Shipping and the environment Shipping Efficiency

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Shipping and the environment Shipping Efficiency Powered By Docstoc
					Shipping and
the environment.
An insightful look at the environmental issues
that are affecting the shipping industry.
Contents                                                                  Introduction                                                             /01

Plotting the course to a                                                  Environmental issues have never been higher on the shipping
greener future
A paradigm shift in the
                                                                          agenda. Today’s marine industry is under increasing pressure to
marine industry                            03                             comply with evolving regulations and become cleaner and greener.
Developing tomorrow’s
sustainable vessel                         04
                                                of the 51 IMO             While climate change and carbon management grab the headlines,
                                                Conventions relate to     there is a host of other environmental challenges to be met; sulphur
Environmental roadmap
What’s on the radar? A look ahead
                                                environmental issues      and nitrogen oxide emissions reduction, ship recycling and ballast
at forthcoming international legislation   10
                                                                          water management among them.

A deeper look                              13
Fuels and exhaust emissions                14
                                                                          At Lloyd’s Register, we understand that environmental stewardship
Ballast water management                   18                             is only one obligation which the shipping community must meet.
Ship recycling                             20
                                                                          Owners and operators must also provide transparency, corporate
                                                – the proportion of       responsibility and maintain profitability, all while operating safely.
Energy                                     24
                                                global greenhouse
Volatile organic compounds                 28   gases caused by           We have been at the forefront of environmental initiatives in the
Hull coatings                              30
                                                international shipping    marine industry for many years, from world-renowned exhaust
                                                CO2 emissions             emissions research in the 1990s to involvement in the development
Get in touch                               32
                                                                          of the new Ship Recycling Convention in 2009.

                                                                          Our contribution to the development of marine regulations and
                                                                          standards gives us the expertise to help businesses understand
                                                                          and meet their obligations, while our independence allows us to
                                                                          give impartial advice. At the same time, our global research and
                                                of a ship’s lightweight   development network helps us deliver the services that enable
                                                is recycled               businesses to operate more safely and sustainably.
Plotting the course to a greener future   Plotting the course to a greener future                                                                                                                  02/03

                                          A paradigm shift in
                                          the marine industry

                                          Across the marine industry, we are witnessing
                                          a paradigm shift in operations and thinking.

                                          There are many and varied reasons           Ship design, of course, is a key issue.       These are just some of the issues which
                                          for this change – they include              For the last three or four decades most       make up the new paradigm, but it will
                                          increases in the cost of marine fuels       cargo ships have followed an orthodox,        be some time before new orthodoxies
                                          and continued globalisation, as well        or commonly accepted, template of             are reached. In the meantime, owners
                                          as environmental regulation and an          engine design – a large diesel power          will need to make decisions with significant
                                          increase in stakeholder expectations.       plant supported by three generators,          commercial consequences. Through our
                                                                                      burning heavy fuel oil. With the advent of    knowledge, insight, technical resources
                                          These factors have provoked a heightened    statutory NOX and SOX emissions controls,     and global reach, Lloyd’s Register is
                                          focus on the environmental impact of        this may well change; the entry into force    available to help provide assurance
                                          shipping. In particular, fuel efficiency    of the revised MARPOL Annex VI this year      throughout this process.
                                          and exhaust emissions are driving the       has set the stage for how these controls
                                          interest in alternative fuels and more      will be applied on an international level                                                                          1.5

                                          efficient vessel designs.                   up to and beyond 2020.                                                                                             1.4


                                          Shipping has not seen this combination      Concerns over emissions have also                                                                                  1.2
                                          of issues in recent memory and certainly    widened to include CO2. Since at present                                                                           1.1
                                          not a combination developing at the         it is far from clear how any regulation of

                                                                                                                                                                                                               Net registered tonnes (millions)
                                          pace we see today.                          CO2 emissions will be applied, it is too
                                                                                      early to speculate on how future ship                                                                              0.9

                                          The shipping industry has been through      design will be affected. However,                                                                                  0.8

                                          a number of paradigm shifts over the        it is clear that the long-term trend is                                                                            0.7

                                          centuries. Lloyd’s Register’s Rules have    that ‘energy’, in whatever form, is going                                                                          0.6
                                          followed these transitions; 250 years       to cost more. The shipping industry’s                                                                              0.5
                                          ago the main mode of propulsion was         commitment to fuel economy will
                                          sail, but by 1835 we had introduced         continue to grow and it will inevitably
                                          Rules for steam propulsion and our first    seek to employ technical and operating
                                          Rules for diesel driven ships appeared in   measures to reduce fuel cost.                                                                                      0.2

                                          1914. The graph (right) adapted from                                                                                                                           0.1

                                          the 1950 Swedish Handbook of Sea            Add to the emissions debate the rise
                                                                                                                                   1830 -40   -50   -60   -70   -80   -90 1900 -10   -20   -30   -40   -50
                                          Transport illustrates this progression.     of retrospective legislation – as entry
                                                                                      into force dates come and go before
                                          The marine industry has managed             ratification of IMO Conventions is            The development of the Swedish
                                          paradigm shifts before and has              achieved – and the picture grows more         merchant fleet from1830 to 1950.
                                          emerged stronger and well equipped          complex. The Ballast Water Management
                                          to deal with the increase in world          and Anti-fouling Conventions, and                 sail propulsion
                                          trade that they heralded.                   Annex VI of the MARPOL Convention                 steam propulsion
                                                                                      are three examples: all have implications         diesel engine propulsion
                                                                                      for shipowners where retrofitting of
                                                                                      environmental technology is concerned.
Plotting the course to a greener future                                                                                                   Plotting the course to a greener future   04/05

Developing tomorrow’s
sustainable vessel

What will tomorrow’s sustainable vessel look like,
and how will it differ from other vessels?
These are key questions in marine circles.

Of course, it’s impossible to answer           Influencing legislation, promoting          Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP)
these questions in detail because              environmental protection                    for existing ships.
science and engineering developments           Of course, the vessel of the future won’t
are happening so fast and simply               be possible without legislation to guide    Standards
can’t be predicted.                            its development and enforce compliance.     Lloyd’s Register has been involved in
                                               We make sure we are involved in the         international standardisation since the
But there are ways in which we can help        development of forthcoming legislation      emergence of ISO 9001, the quality
drive and develop the key technologies which   so that we can influence the changes        management system standard, in 1985.
will shape the green ships of the future.      and reflect them in our Rules.              We contribute to standards development
                                                                                           at both the national and international
Research                                       On the issue of SOx and NOx emissions,      level, in some cases serving on
Through our strategic research agenda,         we participated in and led one of the       committees and in working groups. We
we are assessing and developing some           IMO’s Informal Cross Government/            chaired the committee that drafted the
of the technologies which may help             Industry Scientific Groups of Experts,      first PAS 28000 on supply chain security
the industry become more sustainable           established to evaluate the effects of      and acted as Group leader for standards
in the near future and for the long term.      the different fuel options proposed under   within the new ISO 30000 series –
Though we can’t actually predict what          the revision of Annex VI of the MARPOL      Management Systems for Ship Recycling.
a future vessel will look like, we can be      Convention. Its report helped the IMO
confident that ship design will focus on       to choose the right option to address       Sustainability
reuse and recycling, materials, hull design,   prevailing concerns and adopt the           Finally, no discussion of tomorrow’s
propulsion and fuels, and these are the        changes to the Annex. We also assisted      sustainable vessel of the future is
areas on which our research is focused.        the industry in making considerable         complete without considering what
                                               progress in the area of environmentally     we mean by the word ‘sustainability’.
Human factors                                  sound ship recycling by developing the      Implicit in it is the recognition that
In addition, we have come to understand        first Green Passport based on the 2003      environmental, social and economic
that in looking at the vessel of the future    IMO Guidelines on Ship Recycling. This      considerations must be balanced.
we need to consider the human element.         has subsequently become part of the         Without addressing social and
People are widely accepted as the greatest     Ship Recycling Convention as the            environmental issues, a business
source of operational risk to modern           Inventory of Hazardous Materials.           experiencing short-term economic
ships – fatigue, poor leadership, lack of                                                  success cannot expect to remain
experience and poor maintenance are            Now, we are using our experience            successful into the future. Similarly,
just a few of the ways that the human          and knowledge to address the latest         environmental initiatives will be threatened
element can impact on operations.              challenge which shipping faces; climate     if they are not economically viable or do
Therefore, to make a business more             change. As the IMO progresses on            not take into consideration the well-
sustainable, it needs a well-trained,          greenhouse gas issues, we are undertaking   being of those involved or affected.
well-motivated and effective workforce.        an IMO-commissioned study to assess the
Through our human factors services and         potential emission reduction resulting
publications we are working to help            from implementation of the Energy
owners and operators incorporate this          Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) for
vital element into their operations.           new ships and the Ship Energy
Developing tomorrow’s sustainable vessel                                                                                                 Developing tomorrow’s sustainable vessel                                                                                      06/07

