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6-0 Chapter Six Some Alternative Corporate Finance Ross Westerfield Jaffe Investment Rules 6 Seventh Edition Seventh Edition 6-1 Chapter Outline 6.1 Why Use Net Present Value? 6.2 The Payback Period Rule 6.3 The Discounted Payback Period Rule 6.4 The Average Accounting Return 6.5 The Internal Rate of Return 6.6 Problems with the IRR Approach 6.7 The Profitability Index 6.8 The Practice of Capital Budgeting 6.9 Summary and Conclusions 6-2 6.1 Why Use Net Present Value? • Accepting positive NPV projects benefits shareholders. NPV uses cash flows NPV uses all the cash flows of the project NPV discounts the cash flows properly 6-3 The Net Present Value (NPV) Rule • Net Present Value (NPV) = Total PV of future CF’s + Initial Investment • Estimating NPV: – 1. Estimate future cash flows: how much? and when? – 2. Estimate discount rate – 3. Estimate initial costs • Minimum Acceptance Criteria: Accept if NPV > 0 • Ranking Criteria: Choose the highest NPV 6-4 Good Attributes of the NPV Rule • 1. Uses cash flows • 2. Uses ALL cash flows of the project • 3. Discounts ALL cash flows properly • Reinvestment assumption: the NPV rule assumes that all cash flows can be reinvested at the discount rate. 6-5 6.2 The Payback Period Rule • How long does it take the project to “pay back” its initial investment? • Payback Period = number of years to recover initial costs • Minimum Acceptance Criteria: – set by management • Ranking Criteria: – set by management 6-6 The Payback Period Rule (continued) • Disadvantages: – Ignores the time value of money – Ignores cash flows after the payback period – Biased against long-term projects – Requires an arbitrary acceptance criteria – A project accepted based on the payback criteria may not have a positive NPV • Advantages: – Easy to understand – Biased toward liquidity 6-7 6.3 The Discounted Payback Period Rule • How long does it take the project to “pay back” its initial investment taking the time value of money into account? • By the time you have discounted the cash flows, you might as well calculate the NPV. 6-8 6.4 The Average Accounting Return Rule Average Net Income AAR Average Book Value of Investent • Another attractive but fatally flawed approach. • Ranking Criteria and Minimum Acceptance Criteria set by management • Disadvantages: – Ignores the time value of money – Uses an arbitrary benchmark cutoff rate – Based on book values, not cash flows and market values • Advantages: – The accounting information is usually available – Easy to calculate 6-9 6.5 The Internal Rate of Return (IRR) Rule • IRR: the discount that sets NPV to zero • Minimum Acceptance Criteria: – Accept if the IRR exceeds the required return. • Ranking Criteria: – Select alternative with the highest IRR • Reinvestment assumption: – All future cash flows assumed reinvested at the IRR. • Disadvantages: – Does not distinguish between investing and borrowing. – IRR may not exist or there may be multiple IRR – Problems with mutually exclusive investments • Advantages: – Easy to understand and communicate 6-10 The Internal Rate of Return: Example Consider the following project: $50 $100 $150 0 1 2 3 -$200 The internal rate of return for this project is 19.44% $50 $100 $150 NPV 0 (1 IRR ) (1 IRR ) (1 IRR )3 2 6-11 The NPV Payoff Profile for This Example If we graph NPV versus discount rate, we can see the IRR as the x-axis intercept. Discount Rate NPV $120.00 0% $100.00 $100.00 4% $71.04 $80.00 8% $47.32 $60.00 12% $27.79 $40.00 NPV 16% $11.65 20% ($1.74) IRR = 19.44% $20.00 24% ($12.88) $0.00 28% ($22.17) 32% ($29.93) -1% ($20.00) 9% 19% 29% 39% 36% ($36.43) ($40.00) 40% ($41.86) ($60.00) Discount rate 6-12 6.6 Problems with the IRR Approach • Multiple IRRs. • Are We Borrowing or Lending? • The Scale Problem. • The Timing Problem. 