneficial in helping the BMWM
classification of these waters is currently        make final delineations for the area
based on total coliform data, the                  proposed for upgrade in this report.
BMWM feels it is important to evaluate
fecal coliform data as an adjunct source
of information. Of the 15 stations where
there were enough data available to


                                              55
FIGURE 21: CURRENT SAMPLING STATIONS FOR SHELLFISH GROWING AREA A011 - MONMOUTH
BEACH TO SANDY HOOK - MONMOUTH COUNTY, NEW JERSEY




                                      56
FIGURE 22: SAMPLING STATIONS THAT DID NOT MEET APPROVED CRITERIA FOR APC YEAR ROUND
DATA (W/IN PROHIBITED CLASSIFICATION) IN SHELLFISH G ROWING AREA A011 - MONMOUTH BEACH TO
SANDY HOOK - MONMOUTH COUNTY, NEW JERSEY



                                           57
TABLE 16 : WATER Q UALITY SUMMARY (TOTAL COLIFORM) FOR SAMPLING STATIONS THAT DID NOT
MEET APPROVED CRITERIA FOR APC YEAR ROUND DATA (W/IN PROHIBITED CLASSIFICATION) IN
SHELLFISH GROWING AREA A011 - MONMOUTH BEACH TO SANDY HOOK - MONMOUTH COUNTY, NEW
JERSEY (02/15/98 - 06/26/01)

Station   Depth            Yearround                   Summer              Winter
                    Geo.      %>       N    Geo.         %>     N   Geo.     %>     N
                    Mean                    Mean                    Mean
                              230                        230                 230

 A1A      Surface   13.9     11.8%     17   13.4         0.0%   5   14.0    15.4%   13
 A2C      Bottom    7.2      11.8%     17   4.9          0.0%   5   8.1     15.4%   13




TABLE 17 : WATER Q UALITY SUMMARY (TOTAL COLIFORM) FOR SHELLFISH GROWING AREA A011 -
MONMOUTH BEACH TO SANDY HOOK - MONMOUTH COUNTY, NEW JERSEY (02/15/98 - 06/26/01)

Station   Depth            Yearround                   Summer              Winter

                    Geo.      %>       N    Geo.         %>     N   Geo.     %>     N
                    Mean                    Mean                    Mean
                              230                        230                 230
 A1A      Surface   13.9     11.8%     17   13.4         0.0%   5   14.0    15.4%   13

 A1A      Bottom    12.6      0.0%     4    9.3          0.0%   3   32.0    0.0%    1
 A2C      Surface   16.8      5.9%     17   13.4         0.0%   5   18.0    7.7%    13

 A2C      Bottom    7.2      11.8%     17   4.9          0.0%   5   8.1     15.4%   13
 A3A      Surface   6.0       0.0%     16   5.7          0.0%   5   6.1     0.0%    12
 A3A      Bottom    4.5       0.0%     4    5.8          0.0%   3   2.0     0.0%    1
 A4C      Surface   14.5      5.9%     17   8.1          0.0%   5   17.4    7.7%    13
 A4C      Bottom    5.2       5.9%     17   4.5          0.0%   5   5.4     7.7%    13
 A6A      Surface   5.5       0.0%     16   4.5          0.0%   5   5.9     0.0%    12
 A6A      Bottom    4.3       0.0%     4    4.4          0.0%   3   4.0     0.0%    1
 A6C      Surface   8.5       0.0%     17   8.1          0.0%   5   8.7     0.0%    13
 A6C      Bottom    4.2       6.3%     16   5.5          0.0%   5   3.9     8.3%    12
 A8A      Surface   5.0       0.0%     16   3.1          0.0%   5   5.9     0.0%    12
 A8A      Bottom    4.5       0.0%     4    5.8          0.0%   3   2.0     0.0%    1
 A8C      Surface   5.9       5.9%     17   3.1          0.0%   5   7.2     7.7%    13
 A8C      Bottom    3.9       0.0%     16   4.5          0.0%   5   3.8     0.0%    12
 A10A     Surface   4.0       0.0%     16   2.0          0.0%   5   5.1     0.0%    12
 A10A     Bottom    4.5       0.0%     4    5.8          0.0%   3   2.0     0.0%    1