Meeting the sustainable vessel                                                                                                           Research case studies:
                                                                                                                                         Working with the industry to develop
challenge through research                                                                                                               the green ship of the future
                                                                                                                                         China                                         Europe                                      Other projects
                                                                                                                                         Lloyd’s Register Classification Society       Lloyd’s Register is one of 26 partners to   We are also working on ‘green ship of
                                                                                                                                         (China) [LRCS] and Shenzhen-listed            the Danish joint industry project ‘Green    the future’ projects with other industry
                                                                                                                                         Shanghai Bestway Marine Engineering           Ship of the Future’. The project offers a   organisations in South America and Asia.
                                                                                                                                         Design (Bestway) are jointly developing a     framework within which technologies         The projects aim to tackle the sustainable
                                                                                                                                         new fuel-efficient bulk carrier in response   capable of obtaining a 30% reduction in     vessel challenge by focusing on the
                                                                                                                                         to increasing pressure from owners and        CO2 emissions and a 90% reduction in        following criteria:
                                                                                                                                         regulators for shipbuilders to offer          NOX and SOX emissions can be developed
                                                                                                                                         environmentally friendlier and more           and demonstrated. (2007 emission levels     – Safety of operations and crew
                                                                                                                                         cost-effective vessels.                       are used as a baseline.)                    – Technical feasibility
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   – The balance between ‘planet, people
                                                                                                                                         The project will focus on finding energy-                                                   and profit’
At Lloyd’s Register, we have a               Low carbon shipping                           Nuclear power                                 efficient alternatives for a 35,000 dwt                                                   – Cost effectivenes
detailed research agenda which               Lloyd’s Register, together with 16            We are currently exploring the                ‘Handysize’ bulk carrier and will focus on                                                – Life cycle thinking.
is addressing the sustainable                industrial partners and five UK               reintroduction of nuclear propulsion          two areas: energy-efficiency research into
vessel challenge.                            universities, is researching low carbon       for merchant ships. Research is focused       the ship’s hull and systems, and technical
                                             shipping. The project is analysing the        on the technical challenges of nuclear        approval and implementation of the
This includes:                               shipping industry to develop a holistic       propulsion for tankers, bulk carriers,        proposed solutions. The research uses
                                             understanding of the contractual,             container ships and cruise ships, as          the IMO’s Energy Efficiency Design Index
Green ship of the future                     technological and financial issues            well as refuelling and waste-disposal         as a benchmark.
                                             involved in optimising future ship            issues. The programme has been
Low carbon shipping                          concepts to achieve maximum reduction         expanded to include public health,
                                             of carbon emissions.                          manning, training, operational, risk
Propulsion technologies:                                                                   and regulatory requirements.
– Propeller and system efficiencies          Propulsion technologies
– Hydrogen fuel cells                        We are reviewing potential improvements       Bio-fuels
– Nuclear power                              to current propulsion technologies. Early     As world leaders continue to discuss
– Battery-powered ships, gas-fuelled         results include fuel efficiency gains of up   carbon emission reduction goals, much
  ships and onshore power supplies           to 20% by optimising the hull shape,          consideration is being given to the role of
– Fuels based on renewable energy such       while savings of about 8% have also           bio-fuels in the transport sector. We are
  as bio-fuels.                              been shown to be possible by applying         currently conducting safety reviews of
                                             appropriate coatings to the hull. Further     the use of bio-fuels on existing ships with
Designs for ship recycling                   potential fuel savings of up to 8% have       industry stakeholders and learning more
                                             been demonstrated by replacing an old         about the potential future use of bio-fuel
A few of these projects are outlined here:   turbo-charger, and by improving the fuel      engines. Current research in the UK
                                             injection system, savings of between 5 to     includes a project to power a fishing
Design for ship recycling                    7% have been shown to be feasible.            vessel on 100% bio-diesel and another
We are conducting research on the            While these technologies are available        fishing vessel on pure plant oil. We are
concept of design for recycling, working     now, we have to establish that the            also building our understanding of the
with a world authority on recycling          savings can be achieved in real situations    different sources of bio-fuels and their
from a leading UK university and             and that there is no impact on ship           implementation issues.
using their knowledge gained from            safety. The knowledge we gain will help
land-based industries. The outcome           inform the development of our Rules and
will enable guidelines and rules to          Regulations.
be drafted for implementation by
designers and builders.
Developing tomorrow’s sustainable vessel                                                                                        Developing tomorrow’s sustainable vessel                                                                                    08/09

Human factors case study:                                                                                                       Environmental Protection                                                               Standards case study:
People and the environment –                                                                                                    case study:                                                                            Making ISO14001
an audit for V.Ships                                                                                                            UASC shows the way                                                                     relevant
V.Ships, the world’s largest ship manager,    We carried out in-depth interviews over                                           Middle East-based container ship             Speaking on the decision to opt for       The international standard, ISO14001,
was looking to further improve its            12 months with crew and shore-based                                               operator United Arab Shipping Company        the EP notation for its vessels, UASC’s   originally published in 1996 and revised
environmental risk management and             management. These were analysed to                                                (UASC) showed its commitment to              Vice President – Fleet Technical,         in 2004, was developed by an
asked Lloyd’s Register to carry out an        provide the management team with a                                                environmental awareness by opting for        Mohammad Al Sayed, said: “As part         international committee of experts
audit. What made this audit different         better insight into the steps necessary to                                        our Environmental Protection notation        of UASC’s environmental planning and      which included Lloyd’s Register
was that it not only checked compliance       foster a real and positive safety culture                                         on its largest Lloyd’s Register classed      strategy, opting for Lloyd’s Register’s   representatives. During the revision
with the international environmental          and move further away from a culture of                                           box ships built to date.                     EP notation for these vessels provided    process, we provided regular updates
Convention, MARPOL, but it also focused       simply doing enough to be compliant.                                                                                           a framework to enable us to work          on developments to clients and also set
on the company’s people and                                                                                                     Among the additional environmental           towards in meeting UASC’s                 up a group, in conjunction with Lloyd’s
management culture. Together, we                                                                                                features fitted to the UASC vessels in       environmental vision.”                    Register Quality Assurance, to support
developed a year-long environmental                                                                                             order to obtain the EP notation are:                                                   the understanding of ISO14001 in the
audit – the first of its kind, it addressed                                                                                                                                                                            marine environment. Many shipowners,
human factors which could affect safety                                                                                         – an electronically controlled main                                                    operators and builders use ISO14001,
culture, such as issues around blame,                                                                                             engine in accordance with MARPOL                                                     both for new builds and repair, as a
motivation, communication and the need                                                                                            Annex VI NOx requirements                                                            means of managing their environmental
to lead by example.                                                                                                             – segregated low-sulphur bunker tanks                                                  impact and demonstrating their
                                                                                                                                – a refrigerant leak detection system                                                  commitment to environmental protection.
                                                                                                                                  to continuously monitor leakage
                                                                                           UASC owned MAYSSAN, which has        – operational features to minimise
                                                                                           been awarded Lloyd’s Register’s        the translocation of organisms in
                                                                                           Environmental Protection notation.
                                                                                                                                  ballast water.

How can we help?                                                                                                                How can we help?                                                                       How can we help?
Human factors services                                                                                                          Environmental                                                                          ISO14001 Practical Pack
                                                                                                                                Protection (EP) notation
We provide human factors support              Safety Culture Toolkit                                                            Lloyd’s Register’s Environmental             updated to reflect operational            For standards to be of benefit to
to help ensure safe and effective             Evaluates an organisation’s safety                                                Protection service is designed to help       feedback and any developments             organisations, it is also important that
performance of new and existing vessels       culture with respect to key behavioural                                           shipowners and operators control             in technology and legislation.            they are explained clearly. To help the
through good ergonomics, working              indicators to provide recommendations                                             operational pollution and demonstrate                                                  marine community implement ISO14001,
environments and working practices.           for improvement. The service involves                                             their proactive approach to clients and      With an Environmental Protection          we have developed a CD-Rom-based
                                              interviews with staff.                                                            regulatory authorities.                      notation in place, an organisation        Practical Pack for Ship Operators. This
Technical Services                                                                                                                                                           can publicly demonstrate its              provides shipping industry-specific
Design and assurance of physical              Safety Culture Evaluation Toolkit                                                 The service is based on our voluntary        commitment to running an                  guidance and advice on the ISO14001
ergonomics; cognitive ergonomics;             Provides an understanding of an                                                   Rules for Environmental Protection.          environmentally sound business.           environmental management standard
and socio-technical systems.                  organisation’s relative strengths and                                             These set standards for the design and                                                 and helps ship operators establish
                                              weaknesses in achieving continual safety                                          operation of all ship types, covering        For more information please visit:        environmental management systems.
Human Factors Integration                     improvements. Through analysis of                                                 areas such as NOX and SOx emissions, oil
Assessment of the feasibility of the          incidents, and survey and scenario-based                                          pollution prevention, refrigerants & fire-                                             For more information please visit:
role of people in a system, the usability     interviews and workshops, we develop                                              fighting agents, garbage handling and                                        
of human-machine interfaces and the           a safety culture profile and identify                                             ballast water management. The Rules
sustainability of the required level of       short-term and longer-term solutions                                              are formulated using environmental risk
human performance.                            for improvement.                                                                  assessment techniques and are regularly

