Techniques for cave painting by liaoqinmei

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									Prehistory and Prehistoric Art in
            Europe
                 •   Stone Age=Three Major Periods
                 •   (Upper)Paleolithic-40,000-
                     8000BCE
                 •   (8000-7000 BCE.) Paleolithic-
                     Neolithic overlap
                 •   Mesolithic-7,000-4000 BCE in
                      Europe and 7,000-6,000 in
                     Near East
                 •   Neolithic-4000 BCE-1500 BCE
                     in Europe and 6,000-3500 BCE
                     in near East

                 •   2300BCE- Bronze age begins in
                     northern Europe
                 •   1000 BCE-Iron Age
 Architecture and Small Sculptures
                                • Beginnings of architecture
                                  (creative planning and
                                  enclosing of spaces).
                                • Mammoth bone house from
                                  Ukraine. 16,000-10,000
                                  BCE-framework covered
                                  with animal hides.
                                • Sculpture began as a skillful
                                  flaking band chipping of flint
                                  tools and later decoration of
                                  bones and horns implements


The Women from Willendorf-
22,000-21,000 BCE
-carved from limestone-only 4
3/8”tall
    Possible interpretations of Female
                 Figurines

                                      • Woman from Brassempouy-
                                        30,000BCE-ivory carving-1
                                        1/4” example of abstraction

                                      • Expressions of ideal beauty
                                      • Erotic images
                                      • Representations of actual
                                        women
                                      • Dolls to help young girls
                                        learn women’s roles

Woman From Brassempouy, Grotte du Pape,30,000 BCE.
Ivory 1 1/4”
                             Cave Art

                                       • Many of the images painted
                                         on the walls of caves in
                                         southern France and Spain
                                         were painted between
                                         28,000 and 10,000 BCE.
                                       • These caves were not used
                                         as living quarters but as
                                         gathering places for initiation
                                         rites or the forming of social
                                         alliances.


Hall of the Bison, Altimira caves, Spain
12,500 BCE
   Techniques for Prehistoric Wall
             Painting cave is the earliest
                   • Chauvet
                                     known site of prehistoric cave
                                     painting.(Includes image sof
                                     animals and people.)
                                  Techniques for cave painting
                                  • Light sketch in pigment
                                     manganese dioxide (for blacks)
                                  • Painting using spitting
                                     techniques.
                                  • Using hands for stenciled
                                     patterns and to create outlines
                                  • Blowing pigments through
                                     hollow reeds
                                  • Using a brush created by a
                                     chewed end of twig.
Chauvet cave, France 30,000-28,000 BCE
     Possible Interpretations of Cave
                Paintings
                                     • Art for art’s sake- an innate
                                       desire to create-an idea
                                       popular in 19th century.
                                     • Strengthening of social
                                       bonds or an attempt to
                                       increase animal fertility.
                                     • Sympathetic magic-draw it-it
                                       will happen
                                     • Forms of religious
                                       expressions
                                     • Mythical representations
Bird -Headed Man with Bison,         • Depictions of literal reality
Lascaux Caves 15,000-BCE. Paint on
Limestone                            http://www.culture.gouv.fr/culture/arc
                                     nat/lascaux/en/index.html
                       Portable Art

                                       • Spear throwers-hunters
                                         would balance spears in the
                                         sticks’ sockets to increase
                                         their range
                                       • Prehistoric lamps-designed
                                         to hold oil and wicks and to
                                         be easily portable.