 A10C     Surface   4.8       0.0%     17   2.4          0.0%   5   5.9     0.0%    13
 A10C     Bottom    3.0       0.0%     16   4.5          0.0%   5   2.6     0.0%    12




                                                  58
RELATED STUDIES

The BMWM performs additional water                 to the phytoplankton monitoring
quality     studies     related   to    the        program described in the following
bacteriological monitoring program.                paragraph.
Specifically, this growing area (A011)
has a nutrient sampling station (A7A)              As mentioned in the section on Marine
within its perimeter. Nutrient stations are        Bio-toxins, data are also collected as part
sampled on a quarterly basis. There are            of the phytoplankton monitoring
approximately 250 nutrient sampling                program, for which the BMWM
stations within the coastal and inner              analyzes samples bi-weekly from May
coastal waters of New Jersey. Twenty-              through August (Memorial Day through
four of those stations are located within          Labor Day). This is done in order to
the ocean waters off the New Jersey                determine the presence of marine
coast. The 226 remaining nutrient                  biotoxins in accordance with NSSP
stations are spread throughout NJ’s back           requirements.
bay waters. The Bureau compiles the
results of nutrient levels from such               There       are     approximately     16
stations and then prepares a separate              phytoplankton stations within the waters
report. The nutrient station location for          of New Jersey. Of those 16, four are
A7A is shown in Figure 23 and nutrient             located off the coast from the southerly
levels for this station are shown in Table         portion of Sandy Hook down to Cape
18.                                                May. The other 12 phytoplankton
                                                   stations are situated within New Jersey’s
Chlorophyll data are also contained                back bay waters. It should be noted that
within the nutrient data. As such, the             nutrient and phytoplankton stations are
BMWM is able to maintain a quarterly               arranged so that samples for both are
picture of algal activity within State             taken from matching locations. In this
waters. The chlorophyll data also proves           regard, data can be uniformly compared
to be useful as adjunct information                and analyzed.




                                              59
FIGURE 23: NUTRIENT SAMPLING STATION FOR SHELLFISH GROWING AREA A011 - MONMOUTH
BEACH TO SANDY HOOK - MONMOUTH COUNTY, NEW JERSEY




                                      60
TABLE 18: DATA SUMMARY - NUTRIENT SAMPLING STATION FOR SHELLFISH GROWING AREA A011 - MONMOUTH
BEACH TO SANDY HOOK - MONMOUTH COUNTY, NEW JERSEY


Station    Date     Time   Temp   Secchi   Salinity    DO       TSS     NH3         NO3     PO4     TN        TP       CHL a       ME
                            (C)             (PPT)     (mg/L)   (mg/L) Ammonia        &     Ortho-  Total     Total     (µg/L)   CFU/100 ml
                                                                       (µg/L)       NO2    phos- Nitrogen Phosphorus
                                                                                   Nitrate phate (µg N/L)  (µg P/L)
                                                                                     &     (µg/L)
                                                                                   Nitrite
                                                                                   (µg/L)




 A7A      6/18/01   0946   19.8     N       26.44     9.30     14.50     25.57        N      19.19     N      49.06    4.20         N

 A7A      7/19/01   0944   19.1     N       31.09     7.60     16.00     4.50 K     84.38    26.29   331.41   66.21    4.20         N

 A7A      8/16/01   1000   23.1     N       32.83     7.70     17.00     27.39     101.76    51.28   531.30   58.68    2.10         N