                                              For more information please visit:
Environmental roadmap                                                                 Environmental roadmap

                                                                                                                                                                    2010                           2011                               2012                              2013                            2014                           2015                          2016

What’s on the radar?                                                                   Anti-Fouling Systems Convention
                                                                                                                                                                    Jan    Apr     Jul    Sep       Jan

                                                                                                                                                                    Entered into force September 2008.
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Apr     Jul    Sep       Jan    Apr     Jul       Sep      Jan    Apr    Jul     Sep       Jan    Apr     Jul     Sep      Jan     Apr      Jul   Sep   Jan     Apr     Jul    Sep

A look ahead at forthcoming                                                            Bio-fouling Guidelines                                                                                Voluntary bio-fouling guidelines are likely in 2011

international legislation                                                              Ballast Water Management Convention                                                                                                            Possible entry into force: 2012

Since the 1970s, the answers to the environmental questions facing the maritime        MARPOL Convention
world have been spearheaded by the International Maritime Organization (IMO),          Annex I: Oil                                                                                                                                   Prohibition of the use and carriage of heavy grade oil in the Antarctic sea expected to come into effect in 2012
the body which regulates shipping through international consensus.                                                                                                                                    New chapter on ship-to-ship oil transfer operation (STS Plan) and clearer definition of tanks (regulation 1) enter into force January 1, 2011

During this time, the IMO has              Our environmental roadmap outlines          Annex III: Prevention of pollution by harmful substances                      Amendments to Annex III (including IMDG Code becoming mandatory under MARPOL) entered into force on January 1, 2010
successfully adopted a number of           the key existing and forthcoming                       in packaged form
international treaties, such as the        environmental legislation from the
MARPOL Convention with its six             IMO up to the end of 2016, identifying      Annex V: Prevention of pollution by garbage from ships                                                                                                                           Revised Annex V expected to enter into force in 2013
Annexes, the Anti-fouling Systems          future compliance dates and emerging
Convention and the Ballast Water           regulations. While we are only looking      Annex VI: Prevention of air pollution from ships                                             Revised Annex VI enters into force July 1, 2010
Management Convention.                     at international legislation here, there
                                           are of course many national and regional       New ECA-SOX                                                                                                                                                      North American ECA-SOx expected to come into effect August 2012
The majority of these are in force today   requirements affecting owners and
and contributing to the protection of      operators, such as EU Directives, the          Controls inside ECA-SOX                                                                   Maximum sulphur content limit reduces to 1.00% m/m on July 1, 2010                                                                                   Maximum sulphur content limit reduces
the environment both in water and in       California Air Resources Board (CARB)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         to 0.10% m/m on January 1, 2015
air, while others are on a steady course   regulations and other local or port-           Controls outside ECA-SOX                                                                                                                     Maximum sulphur content limit reduces to 3.50% m/m on January 1, 2012
towards ratification. In fact, 21 of the   specific requirements.
51 IMO Conventions relate to                                                              Alternative equivalent SOX controls                                                      Exhaust gas cleaning systems may be approved for use inside and outside ECA-SOx from July 1, 2010
environmental issues.
                                                                                          NOX controls – new construction                                                                             Tier II controls come into effect from January 1, 2011                                                                                                           Tier III controls come into
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       effect from January 1, 2016
                                                                                          ECA-NOX                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      North American ECA-NOX
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       expected to come into
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       effect in 2016
                                                                                          NOX controls – ships constructed January 1, 1990 – December 31, 1999                                                                        Anticipate availability of first ‘approved methods’ during 2012

                                                                                          ODS Record Book                                                                           ODS Record Book is required from July 1, 2010

                                                                                          VOC Management Plan                                                                       VOC Management Plans required from July 1, 2010

                                                                                       Biofuels Guidelines                                                                                            Updated Guidelines on the carriage of bio-fuel blends expected to come into effect from January 1, 2011

of the 51 IMO                                                                          Ship Recycling Convention                                                                                                                      Entry into force is expected sometime between 2012 and 2015

Conventions relate
to environmental                                                                       Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI)                                         EEDI guidelines may already be used on a voluntary basis                                                                           EEDI could become mandatory in 2014

issues                                                                                 Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator (EEOI)                                EEOI guidelines may already be used on a voluntary basis

                                                                                       Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP)                                SEEMP guidelines may already be used on a voluntary basis

                                                                                       GHG market-based measures                                                     Discussions ongoing at the IMO

                                                                                       Key effective/compliance dates. Length of bar does not indicate time-scale
10/11                                                                   12/13

        A deeper look
        The arena of environmental compliance in shipping is vast,
        but there are some key areas currently presenting the marine
        industry with critical challenges and questions. Here we take
        a deeper look at six of these – fuels and exhaust emissions,
        ballast water management, ship recycling, energy, volatile
        organic compounds and hull coatings – and the key issues
        and legislation surrounding them. >
 Fuels and exhaust emissions                                                                                                                  Fuels and exhaust emissions                                                                                                    14/15

 Annex VI and future ship design –                                                                                                                                                           Legislation:
                                                                                                                                                                                             Annex VI of the MARPOL Convention
 the impact of exhaust emission controls                                                                                                                                                     The revised MARPOL Annex VI comes into force on July 1, 2010.
                                                                                                                                                                                             The principal amendments are step changes to the limits for NOX
                                                                                                                                                                                             and SOX emissions. The revised Annex also introduces the concept
                                                                                                                                                                                             of Emission Control Areas (ECAs) – as opposed to the previous
                                                                                                                                                                                             SECAs. ECAs may be NOx, SOX or both NOX and SOX control areas.

 The revised MARPOL Annex VI sets out substantial                                                                                                                                            NOX emissions
                                                                                                                                                                                             NOX requirements continue to apply only to installed diesel
 changes in exhaust emission controls which will                                                                                                                                             engines over 130 kW. Different tiers of control have been
 have far reaching effects on shipping.                                                                                                                                                      introduced based on ship construction date, with the limit value
                                                                                                                                                                                             determined on the basis of engine rated speed. However, in
                                                                                                                                                                                             the case of additional or non-identical replacement engines the
 Up to now, however, the initial                The first stage reductions, while              It is the dramatic second stage of NOX         So where does this leave the industry?         applicable Tier will be set by the installation date. Tier III limits
 controls have not really resulted in           important, do not represent a radical          and SOX reductions which will see major        Well, taking into account the various          apply only inside NOX Emission Control Areas.
 any particular differentiation within          change either. The July 1, 2010 reduction      changes arising in the options for             factors (only some of which are known
 the industry or between ships.                 to 1.00% within Emission Control Areas         compliance. It is clear that there will be a   or at least reasonably predictable) – ship      Tier             Ship              Total weighted cycle emission limit (g/kWh)
                                                                                                                                                                                                               construction      n = engine’s rated speed (rpm)
                                                established to limit SOX and particulate       distinction between ships built before or      construction date; known and likely                              date on
 Those ships currently subject to the NOX       matter emissions (ECA-SOX – as the             after January 1, 2016; the SOX controls        trading areas; the establishment of                              or after          n < 130          n = 130–1999 n ≥ 2000
 controls have generally been fitted with       existing SECAs are restyled under the          will apply to all ships, while the Tier III    further ECAs; technology availability and
                                                                                                                                                                                              I                January 1        17.0              45.n-0.2         9.8
 certified engines, while for ships currently   revised Annex) will be met by increasing       NOX controls will apply only to ships built    performance; payback potential of capital                        2000
 subject to SOX controls (which really          the low-sulphur blend ratio. The               in 2016 or later when operating in             investments; petroleum fuel price and
 means ships operating within the existing      reduction outside ECA-SOx to 3.50%,            Emission Control Areas established to          availability; and alternative fuel and          II               January 1        14.4              44.n-0.23        7.7
 North Sea and Baltic SOX Emission              meanwhile, is not a major challenge –          limit NOX emissions – ECA-NOX. Further         engine types – a range of radically and
 Control Areas (SECAs)), compliance has         even now less than 12% of the fuels in         distinctions will occur based on areas of      fundamentally different primary or              III              January 1        3.4               9.n-0.2          2.0
 been achieved through the bunkering            the IMO sulphur monitoring programme           intended operation; some ships will never      secondary control options for compliance                         2016*
 and use of fuel oils manufactured to           are over that limit, and only just over        enter, or never leave, either SOX or NOX       will become available.
                                                                                                                                                                                             *Depending on the outcome of a review (to be concluded in 2013) as to the
 meet the initial 1.5% sulphur limit.           2% exceed 4.0%. Under these                    ECAs, while others will operate both                                                           availability of the required technology, this date could be deferred.
                                                circumstances, the drive to employ             inside and outside them for some of the        Consequently, the fuel and machinery
 The Annex’s global fuel oil sulphur limit      secondary controls, such as exhaust            time. How much time may well change            configuration used by the majority of          Existing engines over 5MW, of 90 litres and above per cylinder,
 of 4.5% has not really been a factor; the      gas cleaning systems (which are now            during a ship’s lifespan and is further        ships for the last few decades will            installed on ships constructed between January 1, 1990 and
 IMO’s fuel oil sulphur monitoring              a potential compliance option both             complicated by the potential for new           change. The existing ‘one-size-fits-all’       December 31,1999 are required to limit NOX emissions to
 programme (which has been running              inside and outside ECA-SOX) may be             ECAs to be established. Already, the           approach will not apply in future –            Tier I levels – if a so-called ‘approved method’ for NOX emission
 since 1999) shows that, even before            limited. Similarly, the reductions in the      North American ECA (covering both SOX          instead, shipowners considering new            control is commercially available.
 Annex VI came into force in 2005, fuel         NOX limits to the Tier II levels will, it is   and NOX) has been accepted by the IMO          orders or scheduling drydockings for
 oil sulphur content as bunkered never          expected, continue to be met using             and there is a high likelihood that other      existing ships will need to carefully assess   SOX and particulate matter emissions
 exceeded 4.5% by more than a fraction          in-engine controls.                            areas will seek similar status.                the available compliance options and           The revised Annex introduces a number of changes to the
 of one per cent – a situation which is                                                                                                       select the one that works best for them        maximum allowable sulphur content of fuel oil, both inside
 continuing to date.                                                                           Additionally, while SOX controls may           – and for the future value of the ship.        and outside SOX and particulate matter Emission Control Areas.
                                                                                               be either operational (bunkering a fuel                                                       Compliance using alternative means such as exhaust
                                                                                               oil of the required sulphur content) or                                                       gas cleaning systems is also allowed.
                                                                                               equipment-based (using an exhaust gas
                                                                                               cleaning system), the Tier III NOX controls                                                    Fuel oil sulphur limits outside              Fuel oil sulphur limits inside SOX
                                                                                                                                                                                              SOX and particulate matter ECAs              and particulate matter ECAs
                                                                                               will, in all probability, require systems
                                                                                               to be fitted at the time the engine                                                            4.50% m/m before                             1.50% m/m before July 1, 2010
“The existing ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach                                                     is constructed.                                                                                January 1, 2012