Lamp with ibex design, La Mouthe Cave, Dordogne, France. 15,000-1300 BCE.
Engraved Stone
                  Neolithic Period
                       10,000-2300 BCE

                                  • End of the Ice age
                                  • Domestication of animals
                                  • Establishment of permanent
                                    year round settlements.
                                  • Farmers producing more
                                    than enough food
                                  • People are free to attend to
                                    other communal
                                    needs(specialization)
House Interior, Skara Brae 3100-2600 BCE
                      Rock Shelter Art
                                   •   Distinctive art that arose
                                       between the Paleolithic period
                                       and Neolithic
                                   •   Schematic images
                                   •   People and animals engaged in
                                       everyday activities
                                   •   Flying Gallop Pose (indicates
                                       speed)
                                   •   Abstract style
                                   •   Simple line drawing often with
                                       no color
People and Animals Lerida, Spain
                                   •   People and animals in energetic
4000-2000BCE
                                       poses
            How Early Art is Dated

                                •   Relative Dating: examining the
                                    time period of nearby objects
                                •   Absolute Dating: determining a
                                    precise span of calendar years
                                    in which an artifact was created.
                                •   Radiometric dating: Measures
                                    the degree to which radioactive
                                    materials have broken down in
                                    an object.(also called carbon-
                                    14)
                                •   Potassium -argon dating-good
                                    for materials over a million
Lascaux cave-15,000-13,000BCE       years old.
                                •   Thermo-luminnescence dating-
                                    measures irradtiation of the
                                    crystal structure of material
                                •   Electron spin resonance
                                    techniques- magnetic field and
                                    microwave irradiation.
               Neolithic Architecture
                                        • Buildings constructed out of
                                          wood and stone
                                       • Space saving built in
                                          furniture
                                       • Located at sites most easily
                                          defended
                                       • Often surrounded by walls,
                                          earth embankments, and
                                          ditches
                                       • Corbel vaulting or corbeling
                                          (each course projects slightly
                                          inward over the one below.
                                       •
House Interior, Skara Brae 3100-2600 BCE. Post and lintel construction
Ceremonial and tomb Architecture
                •   Monuments created with huge
                    stones transported over long
                    distances.
                •   Dolmen-Two or more large
                    stones supporting a capstone
                •   Cairn-Mound of dirt that covered
                    a dolmen type tomb.
                •   Passage grave-tomb under a
                    cairn reached by a long
                    passageway.
                •   Menhir-single vertical megalith
                •   Cromlechs-circular pattern
                    menhirs
                •   Henge-Circle of stone or posts
                    surrounded by a ditch with built
                    up embankments
Sculpture and Ceramics
           •   Neolithic sculptors carved free-
               standing stone figures reduced
               to geometric forms.
           •   Sculptors also work in clay with
               great technical skills.
           •   Ware-term used to describe
               different techniques by which
               pottery is produced.
           •   Pottery produced by:coil
               method,raising up sides from a
               ball of clay,or press clay over an
               existing form
           •   Kilns- ovens for firing pottery
           •   Potsherds-serve as a major key
               in dating lost cultures.
  The Bronze Age-2300-800 BCE
                        •   Metals appear in Northern
                            Europe around 2300 BCE.
                        •   Southern Europe and Aegean-
                            Copper, gold, and tin mined,
                            worked, and traded.
                        •   Bronze is an alloy(mixture of tin
                            and copper
                        •   Objects made of bronze(alloy of
                            tin and copper) frequently found
                            in settlements and graves of
                            early northern farming
Horse and Sun Chariot       communities
Trundholm, Denmark
1800-1600 BCE
Some Discussion Questions
                                      1. Paleolithic humans were
                                         nomadic, and Neolithic
                                         humans began to live in
                                         villages. How did this
                                         effect their art work
                                         respectively ?
                                      2. What types of art did
         QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor         early humans create out
   are neede d to see this picture.
                                         of clay?
                                      3. What were the
                                         hypothesized uses for
                                         some of the megalithic
                                         monuments in Europe?
                                      4. Why might Prehistoric
                                         humans painted on cave
                                         walls?
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d_H4ouAF
  1tk
•   http://www.360soundview.com/stonehenge/circlesars
    en.htm
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=88whb3iW
  OxA&feature=rec-LGOUT-real_rn-1r-39-HM

								
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