                                              Data Coding: K = Less Than, N = Data not available




                              INTERPETATION AND DISCUSSION OF DATA
            BACTERIOLOGICAL

            Criteria for acceptability of shellfish                          decimal dilution test (this methodology is
            growing water, based on bacterial                                used with A011 for bacteriological
            parameters, are provided in the National                         fermentation and formats the criteria for
            Shellfish Sanitation Program Guide for                           data analysis), which also provides total
            the Control of Molluscan Shellfish.                              coliform (Tc) data, Tc analysis will
            Each state adopts either the total                               continue to be utilized as adjunct
            coliform criteria or the fecal coliform                          information when summarizing this
            criteria for growing water classifications.                      shellfish growing area.
            States are also allowed to apply either
            standard to differing water bodies                               When the 5-tube decimal dilution test is
            according to the NSSP guide.                                     used, the total coliform geometric mean
                                                                             MPN for Approved classification must
            Historically, the BMWM has based                                 not exceed 70 counts/100 mL and not
            shellfish growing water classification on                        more than 10% of the samples can
            total coliform criteria, and this parameter                      exceed an MPN of 230 counts/100 mL.
            has been used for the purpose of this                            Areas to be classified as Seasonal utilize
            report. However, as reported in the                              the same criteria as those for Approved
            section on Sampling Strategy - NSSP                              waters (specific to time of year
            Criteria, future analyses (beginning in                          Approved for shellfish harvests). Special
            2003) for ocean growing areas will be                            Restricted classifications must not
            based on fecal coliform criterion. As                            exceed the criteria of 700 counts/100 mL
            A011 is sampled with the 5 – tube                                and have no more than 10% of the
                                                                             samples exceed an MPN of 2300


                                                                       61
counts/100          mL.       Prohibited          station A1A’s representative MPN at
classifications would be noted in areas           13.9/100 mL and bottom station A2C at
exceeding 700 counts/100 mL and the               7.2 MPN/100 mL. An MPN of 70/100
percentile criteria would show more than          mL is used as the cut off point for
10% of the samples were above 2300                acceptable water quality when analyzing
counts/100mL.                                     total coliform. However, both stations
                                                  exceeded the percentile portion for
As noted previously in this report,               Approved criteria. Each station came in
classifications for ocean waters in New           at 11.8% > 230 MPN/100 mL.
Jersey are either Approved or Prohibited.
In that A011 is an Atlantic Ocean                 Out of seventeen sampling events,
Shellfish Growing Area, the criteria for          surface station A1A exceeded the
Approved waters using the 5-tube                  percentile criteria twice with samples of
decimal dilution test (the methodology            900 MPN/100 mL on 4/3/98 and 280
used for A011) proves to be the most              MPN/100 mL on 4/13/98. Bottom
important classification criteria when            station A2C also exceeded the percentile
considering delineation of these ocean            criteria twice at 240 MPN/100 mL on
growing waters.                                   2/21/98 and 300 MPN/100 mL on 4/3/98
                                                  with the same number of sampling runs
A total of 284 water samples from ocean           (seventeen).
surface and bottom sampling sites were
collected at 20 stations. The results were        A011 consists of waters that are
compiled from Assignment 561 and                  currently classified as Prohibited.
detail approximately 17 different                 Stations A1A and A2C are in the
sampling runs. These were analyzed by             northern sector of the growing area. As
the BMWM for total coliform (Tc) and              there is an upgrade for classification
fecal coliform (Fc) bacteria during the           proposed in this report, it is important to
period of time from February 15, 1998             note that station locations for A1A and
through June 26, 2001. Again, although            A2C are approximately 5.2 nautical
water quality data were evaluated for Fc          miles from the section of A011 proposed
and Tc, final classification was based on         for upgrade to Approved classification in
total coliform using Adverse Pollution            this report.
Condition strategy (APC) for this
reporting period.                                 While reviewing the data, higher
                                                  coliform scores were noted for A011 in
The results of the water quality data             particular sections of the growing area
collected from sampling 20 stations in            although classification criteria were not
this shellfish growing area indicated that        exceeded. This was summarized in the
all stations except surface station A1A           Precipitation Analysis and Tidal Effects
and bottom station A2C were within                sections. In those sections it was
APC year round criteria (total coliform)          suggested there appeared to be a
for Approved waters. Both stations are            relationship between higher coliform
located in the northern perimeter of this         counts observed within a two day time
growing area.                                     frame after precipitation. Tidal action
                                                  from back bay and river sources that
Geometric means were acceptable for               eventually feed into this growing area
both of these stations with surface               were referenced as a possible cause.