 will not apply in future.”                                                                                                                                                                   3.50% m/m on and after
                                                                                                                                                                                              January 1, 2012
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           1.00% m/m on and after
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           July 1, 2010

                                                                                                                                                                                              0.50% m/m on and after                       0.10% m/m on and after
                                                                                                                                                                                              January 1, 2020*                             January 1, 2015

                                                                                                                                                                                             *Depending on the outcome of a review (to be concluded in 2018) as to the
                                                                                                                                                                                              availability of the required fuel oil, this date could be deferred to January 1, 2025.
Fuels and exhaust emissions                                                                                                                Fuels and exhaust emissions                                                                                    16/17

                                             Case study:                                                                                                                 Legislation:
                                             The next generation of fuel monitoring:                                                                                     At berth requirements –
                                             FOBAS Onboard with Lab-On-A-Ship™                                                                                           providing the answers
                                             We have been working with NanoNord              Lauritzen is positive that Lab-On-A-Ship™                                   The ‘at berth’ requirements of EC            On arrival at an EU port if a ship first
                                             A/S of Aalborg, Denmark, on an                  will enable it to optimise its ships’                                       Directive 2005/33/EC have been the           goes to anchor and then later moves
                                             innovative approach to ensuring that fuel       operations, thus reducing both their                                        cause of considerable interest and           to a berth alongside is it required to
                                             oils are adequately pre-treated and then        environmental impact and operating                                          uncertainty. In force since January 1,       use a 0.1% m/m maximum sulphur
                                             burned in the most efficient manner.            costs. Lauritzen Technical Manager, Poul                                    2010, the Directive requires that ships      fuel oil during that passage from
                                                                                             Martin Kondrup, commented: “Our goal                                        burn fuel oil with a maximum sulphur         anchorage to berth?
                                             Lab-On-A-Ship™ is an onboard fuel oil,          is to extend the onboard measurement                                        content of 0.1% when ‘at berth’. However,    If the particular EU member state
                                             lubricating oil and exhaust emission            capability to encompass the highly                                          considerable concerns still exist as to      considers that anchorage to be part of
                                             monitoring system. It allows ships’             variable fuels and lubricant quality issues                                 compliance, associated technical issues      the ‘port’, thereby making change-over
                                             engineers to take the actions necessary to      encountered by shipping. This will                                          and how the requirements are likely          necessary while at anchor, the ship is not
                                             optimise both fuel oil treatment and use        represent a substantial step forward in                                     to be enforced.                              required to use a 0.1% m/m maximum
                                             on a truly informed basis with the benefit      making the correct machinery                                                                                             sulphur fuel oil during the passage from
                                             of further support through shore-based          management decisions which enable                                           To assist shipowners and others in           anchorage to berth.
                                             trend and event analysis.                       targeted action, the minimisation of                                        understanding the operational realities of
                                                                                             waste and impact on the environment.”                                       compliance, we have prepared a set of        What will happen if it is necessary for
                                             The pilot application of Lab-On-A-Ship™                                                                                     frequently asked questions (FAQs). These     a ship to have certain modifications
                                             on the ships of Lauritzen Bulkers AS,           The Lab-On-A-Ship™ project is also being                                    provide clarification and guidance on        to machinery, storage arrangements,
                                             Copenhagen is a key project. As a first         piloted on three other ships. Initial                                       around 60 different issues, including:       piping or control systems before being
                                             step, the Lab-On-A-Ship™ systems were           findings are expected during 2010.                                                                                       able to use a 0.1% m/m maximum
                                             installed on two of Lauritzen’s ships                                                                                       Do the requirements apply whenever           sulphur fuel oil but those modifications
                                             – Sofie Bulker and Amine Bulker. In parallel,                                                                               a ship is anchored in EU waters?             have not yet been installed?
                                             Lloyd’s Register’s FOBAS team was                                                                                           Since the requirement is given as            This very much depends on the range
                                             commissioned to provide in-depth fuel                                                                                       ‘…ships at berth in EU ports…’ it would      of views which will be taken by the
                                             oil management training to the ship’s                                                                                       be considered that if a ship anchors within individual member states. As indicated
                                             engineers, superintendents and technical                                                                                    EU waters but outside a zone controlled      by the European Commission’s
                                             management.                                                                                                                 by a particular port or navigation authority Recommendation, published December
                                                                                                                                                                         (i.e. to effect repairs or awaiting orders)  29, 2009, compliance is still required;
                                                                                                                                                                         then the requirement does not apply.         it is up to the member state, if they wish
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      to be so guided, to consider the degree
                                                                                                                                                                         Does the change-over requirement             to which actions have been taken to
                                                                                                                                                                         apply to ships which are ‘at berth’          prepare the ship and its equipment
How can we help?                                                                                                                                                         for less than two hours?                     when deciding what penalty to apply
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      in particular cases.
Fuel and exhaust emissions services                                                                                                                                      Yes. The ‘two hours’ given in the
                                                                                                                                                                         Directive only applies where there is a
                                                                                                                                                                         published timetable which gives the time     The full FAQs can be downloaded at
Lloyd’s Register’s FOBAS services help shipowners and               Fuel System Audit                                                                                    ‘at berth’ as less than two hours (i.e. in
operators to manage fuel quality and comply with                    Our fuel system audit tests the effectiveness of a vessel’s                                          the case of ferries on scheduled services).
emissions controls.                                                 treatment system. In a fuel quality or machinery damage dispute,                                     There is not a general exemption for
                                                                    it can help establish that a system is well maintained.                                              ships which will be ‘at berth’ for less
Fuel Oil Bunker Analysis                                                                                                                                                 than two hours.
Through our collaboration with Intertek, the leading global         Fuel Change-over Plan
fuel testing laboratory, we can offer rapid independent             The Fuel Change-over Plan provides step-by-step guidance covering
verification of fuel quality against international standards and    all aspects of change-over to low-sulphur fuel, helping ensure
environmental legislation, helping businesses manage the risk       compliance with international, regional and local SOX requirements.
from poor quality fuel.
                                                                    Exhaust emissions services
FOBAS Engine                                                        We provide a wide range of services in this challenging area.
FOBAS Engine analyses eight key indicators to gain an insight       In addition to providing advice and practical guidance on
into the operational performance of marine engines. Through         regulations and compliance options, we evaluate exhaust gas
this holistic approach, we provide practical guidance to help       measurement proposals to help meet your needs and objectives.
correct any issues and achieve efficient engine performance.
                                                                    For more information please visit:
Ballast water management                                                                                                                   Ballast water management                                                                                                        18/19

