Biotic damage by liaoqinmei

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									Invasive Ecology
Unit Seven
Objectives
   Identify plant pests common to Western Washington
    ◦   Insects
    ◦   Weeds
    ◦   Disease
    ◦   Animals
 Describe the signs of pest damage
 Differentiate between types of pests in diagnosing
  pest damage
 Demonstrate the use of appropriate control
  (integrated Pest Management) and eradication
  methods
 Various case studies
    Vocabulary
 Abiotic                        *Allelopathy
   Auxins                       *Bacterium
   Biological weed control      *Mycoplasma
   Biotic                       *Cytokinins
   Disease                      *Fungus
   Gibberellins                 *Incubation
   Infection                    *Infectious disease
   Viroid                       *Weed
   Inoculation                  *Inhibitors
   Integrated Pest Management   *Perennials
   Nematodes                    *Noninfectious disease
   Noxious weeds                *Pathogens
   Plant growth regulators      *Pre emergence herbicides
   Herbicides                   *Rhizomes
   Viruses                      *Winter annual
Invasive Ecology
 Is the content area that covers any insect,
  fungus, or plant invasive species.
 These invasive species will negatively
  affect the host plant or host location.
 One invasive could have a very wide and
  detrimental affect on an ecosystem.
 How can an invasive plant cause damage
  to an ecosystem
Chestnut blight
   www.teachersdomain.org/resource/ket08.
    sci.life.gen.amchestnut/
Chestnut Blight
   Why are the researchers pollinating this chestnut
    tree manually?
   Why does it take three visits to the tree to do what
    nature normally does on its own?
   The scientists do not manually pollinate every flower
    on the Adair Count tree because the tree is so large
    and because this leaves some flowers as a control.
   Explain how the untreated flowers are a scientific
    control and why having a control samples is
    important to any scientific endeavor.
   Estimate how long it takes to produce blight resistant
    progeny in a program involving one cross, three
    backcrosses, and intercross.
                 Entry Task
   Because crop yields or quality may be
    reduced by weeds, it is important that
    farmers receive a higher price for these
    products to help offset these losses. For
    example, if corn yields are reduced from
    100 to 80 bushels an acre by weed
    competition, then the farmer would have
    to receive an increase of 25% in price to
    offset the loss in yield:
    ◦ If farmer A sold 100 bushels @$2.00=$200
    ◦ If farmer B sold 80 bushels and made $200
      how much did he charge per bushel
                Weeds
 Weeds are plants that grow where they
  are not wanted.
 A plant may be a weed growing in one
  location and not a weed in another.
     Negative affects of weeds
 Weeds are a very problematic matter for many
  things from basic gardening to agricultural crop
  production.
 Weeds lower the yield of many crops by
  competing for water, nutrients, light, and space.
 One wild mustard plant can remove as much
  nitrogen and phosphorus from the soil as two
  oat plants….decrease the amount of nutrients
  available for crops or natives.
     Indirect effects of weeds
 If cows eat weeds such as wild garlic or
  bitter sneezeweed the milk will have an
  unpleasant odor and taste.
 Weeds can stain the lint of cotton, causing
  the lint to be graded lower.
 Interfere with harvest causing delays and
  greater harvest loss. They often
  necessitate drying of harvested
  grain…increasing cost of production
How to identify the problem
 Careful identification of a problem is
  essential before control practices can be
  used.
 Some insect damage may appear to be a
  disease, especially if no visible insects are
  present.
 Nutrient problems may also mimic
  diseases.
 Herbicide damage resulting from
  misapplication of chemicals also can be
  mistaken for other problems.
Abiotic…..nonliving                Biotic…..living

   Anything nonliving that           Anything living that causes
    causes damage to a plant.          damage to a plant.
    ◦ Wind                             ◦ Bacteria
    ◦ Rain (lack of or too much)       ◦ Virus
    ◦ Sun (lack of or too much)        ◦ Fungus
    ◦ Lawn mowing equipment            ◦ Insects
    ◦ Rocks                            ◦ Humans
    ◦ Heat                             ◦ Animals
    ◦ Nutrients (lack of or too
      much)



                      Plant damage
Insects                               Insects

   Sucking                              Chewing
    ◦ Misshapen leaves or flower          ◦ Chewed leaves and flowers
      petals.                             ◦ It is often easy to identify
    ◦ Younger leaves will appeared          insect damage because they
      curled or puckered.                   will be present on the plant.
    ◦ Thinning of leaf tissue               In some cases the insect may
                                            not be present you must rely
    ◦ Look on underside of leaf to          on damage created.
      locate these insects.
    ◦ Insert their mouth parts into
      plant tissue and suck out the
      sugars created during
      photosynthesis.