                                             62
As a rule, the total coliform geometric            for this site. The primary factor for
means and percentile criteria were                 determining the strategy for monitoring,
relatively low within the growing area.            and the status of these shellfish growing
Further, tidal variability was noted at            waters is more oriented to the direct
only one of 20 stations, and correlations          discharge from the TRWRA and
for rainfall were not noted. With this,            MCBOA effluent outfalls, as they are
tidal variability and rainfall correlations        present within or near A011. However,
were not the primary reason for the                the data suggest their impact is relatively
BMWM choice of APC sampling                        minimal as well.
strategy in determining classifications




                                    CONCLUSIONS
BACTERIOLOGICAL EVALUATION

The following was concluded based on               The influence of tide on bacterial content
the water quality data for A011 from               within these waters might best examined
February 15, 1998 through June 26,                 from the standpoint of mixing and
2001. The shellfish growing waters                 dilution. Although rainfall correlations
(entirely Prohibited at present) within            are absent, there may be some
this area more than meet NSSP criteria             interaction of tidally impacted waters in
for     their    current    classification.        A011 following rainfall events within a
Specifically, all but two (surface station         two day period. Mixing and dilution
A1A and bottom station A2C) of 20                  seem evident in that coliform counts
stations within this 10.45 mile growing            appear to go from higher to lessor levels
area met APC year-round criteria (total            from north to south in this growing area.
coliform) for Approved shellfish
growing waters on summary evaluation.              Generally, the bacterial water quality is
Although geometric means were                      far better than expected when viewing
acceptable for the two stations during all         the Prohibited classification that
seasons and year round summarization’s,            currently blankets the entire growing
they exceeded the percentile criteria as           area. As such, there is no reason to
both stations showed occasional raw                suggest that the sampling strategy or
data entries of higher than acceptable             parameter for classification be altered
limits for Approved waters.                        for this growing area due to influences
                                                   such as tide.
Significant differences for seasons were
absent as were rainfall correlations. A            For the purpose of public health and
significant difference between tide                safety,     sampling    strategy    and
stages was noted at one station (bottom            classification for ocean waters is
station A6C) with the geometric mean               primarily based on the direct discharge
significantly higher on the flood tide as          from wastewater treatment outfalls that
compared to the ebb tide, though.                  exist within coastal New Jersey waters.
                                                   With A011, the TRWRA and MCBOA


                                              63
discharge pipes provide the primary               the Approved waters proposed for
reason for utilization of APC Sampling            upgrade within this report. Further, the
Strategy. Further, they influence the             remaining Prohibited waters or closure
degree to which portions of the site must         zones surrounding effluent discharge
be classified.                                    outfalls will continue to provide
                                                  sufficient buffers in the event of a plant
Prohibited waters must be designated              accident, emergency or overload.
around discharge pipes of sewerage
treatment outfalls to act as buffer zones.        The summer is the most likely season for
As previously mentioned, A011 waters              sewerage treatment plant malfunction or
have been classified as Prohibited in             overload due to the drastic increase in
their      entirety.     However,      the        population       within    NJ    coastal
bacteriological data contained within this        communities. Increase in population
Sanitary Survey provides an opportunity           within shore communities requires these
to upgrade a portion of the A011                  regional facilities to gear up their
shellfish growing area, located to the            operations to handle greater influent
north and east of these discharge                 loading. The data contained within this
outfalls,    while     still   maintaining        report substantiates the efficiency of
sufficient safety or buffer zones.                TRWRA, TOMSA, and BRSA facilities
                                                  during the summer season and supports
Significant coliform levels are not               the BMWM’s ability to propose an
impacting the shellfish growing waters            Approved water reclassification for a
of this area due to effluent from the             portion of this growing area.
TRWRA and MCBOA outfalls. Were
shellfish to be harvested from re-                As this reclassification would allow the
classified areas outside buffer zones, the        availability for surf clam harvests within
data suggest, health risks from human             these waters, it is of additional
consumption of shellfish with regard to           importance that the area proposed for
this upgrade would be negated.                    upgrade maintain bacteriological water
                                                  quality for this activity. As the State’s
This reflects well on the wastewater              surf clam harvesting season takes place
facilities treatment and operation of the         in winter, it occurs during a time when
Two       Rivers    Water    Reclamation          treatment plant activity has been slowed
Authority, Township of Middletown                 due to population decrease. As a result,
Sewerage Authority, and the Bayshore              the threat of impaired water quality
Regional Sewerage Authority. The                  within Approved waters is lessened.
following paragraphs summarize the
efficiency of these operations.                   Public health impacts are minimized
                                                  with technological advancements in
The      immediate     and     mandatory
                                                  plant     operation   and    notification
notification systems          for plant
                                                  processes. With this, the risk of illness
malfunctions are operating dependably
                                                  due to harvesting shellfish from
and satisfactorily. If the TRWRA,
                                                  impaired waters due to plant or
TOMSA or BRSA wastewater treatment
                                                  supporting infrastructure malfunction is
plants, or their infrastructure, were to
                                                  unlikely.
malfunction, the State would have more
than sufficient time to stop harvesting in