Looking ahead at retrofitting –                                                                                                                                                                Legislation:
                                                                                                                                                                                               The Ballast Water
the challenges of retrospective legislation                                                                                                                                                    Management Convention
                                                                                                                                                                                               The International Convention for the Control and Management
                                                                                                                                                                                               of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments will come into force 12
                                                                                                                                                                                               months after ratification by 30 states, representing 35% of world
                                                                                                                                                                                               merchant shipping tonnage. At the time of writing, 22 states,
                                                                                                                                                                                               representing more than 22% of the world’s tonnage, have
The International Ballast Water Management Convention is not                                                                               Owners should ensure that there is space            ratified the Convention.
                                                                                                                                           on board to fit a treatment system, and
yet in force and, since the process is dependent on government                                                                             enough available power (some have quite             The Convention will apply to all ships engaged on international
ratification, it is difficult to predict when it might happen.                                                                             large power requirements). They should              voyages that carry ballast water. Initially ships will be required to
                                                                                                                                           also make provision for control systems,            treat or exchange ballast water, but a mandatory requirement to
                                                                                                                                           such as control air or fresh water                  install and use a ballast water treatment system is being phased
Nevertheless, shipowners need to              This retrospective aspect is one which is     They will also need to consider whether        supplies, storage of chemicals that may             in based on the timescales set out below.
think ahead as they will, at some             being seen more often, as compliance          retrofitting can be carried out at sea or if   be used in the system and any fire
stage in the not too distant future,          dates pass before Conventions are             a repair yard is required. If it can be done   protection and extinction measures that             Ballast         Year of ship construction
be required to install and use ballast        ratified. For owners, it means looking        at sea, can the work be wholly or partly       may be required. For tankers, owners                capacity
water treatment systems.                      ahead and assessing the options as soon       carried out by the ship’s staff? The           must consider whether the system is                                 Before 2009*     2009+            2009-2011       2012+
                                              as possible.                                  logistics of installation, including access    certified as gas safe.
While this presents a challenge for any                                                     to the chosen location, are also a vital                                                           < 1500 m   3
                                                                                                                                                                                                              BWE or BWT        BWT only
                                                                                                                                                                                                              until 2016;
owner, the Convention’s requirement for       The feasibility of retrofitting ballast       consideration.                                 The recommendation from Lloyd’s                                    BWT only
systems to be retrofitted on existing         water treatment technology                                                                   Register is, if possible and if a suitable                         from 2016
vessels means it is those with ships in       encompasses a host of issues. Owners          For newbuilds, while a system must still       approved system is available, to install
                                                                                                                                                                                               1500 –         BWE or BWT      BWT only
service who will potentially find achieving   will need to research available treatment     be researched and identified, the              one at new build or at the very least to            5000 m3        until 2014; BWT
compliance most onerous.                      systems and their associated costs            challenges are perhaps more                    design the vessel so that retrofit is simplified.                  only from 2014
                                              (including initial outlay, installation and   straightforward.
                                                                                                                                                                                               > 5000 m3      BWE or BWT                         BWE or BWT BWT only
                                              running costs) and power consumption,                                                        While owners consider these questions,                             until 2016                         until 2016;
                                              as well as availability of consumables and                                                   another aspect of the Convention –                                 BWT only                           BWT only
                                              service agents.                                                                              the interim provision for ballast water                            from 2016                          from 2016
                                                                                                                                           exchange, which will be phased out                  *These ships need to comply at the first intermediate or renewal survey
                                                                                                                                           according to ballast water capacity – is             after the anniversary of the date of delivery in the year of compliance.
                                                                                                                                           already an accepted part of operations              BWE – ballast water exchange
How can we help?                                                                                                                           for many internationally trading vessels.           BWT – ballast water treatment
                                                                                                                                           There is now a large number of national,            Due to the uncertainty regarding the availability of approved ballast
Ballast water management services                                                                                                          and some regional, requirements which               water treatment systems, the IMO adopted a resolution which
                                                                                                                                           require that ships undertake exchange               recommends that, for ships constructed in 2009 with a ballast
Lloyd’s Register offers a comprehensive range of ballast water       For those businesses that have a ballast water management             – some mandatory and some voluntary.                water capacity of less than 5000m3, a treatment system need not
management services that cover:                                      plan in place already, we can review and approve it against           These are largely similar, stipulating that         be fitted until the second annual survey under the Convention or
– development and approval of ballast water management               the Lloyd’s Register Group assessment procedure and the               exchange takes place at a minimum                   by December 31, 2011, whichever is earlier. For ships built in 2010,
  plans (and the bwmp notation)                                      IMO guidelines. Wherever we find that a satisfactory plan             distance from land in a specified depth             it is considered that sufficient systems will be available. However,
– approval of treatment systems.                                     is in operation, we issue a ballast water management plan             of water, and that a ballast water                  the IMO will review the situation in October 2010.
                                                                     certificate, accompanied by the appropriate descriptive note,         management plan is prepared and kept
We can help develop a safe, practical strategy to reduce the         demonstrating to relevant authorities and organisations that          on board. And while ballast water                   At present there are eight fully approved ballast water
risks associated with ballast waste management and meet              the ship has a documented, verified procedure for ballast             exchange does have some safety                      treatment systems available on the market. Approximately
environmental responsibilities. By adopting our systematic           water management.                                                     implications, these are well understood             20 additional systems are activity pursuing approval and a further
procedures, businesses can be confident of meeting national                                                                                and can be mitigated with good planning             30 or so systems are at various stages of development. A number
regulations and the IMO’s Ballast Water Convention and its           Understanding treatment technology                                    and crew training.                                  of systems have already been installed on ships voluntarily or to
associated guidelines.                                               Our Guide to Ballast Water Treatment Technology provides an                                                               comply with local regulations.
                                                                     independent appraisal of commercially available and developing        Ballast water exchange remains a
Our ballast water management plans are specific to each ship         ballast water treatment technologies and their testing and            temporary solution, however. For owners             Shipbuilders and owners should consider installation of ballast water
and draw on our wide experience and research. Each ship’s            approval status.                                                      and operators, planning for the                     treatment systems for ships scheduled to be built in 2010 and later.
plan will address and account for all key ballast water issues                                                                             installation and use of treatment systems           As a minimum, owners should ensure that new vessels can retrofit
while helping to ensure that overall structural integrity and        For more information please visit:                                    should start now.                                   the required treatment systems when the Convention comes into force.
operational safety of the ship is not compromised.         
Ship recycling                                                                                                                       Ship recycling                                                                                           20/21

Waiting for ratification –                                                                                                                                                        Legislation:
                                                                                                                                                                                  The Ship Recycling Convention
life before the recycling Convention                                                                                                                                              On May 15, 2009, at a diplomatic conference in Hong Kong,
                                                                                                                                                                                  the International Convention for the Safe and Environmentally
                                                                                                                                                                                  Sound Recycling of Ships was adopted by 63 member states of
                                                                                                                                                                                  the International Maritime Organization (IMO).

