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					  Unit 10 – The 1950s in America (Ch 22 and Ch 24 Sec 1)
GI Bill                 Jonas Salk              Emmett Till
Truman / Civil Rights   women’s role            Plessy v. Ferguson
Checkers                rock ‘n roll            separate but equal
Highway Act 1956        Elvis Presley           Jim Crow laws
automobiles             urban renewal           de facto segregation
“white flight”          juvenile delinquency     NAACP
suburban life           Braccero Program        Thurgood Marshall
conformity                                      Brown v. Topeka BE
consumerism                                     Southern Manifesto
Television                                       Rosa Parks
  - elections                                    Martin Luther King, Jr.
  - shows                                       Montgomery
  - radio/movies                                non-violent resistance
  - advertising                                 Little Rock Nine

White = Lecture Notes                  Yellow = Reading Quiz Notes
SFA – Key Concepts
What were “turning points” in WWII?
Where were the United States priorities in fighting WWII?
How did the “home front” react to WWII?
How did WWII benefit women and minorities?
Why did the US develop atomic weapons?
How did “containment” help define US foreign policy?
How did the development of the American military change?
How did the “Space Race” change American priorities?
How did the Red Scare affect Americans in the 1950s?
Review of Unit 9 Test
 A look back at the sixteen most
commonly missed questions from
      the Cold War test….
____ 3. During the Cold War, which of the following
      countries could be referred to as a “satellite nation”?
   a. United States         c. France
   b. East Germany                 d. Soviet Union
____ 3. During the Cold War, which of the following
      countries could be referred to as a “satellite nation”?
   a. United States         c. France
   b. East Germany                 d. Soviet Union
____#4. When Winston Churchill spoke in Missouri about
   an “iron curtain,” he was referring to —
a.   the division between President Truman’s supporters
       and his opponents
b.   a division between Soviet-dominated Eastern Europe
       and the rest of the continent
c. the barrier built to contain communism within its existing
        boundaries
d. the atomic spy ring supposedly organized by the
       Rosenbergs
____#4. When Winston Churchill spoke in Missouri about
   an “iron curtain,” he was referring to —
a.   the division between President Truman’s supporters
       and his opponents
b.   a division between Soviet-dominated Eastern
       Europe and the rest of the continent
c.   the barrier built to contain communism within its
        existing boundaries
d.   the atomic spy ring supposedly organized by the
       Rosenbergs
____ 8. The United States offered the Marshall Plan to
   a. all former allies
   b. all nations of Europe, including the Soviet Union
   c. any nation that would pledge to oppose
       communism
   d. NATO members only
____ 8. The United States offered the Marshall Plan to
   a. all former allies
   b. all nations of Europe, including the Soviet
       Union
   c. any nation that would pledge to oppose
       communism
   d. NATO members only
____10. As a direct result of the Berlin Airlift
   a. the Berlin Wall was built
   b. the Soviets lifted their blockade
   c. tensions between the US and the Soviets relaxed
   d. the US decided to focus its containment efforts to
             China
____10. As a direct result of the Berlin Airlift
   a. the Berlin Wall was built
   b. the Soviets lifted their blockade
   c. tensions between the US and the Soviets relaxed
   d. the US decided to focus its containment efforts to
             China
At the present moment in world history nearly every nation must choose
between alternative ways of life. The choice is too often not a free one. .
“I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free
peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or
by outside pressures. I believe that we must assist free peoples to work
out their own destinies in their own way. . . .


____#12. Which of the following is being described above?
     a. Berlin Airlift            c. Marshall Plan
     b. McCarthyism               d. Truman Doctrine
At the present moment in world history nearly every nation must choose
between alternative ways of life. The choice is too often not a free one. .
“I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free
peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or
by outside pressures. I believe that we must assist free peoples to work
out their own destinies in their own way. . . .