                                             64
This area has a lack of indirect discharge        Although dilution occurs from the
to the ocean from stormwater outfalls.            mixing of waters off Sandy Hook,
Stormwater is generally directed toward           greater coliform counts can be observed
bay and river sources along nearby                in this northern sector. Water quality for
communities associated with A011. As a            this site would be less impacted were it
result, impact from stormwater outfalls           not for input from the Sandy Hook,
is most closely associated with Sandy             Raritan, and Hudson Bays along with
Hook, Raritan, and Hudson Bays, along             river sources feeding those bodies of
with the Shrewsbury, Navesink, Raritan,           water. Although these sources are
and Hudson Rivers, which feed into the            suggested as reasons for higher counts in
above mentioned bays. As the waters of            the northern section of this growing area,
these bay areas meet and mix with the             they individually provide advance
Atlantic Ocean, influence from these              mixing and dilution of polluted urban
storm water sources can be evidenced              inputs prior to their reaching A011.
within the data for the more northerly
stations of the growing area. These               Again, the interaction of rainfall, tide,
stations show a propensity for higher             and season do not generally impact the
coliform counts during the winter, after          overall quality of waters of this growing
rain events, and positive tests for Tc or         area on a year-round basis. More
Fc bacteria are usually witnessed one to          importantly, the southeasterly location
two days after adverse conditions or              proposed for upgrade within A011
storm events.                                     appears to have little reference to these
                                                  factors as a whole.




                                             65
FIGURE 24: CURRENT CLASSIFICATION FOR SHELLFISH   GROWING AREA A011 - MONMOUTH BEACH
TO SANDY HOOK - MONMOUTH COUNTY, NEW JERSEY




                                         66
                              RECOMMENDATIONS
RECOMMENDED CLASSIFICATION CHANGE

It is recommended that a portion of the           operation and function have provided the
Prohibited waters (safety zone) to the            BMWM with assurance that the
northeast of the effluent outfall for             reduction in the Prohibited area,
TRWRA and east of MCBOA’s outfall                 proposed in this Recommendations
[the southeastern sector of A011 –                Section, will still allow ample buffer
(shellfish growing area off Monmouth              area should an emergency arise with
Beach, Sea Bright, and Sandy Hook in              either   the    Two     Rivers    Water
Monmouth County)] be upgraded to                  Reclamation Authority, the Township of
Approved. The premise for the proposed            Middletown Sewerage Authority, the
classification change revolves around             Bayshore Regional Sewerage Authority
NSSP criteria and the consistency of              or the Monmouth County Bayshore
acceptable water quality due to APC               Outfall Authority.
sampling strategy (total coliform).
Although A011 waters are currently                The recommendations involve the
classified as Prohibited, all but two             following:
stations (northern extreme) meet NSSP             3695 acres are to be upgraded from
standards for total coliform on summary           Prohibited to Approved. The new buffer
evaluation based on year-round analyses           zone (Prohibited area) for A011 would
for Approved waters.                              then equate to 23,692 acres. These
                                                  changes, resulting in an overall reduction
The favorable data presented in this              in Prohibited acreage, will also entail the
Sanitary Survey, along with analyses and          re-assignment of boundary coordinates
recommendations       (extra    sampling          (2A, 2B). Recommendations for
stations for bottom locations, requests           classification changes or acreage
for additional research on tide and rain)         reconfiguration, and the accompanying
contained within former Annual Reports,           plot coordinate changes, can be viewed
helped to formulate the context from              in Figures 25 and 26.
which this report was written and
recommendations were made.                        The New      Jersey Administrative Code
                                                  N.J.A.C      7:12-2.1(a)-20i should be
It should also be noted that improvement          revised as   follows to accommodate this
in wastewater treatment           facility        change       in    water    classification.