                                                                                                                                                                                  The Convention will enter into force when it has been ratified
Today, most ship scrapping takes place in South Asia – mainly                                                                        Old lighting ballasts on a ship may be       by 15 states, representing 40% of the world fleet – something
                                                                                                                                     contaminated with polychlorinated            that is likely to occur between 2012 and 2015. Its aim is to
in India, Bangladesh and Pakistan where demand is high for                                                                           biphenyls (PCBs), which are persistent
                                                                                                                                                                                  lay down legally binding and globally applicable ship recycling
                                                                                                                                     environmental pollutants.
steel scrap. Some 95-98% of a ship’s lightweight is recycled.                                                                                                                     regulations for international shipping and for ship recycling
                                                                                                                                                                                  facilities, and it will have serious ramifications for shipowners,
                                                                                                                                                                                  builders, repairers and breakers.
Over the last ten years, from being        However, while the industry waits for         For most shipping companies, their          Additionally, shipowners in the vanguard
the concern only of buyers and             the Convention to enter into force, the       end-of life solution policies have yet to   of environmental compliance are also         Overall, the Convention can be described as a response to
sellers of old ships, the end-of-life      most significant regulatory framework         change, but there are a growing number      adopting the requirements for the            the lack of regulation and standards in ship breaking practice
process for ships has attracted            affecting ship recycling remains the Basel    of companies who are seeking safer and      Inventory of Hazardous Materials (IHM)       – especially where safety, environmental and quality standards
interest from many concerned about         Convention. This came into force in           more environmentally friendly methods       which will be mandatory under the            are concerned. It covers the entire ship life cycle, from design
safety and environmental impact            response to the shipping of hazardous         of recycling ships. These owners are        Recycling Convention.                        and construction, through in-service operation to dismantling
during the process and afterwards.         waste to developing countries and to          reviewing their end-of life policies or                                                  and requires:
                                           Eastern Europe by ‘traders’ seeking to        actively managing the demolition and        Today, and for the immediate future,
If ship recycling has been efficient in    circumvent expensive and closely regulated    recycling process. Maersk is one such       a combination of factors needs to be         – ships to have an Inventory of Hazardous Materials (IHM) –
terms of providing a ready supply of       waste disposal in their own countries.        company. It has now recycled 20 ships       weighed up and a decision made by              also known as the Green Passport
steel and other metals for re-use, there   However, it was not specifically drafted to   in one yard without serious injury to the   the owners involved. The application of      – new builds to exclude certain hazardous materials
has been a cost in terms of lives lost     include the concept of ships themselves       yard workforce. Such experiences have       international conventions is, of course,     – ship recycling facilities to be authorised by the national
and local environmental impact.            being defined as ‘hazardous waste’.           helped spur the formation of the            often uneven. Safe and environmentally         authority
                                                                                         International Ship Recycling Association    sound ship recycling is essentially in its   – ship recycling facilities to provide an approved ‘ship recycling
Cutting apart big steel structures is a    In some cases, ships have been identified     (ISRA) which is building a body of ship     infancy and there is no such thing as just     plan’ detailing how the ship will be recycled
complex and hazardous business. Even       as ‘hazardous waste’ by concerned             recyclers to help provide confidence to     one acceptable technique. The Industry       – ships flying the flag of Parties to the Convention to be
though a high proportion by weight of      authorities. A recent example was the         owners looking for more control over the    Working Group on Ship Recycling has            recycled only in authorised recycling facilities
the ship’s structure is re-usable, there   50,700 ton LNG carrier, Margaret Hill. In     recycling process. China has become a       produced guidance for owners to help them    – ship recycling facilities which are located in Parties to
are significant amounts of plastics and    early August 2009 the ship was detained       destination of choice for many of these     decide what to do in this interim period.      the Convention to recycle only ships which they are
other materials that should be handled     by the UK Environment Agency as she           owners seeking more control of the                                                         authorised to recycle.
carefully and appropriately. Noting ‘the   attempted to sail to India (she has since     demolition facilities.
growing concerns about safety, health      been released and is reported to be                                                                                                    Associated regulatory requirements include:
and the environment and welfare            waiting at a shipyard for a conversion
matters’, the Ship Recycling Convention    project). This was a clear example of a                                                                                                – The ILO requirements for Safety and Welfare in Ship
was adopted by the IMO last year.          merchant ship destined for scrap being                                                                                                   Recycling Facilities

                                           designated as ‘dangerous goods’ or                                                                                                     – The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary
                                           ‘hazardous waste’ by an OECD                                                                                                             Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal
                                           government. It sets an interesting                                                                                                     – The European Waste Shipment Regulations (and other
                                           precedent since the Margaret Hill was                                                                                                    regional equivalents).
                                           unlikely to be dissimilar in terms of
                                           construction materials to any other ship
                                                                                         of a ship’s lightweight
                                           of her type and generation.                   is recycled
Ship recycling                                                                                                                                Ship recycling                                                                                  22/23

                                             Case study:
                                             Significant demand for the Green Passport
                                             Many shipowners are adopting the Ship          Here are some of their comments on                GEM                                              Odfjell
                                             Recycling Convention requirements.             obtaining a Green Passport and on                 Captain Robert Ferguson, Head of Marine          Helge Olsen, Senior Vice President Ship
                                             Among them, FLOPEC, Gulf Energy                environmental compliance in general:              Safety and Environment: “Any useful              Management in Odfjell: “For Odfjell,
                                             Maritime (GEM) PJSC, Wallenius Marine                                                            ‘tools’, such as Green Passport, are             Green Passport underpins our
                                             AB, Odfjell Management AS and                  FLOPEC                                            welcome to a responsible shipping                commitment to people’s health and the
                                             Caledonian Maritime Assets Ltd (CMAL)          Rear Admiral Aland Molestina, President           company in the successful environmental          environment. We are pleased to have
                                             have all attained a Lloyd’s Register           of the FLOPEC Board: “…as an                      operation of the vessel and show                 Lloyd’s Register on our team to help us
                                             approved Inventory of Hazardous Materials      environmentally conscious company, one            commitment to environmental protection.”         implement Green Passports in the best
                                             (Green Passport) for ships in their fleets,    of our priorities was to ensure compliance                                                         possible way.”
                                             demonstrating an ongoing commitment to         with the environmental requirements of            Wallenius
                                             safeguarding the environment and early         our traditional trading areas.”                   Per Tunell, Head of Environmental                Caledonian
Gulf Castle is one of 11 GEM tankers         compliance with the legislation.                                                                 Management: “...we always try to                 Guy Platten, Managing Director of
with a Green Passport.                                                                                                                        be well ahead of coming rules and                CMAL: “We are constantly looking for
                                                                                                                                              regulations that concern environmental           new ways to address environmental
                                                                                                                                              issues. In fact, it is one of our principles.    issues, whether it’s looking at alternative
                                                                                                                                              Therefore it was completely according to         fuels for the ferries of the future or how
                                                                                                                                              our strategy to start working with Inventory     best to recycle ferries safely at the end of
                                                                                                                                              of Hazardous Materials at an early stage.”       their operational life. The Green Passport
                                                                                                                                                                                               is a great example of proactively working
                                           “We are pleased to have Lloyd’s Register on our                                                                                                     with industry colleagues to take action
                                                                                                                                                                                               now to help assure environmental
                                            team to help us implement Green Passports in                                                                                                       protection in the future.”
                                            the best possible way.”
                                             Helge Olsen
                                             Senior Vice President, Ship Management, Odjfell
FLOPEC’s Pichincha, a 105,000 dwt
Aframax tanker, was the first
Lloyd’s Register-classed ship to
be delivered in 2010.

How can we help?
Ship recycling services
Inventory of Hazardous Materials approval and                       Our Guide to the Inventory of Hazardous Materials (Green
verification (Green Passport)                                       Passport) was published in May to help prepare the industry
In 2004, Lloyd’s Register was the first classification society to   for the new regulations.
issue an independently verified Green Passport – now known
as the Inventory of Hazardous Materials and a key requirement       Assessing recycling standards
of the Ship Recycling Convention. Through this service, we          Through Lloyd’s Register Quality Assurance (LRQA) we provide
help owners and operators achieve compliance with the               certification to the international ship recycling standard – ISO30000.
Convention. We also provide a list of companies that can
assist in compiling the Inventory, helping to control costs. The    Audit during dismantling
Inventory can help to promote better hazard management              We discuss the requirements for controlling the dismantling process,
on board ship and enable better long-term liability planning.       and provide: consultancy services before the dismantling starts; an
It also helps companies to demonstrate their commitment to          assessment of the facility (against agreed standards); and supervision
improving environmental standards and provides measurable           of the dismantling process in co-operation with the recycling facility.
and achievable objectives for ISO14001 certified companies.
                                                                    For more information please visit:                                        Wallenius Marine AB attained a Lloyd’s Register-approved
                                                                                                            Green Passport for its vehicle carrier, Tristan.
 Energy                                                                                                                                    Energy                                                                                                      24/25

Putting theory into practice –                                                                                                                                                            Legislation:
                                                                                                                                                                                          Energy efficiency tools from the IMO
making the IMO energy                                                                                                                                                                     The IMO has developed a range of voluntary measures aimed

