4lecture_foucault_12122005.ppt

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     Double structure of the subject
• Freedom/unfreedom, myth/truth, individual/social:
split subject, decentered subject
• Not a unity, not a center as in humanist world view:
theoretical anti-humanism

The word ‘subject’:
• Subject  object
• Area of study: ‘the subject of this course’ = ‘the object of this course’
• Citizenship: ‘we are subjects of our government’ = subjected to & in charge

The subject = the ruler & the ruled
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          Counterpower: rights
Global/universal rights:
• Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948 UN)
• International Convenant on Civil and Political Rights
• National Constitutions

Right on privacy, protection of the private sphere,
regulation of recording personal data

Digital civil rights organizations:
• Electronic Frontier Foundation (www.eff.org)
• Bits of Freedom (www.bof.nl)
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                  Digital subjects 2
Positive view: digital Panopticon enables new
counterpowers

• The counterpower of communication
     - no isolating walls between individual subjects
- talking as comfort and tactical insubordination
• The counterpower of knowledge
- digital technology can be hacked
- easy distribution of individual knowledge
• The power of counterpublics in a digital public sphere
- digital communities of fans, consumers, women, cultural groups
- public opinion, exchange & action
- diversity in public-private mixtures
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   Poststructuralist/postmodern
             subjects?
• not based on unitary subjects, but on relations, exchanges and
        communication: decentered, distributed subjectivity

• not private and autonomous, not collective and transcendental,
        but a hybrid mixture

• flexible mix of collective and fragmented elements

• public-private co-construction


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