                                             67
LEGAL DESCRIPTION FOR RECOMMENDED CHANGE:


In N.J.A.C. 7:12-2.1(a)

20. Atlantic Ocean

i.     All of the ocean waters east of a line connecting the northernmost point of Sandy
       Hook and the southwestern most point of Rockaway Point and south of the New
       York State line and extending to and following the New Jersey three nautical mile
       jurisdiction limit in a southerly direction until it intersects a line bearing
       approximately 270 degrees T connecting a point with coordinates of latitude [40
       degrees 20 minutes 39.60 seconds N., longitude 73 degrees 54 minutes 16.77
       seconds W. and the radio tower located at the New Jersey Marine Police Station,
       128 Ocean Avenue, Borough of Monmouth Beach, with coordinates of latitude 40
       degrees 20 minutes 39.99 seconds N., longitude 73 degrees 58 minutes 22.56
       seconds W., then along that line to a point approximately 1.5 nautical miles
       directly offshore at latitude 40 degrees 20 minutes 39.60 seconds N., longitude 73
       degrees 56 minutes 29.94 seconds W., then along the shoreline in a southerly
       direction approximately 1.5 nautical miles offshore] 40 degrees 23 minutes 38.58
       seconds N., longitude 73 degrees 54 minutes 35.15 seconds W., then along
       that line in a westerly direction for approximately 1.3 nautical miles to a
       point with coordinates of latitude 40 degrees 23 minutes 38.99 seconds N.,
       longitude 73 degrees 56 minutes 15.98 seconds W.,                     then bearing
       approximately 183 degrees T and continuing in a southerly direction for
       approximately 7.2 nautical miles to a point with coordinates of latitude 40
       degrees 16 minutes 34.36 seconds N., longitude 73 degrees 56 minutes 56.45
       seconds W., then bearing approximately 270 degrees T toward the spire located at
       the northwest corner of Lake Drive and Ocean Avenue, City of Long Branch,
       with coordinates of latitude 40 degrees 16 minutes 39.71 seconds N., longitude 73
       degrees 59 minutes 10.21 seconds W., to a point approximately 1.0 nautical miles
       offshore with the coordinates of latitude 40 degrees 16 minutes 36.38 seconds N.,
       longitude 73 degrees 57 minutes 44.97 seconds W., then proceeding in a southerly
       direction approximately 1.0 nautical miles offshore from that point of intersection
       approximately 7.95 nautical miles to a point with coordinates of latitude 40
       degrees 8 minutes 54.89 seconds N., longitude 74 degrees 0 minutes 0 seconds
       W., until it intersects a line beginning at the water tank located on 509 Monmouth
       Avenue, Borough of Spring Lake, with coordinates of latitude 40 degrees 08
       minutes 48 seconds N., longitude 74 degrees 2 minutes 12 seconds W., and
       bearing approximately 085 degrees T through the dome of the Essex-Sussex
       Hotel, 700 Ocean Avenue, Borough of Spring Lake, with coordinates of latitude
       40 degrees 8 minutes 48 seconds N., longitude 74 degrees 2 minutes 30 seconds
       W., then proceeding from that point of intersection in a [westerly] easterly
       direction along that line towards the above noted dome until it is approximately
       0.5 nautical miles directly offshore, then continuing in a southerly direction
       approximately 0.5 nautical miles offshore for approximately 3.90 nautical miles to