efficiency tools effective                                                                                                                                                                at helping the marine industry achieve fuel efficiencies and a
                                                                                                                                                                                          reduction in emissions.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI)
                                                                                                                                                                                          This is intended to stimulate improved energy efficiency in new
 The non-shipping world is looking critically at the marine                                                                                                                               ships at the design stage. Interim guidelines for its application
                                                                                                                                                                                          and verification will be applied on a voluntary basis for a trial
 industry’s contribution to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions                                                                                                                                period to assess the practicalities of their application. IMO
 and asking how they can be reduced.                                                                                                                                                      member governments and observer organisations will be
                                                                                                                                                                                          encouraged to provide feedback so that the guidelines can be
                                                                                                                                                                                          improved and subsequently upgraded to a statutory instrument.
 It’s a complex discussion and there          However, these tools are voluntary,           And there are other issues which will also     – EEDI verifications will often require data
 are different views on how best to           and may not yield the expected savings        need to be addressed during the voluntary        interpolation at the trials stage where      Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator (EEOI)
 reduce greenhouse gas emissions              unless they are translated into mandatory     application period. Some of the concerns         the ship cannot be tested in the fully       The EEOI is intended to standardise fuel efficiency assessment
 from shipping.                               regulation. As such, it is expected that      expressed by industry include:                   laden condition. Standard methods            for ships in service and is directly related to bunker consumption.
                                              the IMO will in future move to a statutory                                                     need to be developed for such cases.         It has been devised to help shipowners and operators evaluate
 It is estimated that shipping (both          Energy Efficient Design Index in order        – Optimisation of EEDI at the design                                                          ship performance with regard to CO2 emissions so they can
 domestic and international) contributes      to further advance reduction in CO2             stage for a specific operational speed       – Specific fuel consumption will be            improve fuel efficiency over time. Unlike the EEDI, the Indicator
 2.7% to global CO2 emissions annually        emissions from new ships. Before this           may conflict in practice with the              obtained from engine builders data files     is not set to become mandatory.
 – a similar amount to that emitted by        happens, the industry will need to              requirements of operational modes,             but these may have been generated for
 Germany or Japan. To limit global            evaluate the options to ensure a smooth         leading to poor design decisions and           NOX rather than CO2 and may require          Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP)
 temperature increase to around 2°C,          transition to low-carbon shipping.              higher subsequent energy                       some interpretation.                         In conjunction with the above measures, the IMO has
 it is thought that global GHG emissions      The IMO is also discussing various              consumption.                                                                                released guidance for the development of a Ship Energy
 will need to be reduced by 50% across        market-based measures.                                                                       Addressing these issues is critical to         Efficiency Management Plan which incorporates best practice
 the world, with developed countries                                                        – EEDI as defined now may lead to lower        make sure the eventual statutory EEDI          for fuel efficient ship operations. Although this may form
 reducing their GHG emissions by 80%          To make the EEDI mandatory and                  power margin ships which would               is as robust as possible. In the meantime,     part of a company’s environmental management system,
 compared to 1990 levels.                     effective, baselines or control limits will     increase potential safety risks (during      some operators are already making use          it is not mandatory at this stage. The EEOI can be used to
                                              need to be agreed for various ship types,       operation in heavy seas, for example).       of the tools, showing that the industry        check SEEMP effectiveness.
 The IMO’s Energy Efficiency Design Index     something which IMO will be deliberating        This concern has been raised for some        is already embracing the concept while
 (EEDI), in conjunction with the proposed     at future Marine Environmental                  specific ship types such as ro-ro vessels.   mandatory instruments are forthcoming.
 Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan       Protection Committee meetings.
 (SEEMP) and Energy Efficiency Operational                                                  – EEDI will lead to slower ships. Reducing
 Indicator (EEOI) should help the industry                                                    speeds could lead to cargo modal
 achieve fuel efficiencies and a consequent                                                   shifts that could potentially have a
 reduction in greehouse gas emissions.                                                        negative impact on overall transport-
 The potential for improvement is quite                                                       related emissions.
 significant: industry consensus points

 to a 50% overall increase in the energy
 efficiency of shipping in the long term.

                                                                                                                                                                                          – the proportion of
“The potential for improvement is quite                                                                                                                                                   global greenhouse gases
 significant: industry consensus points                                                                                                                                                   caused by international
 to a 50% overall increase in the energy                                                                                                                                                  shipping CO2 emissions
 efficiency of shipping in the long term.”
Energy                                                                                                                            Energy                                                                                                                                    26/27

Finding ways to save energy                                                                                                       Case study:
Our ship energy audit service helps owners identify                                                                               Investigating shipboard power
potential energy savings in a wide variety of ways,                                                                               management culture
from analysis of operating systems to the cultural
practices that govern them.                                                                                                       In order to insure against blackout, two       While there are times when two                   Fuel consumption reduction:
                                                                                                                                  auxiliary engines are often operated in        generators are required, the audit               29 MT per year
                                                                                                                                  parallel for long periods at less than half    showed that both were being used even
                                                                                                                                  load. This is common practice in port,         in calm weather during normal passage.           CO2 reduction:
                                                                                                                                  at anchor and during tank cleaning and         This could have been attributed to the           92 MT per year
Case study:                                                                                                                       ballast exchange operations. The               engine room team being reluctant to rely
                                                                                                                                  operation of diesel engines at low loads       on the PMS to start additional generators        Estimated saving:
Bright ideas                                                                                                                      tends to lead to more maintenance and          when required. Through our findings, we          $11,600 per year (@ $400 per MT)
                                                                                                                                  higher fuel consumption.                       were able to demonstrate that the PMS
On a big passenger ship, lighting           We concluded that the use of energy           Fuel consumption reduction:                                                            was capable of effectively managing the          Estimated cost:
consumes a lot of energy. Since             saving lighting and the retrofitting of       457 metric tonnes (MT) per year         On board an aframax tanker, we                 auxiliary engines in automatic mode,             None
incandescent light bulbs convert more       smart lighting control devices, together                                              evaluated the prevailing shipboard             which included a load-dependent start
than 90% of the energy they use to heat,    with an improved load factor, would lead      CO2 reduction:                          practices, paying particular attention to:     and stop set up.                                 Payback:
the choice of bulbs and their efficiency    to a reduction in power consumption           1,440 MT per year                       the engines’ load factor trends; the                                                            Immediate
play a major role in energy conservation.   of more than 300 kW and an estimated                                                  extent to which the PMS (power                 We proposed specific corrective actions
We investigated the lighting systems        saving of $183,000 per year. In addition,     Estimated saving:                       management system) was used; and the           for the engines’ load and recommended
on board a Panamax passenger ship,          the reduction in heat generated by the        $183,000 per year (@ $400 per MT)       ship’s electrical demand management.           more effective use of the PMS and the
recording the number of lights and their    lighting would reduce the HVAC                                                        We found that the engines were often           introduction of specific instructions
type and rating to analyse their            (heating, ventilating and air conditioning)   Estimated cost:                         being operated manually, leading to            concerning manual engine operation.
approximate daily electrical consumption.   system load, resulting in additional          $130,000                                situations where both were running at          Our recommendations also included the
The audit identified that extensive use     savings. Following the audit, the owner                                               low loads.                                     introduction of benchmarks to help
of 50 watt halogen spotlights and a         installed energy saving lighting as part      Payback:                                                                               ensure that compliance with the
lack of lighting control in certain areas   of the company’s energy conservation          8.5 months                                                                             proposals was monitored.
(passenger cabins, for example) were        programme.
adding to the ship’s energy consumption.

How can we help?
Ship energy services
We provide a range of ship energy services which can be            Our services can assist in determining your CO2 emissions
customised according to a business’s needs. Working closely        footprint, calculating ship energy efficiency indices and
with each organisation, we aim to improve energy efficiency        implementing energy efficiency measures (including the EEDI,
across the fleet in a number of ways:                              EEOI and SEEMP).

– Ship energy audit                                                For more information please visit:                                                                On a big passenger ship, lighting
– Ship performance monitoring                                                                                                                consumes a lot of energy.
– Fleet energy management support
– Design optimisation support
– Advice on alternative technologies.

                                                                 “Working closely with your
                                                                  organisation, we aim to improve
                                                                  energy efficiency across the fleet.”

                                                                                                                                                                                                         The human element is a key consideration when conducting ship energy audits.
Volatile organic compounds                                                                                                         Volatile organic compounds                                                               28/29

Cleaner air and more                                                                                                                                            Legislation:
                                                                                                                                                                VOC Management Plan
oil in the tank                                                                                                                                                 Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted as gases
                                                                                                                                                                from certain solids or liquids. VOCs include a variety of
                                                                                                                                                                chemicals, some of which may have short- and long-term
                                                                                                                                                                adverse health effects.

