Pacific World

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					The Pacific World

                    Fig. 15-CO (a), p. 402
Table 15-1, p. 404
Fig. 15-1, p. 405
Fig. 15-3a, p. 406
Fig. 15-3b, p. 406
Fig. 15-4, p. 407
Fig. 15-5a, p. 407
Fig. 15-5b, p. 407
Fig. 15-7, p. 408
3 Types of Pacific Islands
• Continental – were connected to
continents in past (New Guinea, Australia,
main islands of Fiji)

• High Islands – mostly volcanic (Parts of
Tahiti, Hawaii)

• Low Islands – coral islands (Tuvalu and
Marshall Islands)
Aitutaki, Cook Islands

Tavarua, Fiji
                         Fig. 15-9, p. 409
Fig. 15-11, p. 412
                 European Colonization

                     Cook “Discovered:” Tahiti, Hawaii, New Zealand,
                     Australia, others. (Click for journal entries)

HMS Resolution
                    Colonization brought:
                    • Disease and alcohol
                    • Christianity
                    • Cash Crop Plantations
Table 15-2, p. 413
Figure 15-B, p. 414
  Island Environmental Issues
• Sensitive Ecology: isolation caused
  evolution of thousands of unique, but
  fragile species
• Invasive Species: introduced species
  (cats, mongooses, dogs, snakes, rats)
  devastating local critters
• Mining and Atomic Testing
• U.S., French, and Australian Military
  Bases – Nuclear Warships
Nauru – devastated by phosphate mining
                                         Fig. 15-12, p. 418
Hawaiian Birds – devastated by
introduced species and habitat loss
Of Hawaii's 88 historic and prehistoric land bird species, 68
percent or 60 species are now extinct.

                                  Po’ ouli Bird
                                  1973 - discovered
                                  1974 - added to Endangered Species List
                                  December,2004 - last one dies in captivity

 Some of the many other extinct Hawaiian birds:
Bikini Atoll – U.S. Atomic Bomb Test, 1956   Figure 15-D, p. 420
     Pacific Island Economies
In Polynesia, Melanesia, and Micronesia,poor
  countries are the majority:
• Tourism
• Cash crops
• Military services and bases
• Fish exports
• Mineral Exports
• Mining and Atomic Testing
• Manufacturing (clothing) limited to Fiji and Cook
     Pacific Island Economies
Australia, New Zealand:
• Developed market economies
• Services (Finance, Insurance, Media) –
  especially in Australia
• Agriculture (wine, wheat, sheep, cattle,
  venison, antler felt) – especially important
  in New Zealand
• Tourism in both countries
• Mineral Exports in Australia
     Pacific Island Political Issues
Indigenous Rights
Fiji – unrest between Indo-
   Fijians and Ethnic Fijians
• 2004 Coup                                                           George Speight
• Demands for land and
   political power by native   Guarding Trial of Coup Leaders, Fiji
New Caledonia
• Continuing independence
   efforts against French Rule
Bougainville’s (Australian
   colony) Revolutionary Army
   (BRA) fought Papua New
   Guinea between 1988-1998
   for independence
• 20,000 of 200,000 died in
• The Pacific World region (often called Oceania) encompasses Australia, New
  Zealand, and the islands of the mid-Pacific lying mostly between the tropics.
  Tropical rain forest climates and biomes are most common, but Australia and
  New Zealand have several temperate climate and biome types.

• The Pacific islands are commonly divided into three principal regions:
  Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia.

• The Pacific World is ethnically complex, having been settled by people with
  various Asian origins. Polynesia was the last to be populated. Papua New
  Guinea is the world’s most linguistically diverse country. Christianity is the
  majority faith in this region.

• Although countless islands are scattered across the Pacific Ocean, there are
  three generally recognized types: continental islands, high islands, and low
  islands. Continental islands are either continents themselves (such as
  Australia) or were connected to continents when sea levels were lower (such as
  New Guinea). Most high islands are volcanic. Low islands are typically made of
  coral, a material composed of the skeletons and living bodies of small marine
  organisms that inhabit tropical seas.

• The island ecosystems of the Pacific region are typically inhabited by endemic
  plant and animal species—species found nowhere else in the world. Island
  species are especially vulnerable to the activities of humankind such as habitat
  destruction, deliberate hunting, or the introduction of exotic plant and animal

• Europeans began to visit and colonize the Pacific islands early in their Age of
  Exploration and brought mainly negative impacts to island societies. However, a
  steady process of decolonization has accompanied a recent surge of Western
  interest and investment in the region.

• There are ethnic conflicts, related mainly to maldistribution of income, between
  Malaitans and indigenous Guadalcanalans on the Melanesian island of
  Guadalcanal, and between indigenous Fijians and Indo-Fijians on Fiji. Interest in
  securing more income from minerals has pitted the people of New Caledonia
  against the ruling power, France, and the people of Bougainville against
  Australian corporate interests in Papua New Guinea.
• Aside from a few notable exceptions, the poverty typical of less developed
  countries prevails throughout most of the Pacific region.

• In general, the Pacific islands’ economic picture is one of nonindustrial
  economies. Typical economic activities include tourism, plantation agriculture,
  mining, and income derived from activities connected with the military needs of
  occupying powers. Several countries are profiting from offshore banking and
  1-900 telemarketing.

• During the 1940s and 1950s, the United States used the Bikini atoll in the
  Marshall Islands as one of its chief testing grounds for nuclear weapons.
  Strong negative reaction arose throughout the region in the 1990s as the
  French resumed underground testing of nuclear weapons on the Mururoa atoll
  in French Polynesia. That testing has since ceased. The United States relies on
  the region for testing of its Star Wars missile technology. Many inhabitants of
  French and American military zones are fearful of the economic impacts that
  might accompany the withdrawal of military presence.

• Some of the low island countries are fearful that global warming might create
  higher sea levels that will inundate them, and Tuvalu considered legal recourse
  against the United States and Australia for failing to ratify the Kyoto Protocol.

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