                                           68
a point with coordinates of latitude 40 degrees 5 minutes .9 seconds N., longitude
74 degrees 1 minute 39.07 seconds W., then bearing approximately 280 degrees T
(reciprocal 100 degrees T) toward the water tank located next to the junction of
New York Avenue and the Con Rail Railroad tracks, Borough of Point Pleasant
Beach, with coordinates of latitude 40 degrees 5 minutes [12] 10.6 seconds N.,
longitude 74 degrees 2 minutes [0] 49.1 seconds W., to a point with coordinates
of latitude 40 degrees 5 minutes 4.44 seconds N., longitude 74 degrees 2 minutes
4.96 seconds W., then in a southerly direction approximately 1,000 feet offshore
to a point with the coordinates of latitude 40 degrees 2 minutes 39.08 seconds N.,
longitude 74 degrees 2 minutes 35.39 seconds W., then bearing approximately
102 degrees T to a point at latitude 40 degrees 2 minutes 24.36 seconds N.,
longitude 74 degrees 0 minutes 0 seconds W., then in a southerly direction to a
point at latitude 40 degrees 1 minute 18.70 seconds N., longitude 74 degrees 1
minute 14.39 seconds W. then bearing approximately 282 degrees T to the shore
at latitude 40 degrees 1 minute 36.58 seconds N., longitude 74 degrees 3 minutes
7.39 seconds W. and terminating. This closure adjoins those Prohibited waters in
(a)3v above and those Special Restricted waters defined in N.J.A.C. 7:12-3.2;




                                    69
FIGURE 25: PROPOSED CHANGES TO CLASSIFICATION FOR SHELLFISH GROWING AREA A011 -
MONMOUTH BEACH TO SANDY HOOK - MONMOUTH COUNTY, NEW JERSEY




                                      70
FIGURE 26: PROPOSED CHANGES TO PLOT COORDINATES AND CLASSIFICATION FOR SHELLFISH
GROWING AREA A011 - MONMOUTH BEACH TO SANDY HOOK - MONMOUTH COUNTY, NEW JERSEY




                                       71
RECOMMENDED CHANGES IN MONITORING SCHEDULE

Shellfish growing area A011 is                 to public health/safety monitoring
comprised of Assignment 561. It is             practices. The recommended changes are
sampled under the Adverse Pollution            as follows:
Condition strategy. The recommended
changes in monitoring proposed in this         Reactivate surface and bottom sampling
section would specifically affect the          stations for A9C. The location of the
southern sector of Assignment 561.             reactivated sampling stations is shown in
These changes are suggested due to the         Figure 27. They will allow for additional
proposed reduction in the Prohibited           sampling from within the specific area
area outlined within the Classification        proposed for upgrade.
Change     and    Legal    Description
components of the Recommendation               Previously, there were 20 sampling
Section.                                       stations (10 surface, 10 bottom). These
                                               recommendations propose a change to
These revisions will readily enable the        22 sampling stations (11 surface, 11
Bureau of Marine Water Monitoring to           bottom). As such, the number of samples
effectually coordinate the proposed            will increase. However, the number of
reduction in A011 Prohibited waters,           sampling runs will remain the same.
while providing a continuous approach




                                          72
FIGURE 27: PROPOSED CHANGES TO SAMPLING STATIONS FOR SHELLFISH GROWING AREA A011 -
MONMOUTH BEACH TO SANDY HOOK - MONMOUTH COUNTY, NEW JERSEY