                                                                                                                                                                The revised MARPOL Annex VI introduced a new mandatory
Teekay, one of the world’s leading tanker operators, has been                                                                                                   requirement (regulation 15.6) regarding Volatile Organic
                                                                                                                                                                Compounds (VOC) emissions control. This will apply to all
working hard to reduce the amount of crude oil lost as vapour                                                                                                   tankers carrying crude oil.
during loading and transportation.
                                                                                                                                                                With effect from July 1, 2010, every tanker carrying crude oil
                                                                                                                                                                will be required to have on board and implement a ship-specific
Commonly designated Volatile                  The total investment by operators                                                                                 VOC Management Plan, approved by the Administration.
Organic Compounds or VOCs, these              to date has been in the region of                                                                                 The Plan should be prepared taking into account guidelines
hydrocarbon gases are low level               US$250 million, with annual operating                                                                             contained in resolution MEPC.185 (59) and MEPC.1/Circ.680.
pollutants which over time break              expenses for these systems at around                                                                              The purpose of the Plan is to ensure that VOC emissions
down to CO2, becoming greenhouse              US$20 million. These systems are all                                                                              resulting from tanker operations to which regulation 15.6
gases. With worldwide trade in crude          installed on a retro-fit basis on board                                                                           applies are prevented or minimised as much as possible.
oil at around 20 million barrels a            ship to reduce VOC emissions during
day and the fuel’s nature as a long-          loading. Reductions in VOC emissions in                                                                           A ship-specific VOC Management Plan must at the least provide
haul cargo, VOCs are a significant            Norwegian shuttle operations have been                                                                            written procedures for minimising VOC emissions during:
contributor to the industry’s                 around 75%. This is a relatively small
carbon emissions.                             fleet and affects emissions from a tiny                                                                           – loading of cargo
                                              percentage of total crude oil shipments.                                                                          – sea passage, and
Teekay has considerable experience                                                                                                                              – discharge of cargo.
of operating ships in compliance with         Better management of VOCs across the
strict Norwegian VOC management               global crude oil supply chain could make                                                                          Additionally, VOCs generated during crude oil washing need
requirements on behalf of the VOC             a big difference even if much simpler and                                                                         to be considered.
Industry Cooperative. The Cooperative         cheaper means are employed. Worldwide
consists of the owners of offshore loaded     seaborne transport of crude oil is around                                                                         If tanker design modifications (such as increasing the pressure
fields (approximately 27 oil companies) in    20 million barrels daily. Crude oil is mostly a                                                                   of the cargo tanks) are to be made to minimise VOC emissions,
the Norwegian sector. The Cooperative         long haul cargo; its tonne per mile proportion                                                                    strength aspects need to be considered and comprehensive
works to implement VOC recovery               of world seaborne trade is high. Teekay’s                                                                         calculations have to be carried out to confirm the structural
systems on shuttle tankers, ensuring air      work in this area has identified a potential                                                                      strength and other related issues. This information must be
is cleaner and a higher proportion of         for reducing VOC emissions by 1–2 million                                                                         provided within the VOC Management Plan when submitting
crude oil remains in the tanks. Currently,    tonnes annually. Such a development                                                                               it for approval.
17 shuttle tankers operated or owned          would require a large collaborative effort
by Teekay have VOC recovery systems           in the industry, but would result in a
on board.                                     noticeable reduction in the carbon
                                              footprint of crude transportation by sea.

How can we help?
Assisting owners and operators in
preparing VOC Management Plans
                                                                                                                                                                 barrels of crude

We have produced a model VOC Management Plan and a                    These can be downloaded at:
checklist to assist owners in preparing plans for their ships.
                                                                                                                                                                 oil traded daily,
Hull coatings                                                                                                                            Hull coatings                                                                                           30/31

Marine fouling –                                                                                                                                                                        Legislation:
                                                                                                                                                                                        The Anti-fouling Systems (AFS)
old problem, new solutions                                                                                                                                                              Convention
                                                                                                                                                                                        The International Convention on the Control of Harmful
                                                                                                                                                                                        Anti-fouling Systems on Ships (the AFS Convention) entered
                                                                                                                                                                                        into force on September 17, 2008.

                                                                                                                                                                                        It applies to all ships regardless of size and prohibits the
Keeping ships’ hulls and seawater piping systems                                                                                                                                        application of organotin anti-fouling systems. It also requires
                                                                                                                                                                                        that existing organotin anti-fouling systems are either removed
free from marine fouling has been a tremendous                                                                                                                                          from ships’ hulls and replaced with organotin-free systems,
challenge throughout maritime history.                                                                                                                                                  or sealed to form a barrier to prevent leaching.
                                                                                                                                                                                        In Europe, the Convention is translated into law by
                                                                                                                                                                                        EU Regulation (EC) No. 782/2003 on the Prohibition
Fouling increases friction drag               Organotin-based anti-fouling coatings        In recent years, copper-based anti-fouling    Fouling on a ship’s hull can lead to           of Organotin Compounds on Ships.
and blocks piping systems, affecting          were proven to be effective in controlling   coatings, mostly with booster biocides        increases in fuel consumption of up
ship speed, fuel consumption and              marine fouling on ships’ hulls and were      added, have successfully replaced the         to 40%. Research has shown that                Research has shown that without anti-fouling coatings:
manoeuvrability.                              widely used from the 1970s onwards.          organotin-based products while low            without the use of anti-fouling coatings,
                                                                                           surface energy fouling releasing coating      fuel use would rise by 200 million tonnes      Fuel use would rise by

It also contributes to the spread of          Their success, however, was short-lived.     products, either silicone or fluoropolymer-   a year and carbon dioxide and sulphur
invasive alien species. Over the years,       Because organotin compounds leached          based, have also found increased use on       dioxide emissions would rise by 640
various materials and methods have            from anti-fouling coatings were found to     commercial vessels.                           million and 12 million tonnes respectively1.
been tried in the fight against fouling,      cause persistent toxicity to marine
including manual scrapping, use of            ecosystems, their use in anti-fouling        Marine fouling also causes blockages          Today, new environmental regulations
copper sheathing, and the application         systems was banned worldwide by the          and corrosion in seawater pipes, valves,      and increased awareness of
of organic coatings with added biocides.      IMO’s International Convention on the        pumps and heat exchangers, resulting          environmental protection are pushing           million tonnes per year
                                              Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems      in costly repair and maintenance.             anti-fouling technology further.
                                              on Ships (the AFS Convention) which          Electrochemical methods using aluminium       Shipowners are demanding high fuel
                                              came into force in 2008.                     and copper anodes are widely used,            efficiency, low ship gas emissions and         Carbon dioxide emissions would rise by

                                                                                           while good monitoring and maintenance         longer maintenance cycles while paint
                                                                                           of the systems are also essential.            makers continue to reduce the VOC
                                                                                                                                         content of paints and the toxic impacts
                                                                                                                                         of biocide release into the environment.
                                                                                                                                         The latest efforts are being directed at
                                                                                                                                         developing not only coating systems
                                                                                                                                         which combine effective anti-fouling           million tonnes per year
How can we help?                                                                                                                         performance with low or no toxicity
Marine coatings expertise                                                                                                                to the marine environment, but also
                                                                                                                                                                                        Sulphur dioxide emissions would increase by
                                                                                                                                         greener and more natural anti-fouling

                                                                                                                                         mechanisms which mimic the fouling
Lloyd’s Register provides marine coatings and corrosions                                                                                 resistance of many marine organisms.
expertise in the areas of material selection, failure investigation
and research. In recognition of the importance of using                                                                                  1
                                                                                                                                             Akzo Nobel, The Global Coatings Report,
environment friendly anti-fouling systems, we award our EP(A)                                                                                2006, page 40
notation to ships applied with biocide-free anti-fouling systems.
                                                                                           Various fouling species found on a test                                                      million tonnes per year
We also publish a comprehensive list of recognised                                         panel without anti-fouling coating after
                                                                                           a 12-month exposure.
anti-fouling coating products on ClassDirect Live, providing
information on paint manufacturers, anti-fouling products
and the biocides used.

For more information please visit: and
What is Lloyd’s Register doing?                                                                                                               34/35

Get in touch
We are continuously monitoring, researching and influencing developments in relation
to the environmental opportunities and challenges facing the marine industry.
We can help you to:
– understand emerging and existing
  environmental regulations
– comply with environmental
  requirements, whether regional or
– demonstrate your environmental
  credentials to stakeholders.

Europe, Middle East and Africa        Asia                                 Americas

UK and Ireland                        Korea                                USA
London                                Busan                                Houston
Mark Darley                           T +82 (0)51 640 5086                 Dan Holmes                    Printed on Soporset Premium Offset from the
                                                                                                         Robert Horne Group. The virgin wood fibre is
T +44 (0)20 7423 2319                 E                T +1 (1) 281 675 3183
                                                                                                         sourced from Spain and Chile and produced
E                                          E        at a mill in Scotland that has been awarded
                                      PR China and SAR                                                   the ISO14001 certificate for environmental
                                                                                                         management. The pulp is bleached using an
Greece, East Mediterranean            Hong Kong                            Miami                         elemental chlorine-free (ECF) process. Soporset
and Adriatic                          T +852 2287 9363                     John Hicks                    is an FSC product group from well-managed
Piraeus                               E                   T +1 (1)954 236 8366          forests and other controlled sources.

Anastasia Kouvertari                                                       E           Services are provided by members of the
T +30 210 4580800                     Shanghai                                                           Lloyd’s Register Group. For further details
                                                                                                         please see our website:
E                      T +86 (0)21 5158 1000                Canada
                                      E                   Toronto
Nordic countries                                                           Marcel LaRoche
Copenhagen                            South Asia                           T +1 (1)819 595 3526 Ext 30
Valdemar Ehlers                       Singapore                            E
T +45 32 96 18 00                     T +65 6278 9444
E                   E   South America
                                                                           Rio de Janeiro
Middle East and Africa                Japan                                Alexandre de Carvalho
Dubai                                 Yokohama                             T + 55 21 3523 0018
Mike Holliday                         T +81 (0)45 682 5255                 E
T +971 (0)4 701 4190/4100             E

Western Europe
Tjerk Feenstra
T +31(0)10-414 50 88

Central European Area
Ramona Zettelmaier
T +49 (0)40 328107 0

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