Earth Science Final Exam Study Guide Quia by liaoqinmei


									                         Earth Science Final Exam Study Guide

Total Questions = 150-200

Topographic Maps (~10)

    1.   What is the contour interval of the map above?
    2.   What direction does Oak River flow?
    3.   What does “Low Sink” represent?
    4.   What is the elevation of A? B?
    5.   Highlight a steep area on the map. Circle a shallow area on the map.

Composition of Earth (1 or 2)
   1. What are the most abundant elements on earth?
   2. What are the most abundant elements in the universe?

Minerals (~15)
    1. Which of the following are NOT minerals?
         Coal    Steel Quartz Diamond             Pearls   Ice
    2.   What percent of the Earth’s crust is composed of silicate minerals? (the most common minerals)
    3.   What two elements are abundant in common minerals?
    4.   What are native elements? Give some examples.
    5.   What scale measures the hardness of minerals?
    6.   What is the hardest mineral? Softest?
    7.   What does the “heft” of a mineral refer to?
    8. What are the five properties necessary in order for something to be considered a mineral?
    9. What is the color of a minerals powder called?

Igneous Rocks (~10)
                              Intrusive                   Extrusive

          Also called:

         Cooling Rate

         Crystal Size
         Where does it

                                Felsic                            Mafic


    3. How do igneous rocks form?

Metamorphic Rocks (~8)
   1. Where do metamorphic rocks form?
   2. How do metamorphic rocks form?
   3. How is the texture of a metamorphic rock classified?

Sedimentary Rocks (~8)
    1. What is cementation?
    2. How do clastic sedimentary rocks form?
    3. How do sediments become sedimentary rock?
    4. Where are sedimentary rocks found?
    5. How do organic sedimentary rocks form?
    6. What unique feature can only be found in sedimentary rocks?

Rock Cycle (~3)
    1. How are rocks classified in the rock cycle?
    2. What type of rocks can become sedimentary? Igneous? Metamorphic?
Weathering, Erosion, & Soil (~15)
   1. Identify the following as mechanical or chemical weathering
        Ice wedging            Hydrolysis      Abrasion        Exfoliation    Oxidation
        Carbonic Acid          Jointing
   2.   What does abrasion refer to?
   3.   Rust is the result of what specific type of weathering?
   4.   What type of weathering produces caves?
   5.   What mineral is very resistant to weathering?
   6.   What determines the rate at which a sedimentary rock weathers?
   7.   What is humus?
   8.   What factor has the greatest effect on the rate at which a rock weathers?

Surface Water (~10)
    1. What is a divide?
    2. What does stream load refer to? What are the three methods of transporting stream load?
    3. What is discharge? What factors affect discharge?
    4. What are meanders? When do they form in a rivers “life cycle?”
    5. What is a river that joins another river called?
    6. When does deposition occur? What sediments are deposited first?
    7. What does well sorted sediment refer to?

Groundwater (~5)
    1. What causes sinkholes to form?
    2. Where is groundwater stored?
    3. Where does karst topography occur?
    4. What mineral creates stalactites & stalagmites?
    5. What are some threats to groundwater systems?

Plate Tectonics (~10)
    1. What does the theory of plate tectonics state about the earth?
    2. What do magnetic stripes on the ocean floor represent?
    3. What are the three types of plate boundaries & what features can be found at each?
    4. What is Pangaea?
    5. What evidence is used to support the theory of continental drift?
    6. Where does sea floor spreading occur?
    7. What is the earth’s inner and outer core composed of?
    8. What causes the Earth’s plates to move?
Volcanoes (~10)
    1. What is a vent?
    2. What happens to magma after it forms in the earth’s mantle?
    3. What is a hot spot? Give an example.
    4. What type of lava is rich in silica?
    5. What type of volcano is formed from alternating layers of lava flow & ash?
    6. How does a caldera form?
    7. What happens to temperature and pressure as you increase in depth? How does this affect the
        formation of magma?

Earthquakes (~10)
    1. How many seismograph stations are needed to locate an earthquake?
    2. The place within the earth where an earthquake occurs is called the ____?
    3. The place on earth’s surface directly above the earthquake is known as the ___?
    4. What scale is used to measure earthquake intensity?
    5. What type of wave always reaches a recording station first?
    6. How are P & S wave arrival times useful?
    7. Where do earthquakes occur?

For the final exam, you may use one sheet of paper
(8½ x 11) to handwrite (or draw) any information you
want, front & back. You may NOT share or Xerox your
cheat sheet for any other student.

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