                                        73
                                    LITERATURE CITED
APHA. 1970. Recommended Procedures for the              NJDEP. 1992. Field Sampling Procedures
Examination of Seawater and Shellfish, 4th ed.,         Manual.   New       Jersey     Department of
American Public Health Association, Washington,         Environmental Protection, Trenton, NJ.
DC
                                                        NJDEP. 2002.          Annual Summary of
APHA. 1998. Standard Methods for the                    Phytoplankton Blooms and Related Conditions in
Examination of Water and Wastewater, 20th ed.,          New Jersey Coastal Waters. (Summer 2001). New
American Public Health Association, Washington,         Jersey Department of Environmental Protection,
DC                                                      Freshwater and Biological Monitoring, Trenton,
Celestino, Michael. 2002. New Jersey Department         NJ.
of Environmental Protection, Bureau of                  Nierstedt, Ray. Township of Middletown
Shellfisheries, Nacote Creek, NJ. (Personal             Sewerage Authority, Belford, NJ. (Personal
Communication).                                         Communication).
Census 2000. 2001. U.S. Census Bureau,                  NJDEP. 2001. State of New Jersey Shellfish
Redistricting Data Summary File, Table PL1, and         Growing Water Classification Charts. New Jersey
1990 Census. New Jersey State Data Center, New          Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau
Jersey Department of Labor, Trenton, NJ.                of Marine Water Monitoring, Leeds Point, NJ.
Connell, R.C. 1991. Evaluation of Adverse
Pollution Conditions in New Jersey's Coastal            Normant, Jeff. 2002. New Jersey Department of
Waters. New Jersey Department of Environmental          Environmental     Protection,   Bureau     of
Protection, Marine Water Classification and             Shellfisheries, Nacote Creek, NJ. (Personal
Analysis, Leeds Point, NJ.                              Communication).
Connell, R.C. 2002. New Jersey Department of            Pampalome, John. 2002. New York City
Environmental Protection, Bureau of Marine              Department of Sanitation, Public Information
Water Monitoring, Leeds Point, NJ. (Personal            Office, New York, New York. (Personal
Communication).                                         Communication).
Curtis, Mike. 2001. Sanitary Survey Peahala Park
to Mantoloking. New Jersey Department of                Peterson, Pete. 2002. Bayshore Regional
Environmental Protection, Bureau of Marine              Sewerage Authority, Union Beach, NJ. (Personal
Water Monitoring, Leeds Point, NJ.                      Communication).
Curtis, Mike. 2001. Reappraisal Brigantine to
Spray Beach. New Jersey Department of                   Seaman, Gregory. Two Rivers Water Reclamation
Environmental Protection, Bureau of Marine              Authority, Monmouth Beach, NJ. (Personal
Water Monitoring, Leeds Point, NJ.                      Communication).

Ellison, Richard. Monmouth County Bayshore              USCG. United States Coast Guard, Sandy Hook,
Outfall Authority, Belford, NJ. (Personal               NJ. (Personal Communication).
Communication).
Gastrich, Mary Downs. 2000. Harmful Algal               USPS. United States Park Service, Gateway
Blooms in Coastal Waters of New Jersey. New             National Recreation Area, Sandy Hook, NJ.
Jersey Department of Environmental Protection,          (Personal Communication).
Division of Science, Research and Technology,
Trenton, NJ.                                            USPHS. National Shellfish Sanitation Program
                                                        Guide for the Control of Molluscan Shellfish,
Gianforte, Michael. Two Rivers Water                    1999. US Public Health Service, Food and Drug
Reclamation Authority, Monmouth Beach, NJ.
                                                        Administration, Washington, DC.
(Personal Communication).
Hoffman, Brian. Sandy Hook Wastewater Plant,
Fort Hancock, NJ. (Personal Communication).


                                                   74
                                    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This report was written under the direction of Leslie J. McGeorge, Administrator and Robert Connell, Jr.,
Bureau Chief. Mike Kusmiesz assisted in the collection and storage of statistical and GIS data used in analysis.
Special acknowledgment is given to Captain Rand for perseverance in collecting water quality samples (for
A011 - an Atlantic Ocean shellfish growing area) during the time frame discussed in this report. This study
would not have been completed without the aid of Bob Schuster (Special Projects and Field Operations
Supervisor) and the analytical capabilities of our microbiology laboratory staff including Eric Feerst
(Supervisor), Lisa DiElmo, Elena Heller, Bruce Hovendon and Bob Seabrook along with our chemistry
laboratory staff including Mike DiLeo (Supervisor), Stephanie Swanke and Dawn Thompson.




                                                     75
                                    APPENDICES

Detailed Data Listing(s) from 2/15/98 to 6/26/01 for data pull 9/1/97 to 8/30/01




                                            76

								
To top