6-13 Multiple IRRs There are two IRRs for this project: $200 $800 Which one should we use? 0 1 2 3 -$200 - $800 NPV $100.00 100% = IRR2 $50.00 $0.00 -50% 0% 50% 100% 150% 200% ($50.00) 0% = IRR1 Discount rate ($100.00) ($150.00) 6-14 The Scale Problem Would you rather make 100% or 50% on your investments? What if the 100% return is on a $1 investment while the 50% return is on a $1,000 investment? 6-15 The Timing Problem $10,000 $1,000 $1,000 Project A 0 1 2 3 -$10,000 $1,000 $1,000 $12,000 Project B 0 1 2 3 -$10,000 The preferred project in this case depends on the discount rate, not the IRR. 6-16 The Timing Problem $5,000.00 $4,000.00 Project A $3,000.00 Project B $2,000.00 10.55% = crossover rate $1,000.00 NPV $0.00 ($1,000.00) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% ($2,000.00) ($3,000.00) 12.94% = IRRB 16.04% = IRRA ($4,000.00) Discount rate 6-17 Calculating the Crossover Rate Compute the IRR for either project “A-B” or “B-A” Year Project A Project B Project A-B Project B-A 0 ($10,000) ($10,000) $0 $0 1 $10,000 $1,000 $9,000 ($9,000) 2 $1,000 $1,000 $0 $0 3 $1,000 $12,000 ($11,000) $11,000 $3,000.00 $2,000.00 10.55% = IRR $1,000.00 NPV A-B $0.00 B-A ($1,000.00) 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% ($2,000.00) ($3,000.00) Discount rate 6-18 Mutually Exclusive vs. Independent Project • Mutually Exclusive Projects: only ONE of several potential projects can be chosen, e.g. acquiring an accounting system. – RANK all alternatives and select the best one. • Independent Projects: accepting or rejecting one project does not affect the decision of the other projects. – Must exceed a MINIMUM acceptance criteria. 6-19 6.7 The Profitability Index (PI) Rule Total PV of Future Cash Flows PI Initial Investent • Minimum Acceptance Criteria: – Accept if PI > 1 • Ranking Criteria: – Select alternative with highest PI • Disadvantages: – Problems with mutually exclusive investments • Advantages: – May be useful when available investment funds are limited – Easy to understand and communicate – Correct decision when evaluating independent projects 6-20 6.8 The Practice of Capital Budgeting • Varies by industry: – Some firms use payback, others use accounting rate of return. • The most frequently used technique for large corporations is IRR or NPV. 6-21 Example of Investment Rules Compute the IRR, NPV, PI, and payback period for the following two projects. Assume the required return is 10%. Year Project A Project B 0 -$200 -$150 1 $200 $50 2 $800 $100 3 -$800 $150 6-22 Example of Investment Rules Project A Project B CF0 -$200.00 -$150.00 PV0 of CF1-3 $241.92 $240.80 NPV = $41.92 $90.80 IRR = 0%, 100% 36.19% PI = 1.2096 1.6053 6-23 Example of Investment Rules Payback Period: Project A Project B Time CF Cum. CF CF Cum. CF 0 -200 -200 -150 -150 1 200 0 50 -100 2 800 800 100 0 3 -800 0 150 150 Payback period for project B = 2 years. Payback period for project A = 1 or 3 years? 6-24 Relationship Between NPV and IRR Discount rate NPV for A NPV for B -10% -87.52 234.77 0% 0.00 150.00 20% 59.26 47.92 40% 59.48 -8.60 60% 42.19 -43.07 80% 20.85 -65.64 100% 0.00 -81.25 120% -18.93 -92.52 6-25 NPV Profiles $400 NPV $300 IRR 1(A) IRR (B) IRR 2(A) $200 $100 $0 -15% 0% 15% 30% 45% 70% 100% 130% 160% 190% ($100) ($200) Project A Discount rates Cross-over Rate Project B 6-26 6.9 Summary and Conclusions • This chapter evaluates the most popular alternatives to NPV: – Payback period – Accounting rate of return – Internal rate of return – Profitability index • When it is all said and done, they are not the NPV rule; for those of us in finance, it makes them decidedly second-rate.

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