                      Biotic damage
Insects

   Boring                                              Chewing damage
    ◦ Boring into stems, fruits, and
      leaves.
    ◦ Disrupts plants ability to
      transport water.
    ◦ You may suspect the presence      Boring damage
      of boring insects if you see
      small accumulations of sawdust
      like material on plant stems or
      fruits.
                                                        Sucking damage




                     Biotic damage
Methods                             Symptoms

   Attack leaf surface and limit    Mushroom like growth
    the plants ability to carry       around trunk or leaves
    on photosynthesis.               Grayish mildewy
   Production of substances          apperance
    that clog plant tissues that     Spots on leaves, flowers,
    transport water and               and fruits
    nutrients.
                                     Sudden wilting or death of
   Production of toxins that         plant
    kill the plant or replace
                                     Stunted growth
    plant tissue with their own.


                  Biotic: Disease
Nutrients                        Pesticides

 Yellowing of leaves starting
  from the bottom
 Stunted growth
 This can often look like
  disease or damage from
  sucking plants.
 To confirm a nutrient
  problem double check for
  presence of insects or
  substance on leaves that
  may be a mold or fungus.

                        Abiotic
Beneficial Insects        Control

   Green lacewings        Aphids, mealy bugs, thrips,
                            spider mites
   Ladybugs               Aphids, Colorado potato
                            beetle
                           Almost any insect
   Praying mantis

                             Catapillars that attack trees
   Ground beetles
                              and shrubs.
                             Grubs, beetles, cutworms,
   Parasitic nematodes       army worms

   Trichogramma wasp      Corn borer, cabbage looper,
                            other worms
   Seedhead weevils       Weeds
         Sign Vs. Symptoms
 A sign is the actual identification of the
  problem causing agent…actual insect
 A symptom is an indicator that something
  is wrong with your plant…..chewed
  leaves, mildew, fungus
What questions to ask yourself
 What species is this plant?
 Are leaves normally discolored?
 Does the plant normally have weird
  bumps
Abiotic: non-uniform                   Biotic: uniform

   Generally uniform damage              Non-uniform damage is
    is cause by non living things          caused by living factors.
    ◦ Even                                 ◦ Scattered
    ◦ Looks the same                       ◦ No pattern
    ◦ Initial damage is total damage       ◦ Spreads from point of attack
    ◦ Appears on exposed
      leaves…not shaded ones
    ◦ Develop quickly
         Aphids
Are tiny green or black sticky blips on the stems of
 annuals, perennials, and woody ornamentals. These
 minute insects in large numbers have the capability
 to kill any plant by sucking out all the plant sap,
 thereby reducing the plant's ability to utilize food.
 Aphids secret a honey-like substance, and ants on
 your plants is a good indication of aphid infestation,
 as seen in photo 1
        Caterpillar
 regardless of how beautiful the resulting butterfly or
  moth may be, if you have caterpillars in your garden,
  you'll have chewed leaves! When you notice this
  type of chew-damage, inspect the leaves just
  beneath the affected leaves. If you see little black
  dots of poop, you have caterpillar damage.
 Earwigs also cause similar damage by chewing the
  leaves and blossoms of low-growing flowers and
  vegetables.
   Grasshoppers:                         •Leafminers:
   these voracious eaters can
    consume their own weight in          •distinctive tunneling
    food in 16 hours. Leaf damage        between the upper and lower
    is quite distinctive, as they only   surfaces of the leaf shows up
    eat the flesh between the veins      as light-colored trails. The
    and stems, leaving a skeleton.       leaves eventually turn brown
                                         and shrivel.
                Entry task
   Use your information collected yesterday
    and describe the difference between
    damage caused by an insect that chews
    and an insect that sucks……how do they
    look different?
                       Entry task




What is wrong with this picture. Write three negative ways that
Kudzu (plant in picture) affects this ecosystem

								
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