____#12. Which of the following is being described above?
     a. Berlin Airlift            c. Marshall Plan
     b. McCarthyism               d. Truman Doctrine
“The truth of the matter is that Europe’s requirements for the next three
or four years of foreign food and other essential products—principally
from America—are so much greater than her present ability to pay that
she must have substantial additional help, or face economic, social, and
political deterioration of a very grave character. The remedy lies in
breaking the vicious circle and restoring the confidence of the European
people in the economic future of their own countries and of Europe as a
whole. . . It is logical that the United States should do whatever it is able
to do to assist in the return of normal economic health to the world,
without which there can be no political stability and no assured
peace. . .”,



____#13. Which of the following is being described above?
     a. Berlin Airlift            c. Marshall Plan
     b. McCarthyism               d. Truman Doctrine
“The truth of the matter is that Europe’s requirements for the next three
or four years of foreign food and other essential products—principally
from America—are so much greater than her present ability to pay that
she must have substantial additional help, or face economic, social, and
political deterioration of a very grave character. The remedy lies in
breaking the vicious circle and restoring the confidence of the European
people in the economic future of their own countries and of Europe as a
whole. . . It is logical that the United States should do whatever it is able
to do to assist in the return of normal economic health to the world,
without which there can be no political stability and no assured
peace. . .”,



____#13. Which of the following is being described above?
     a. Berlin Airlift            c. Marshall Plan
     b. McCarthyism               d. Truman Doctrine
“When Berlin falls, western Germany will be next. If we mean . . . to hold
Europe against Communism, we must not budge. We can take
humiliation and pressure short of war in Berlin without losing face. If we
withdraw, our position in Europe in threatened.
If America does not understand this now, does not know that the issue is
cast, then it never will and communism will run rampant. I believe the
future of democracy requires us to stay….[in Berlin]

____#14. Which of the following is being described above?
     a. Berlin Airlift            c. Marshall Plan
     b. McCarthyism               d. Truman Doctrine
“When Berlin falls, western Germany will be next. If we mean . . . to hold
Europe against Communism, we must not budge. We can take
humiliation and pressure short of war in Berlin without losing face. If we
withdraw, our position in Europe in threatened.
If America does not understand this now, does not know that the issue is
cast, then it never will and communism will run rampant. I believe the
future of democracy requires us to stay….[in Berlin]

____#14. Which of the following is being described above?
     a. Berlin Airlift            c. Marshall Plan
     b. McCarthyism               d. Truman Doctrine
“Ideological termites have burrowed into many American industries,
organizations, and societies. Wherever they may be, I say let us dig
them out and get rid of them. My brothers and I will be happy to
subscribe generously to a pest-removal fund. We are willing to establish
such a fund to ship to Russia the people who don’t like our American
system of government and prefer the communistic system to ours:



____#15. Which of the following is being described above?
     a. Berlin Airlift            c. Marshall Plan
     b. McCarthyism               d. Truman Doctrine
“Ideological termites have burrowed into many American industries,
organizations, and societies. Wherever they may be, I say let us dig
them out and get rid of them. My brothers and I will be happy to
subscribe generously to a pest-removal fund. We are willing to establish
such a fund to ship to Russia the people who don’t like our American
system of government and prefer the communistic system to ours:



____#15. Which of the following is being described above?
     a. Berlin Airlift            c. Marshall Plan
     b. McCarthyism               d. Truman Doctrine
____#16. The organization formed to promote peace and
   security for all people in the post-W.W.II world was
   the —
      a. League of Nations.
      b. United Nations
      c. NATO
      d. Organization of American States
____#16. The organization formed to promote peace and
   security for all people in the post-W.W.II world was
   the —
      a. League of Nations.
      b. United Nations
      c. NATO
      d. Organization of American States
____18. Which of the following nations was NOT part of the
   United Nations coalition during the Korean War?
   a. the United States
   b. South Korea
   c. China
   d. England
____18. Which of the following nations was NOT part of the
   United Nations coalition during the Korean War?
   a. the United States
   b. South Korea
   c. China
   d. England
____24. As a result of the battle at Dien Bien Phu
   a. President Johnson decided to send American
       troops into Vietnam
   b. Regular North Vietnamese army units joined the
             Vietcong
   c. President Nixon decided to pull American troops
             out of Vietnam
   d. The French withdrew from Indochina
____24. As a result of the battle at Dien Bien Phu
   a. President Johnson decided to send American
       troops into Vietnam
   b. Regular North Vietnamese army units joined the
             Vietcong
   c. President Nixon decided to pull American troops
             out of Vietnam
   d. The French withdrew from Indochina
___**26. Ethel and Julius Rosenberg were charged with
   a. passing atomic secrets to the Soviets
   b. being Communist Party members
   c. plotting to overthrow the United States
   d. planning acts of terrorism
___**26. Ethel and Julius Rosenberg were charged with
   a. passing atomic secrets to the Soviets
   b. being Communist Party members
   c. plotting to overthrow the United States
   d. planning acts of terrorism
___**27. What future United States President would gain
      national fame for his role on the House of Un-
      American Activities Committee?
   a. Joseph McCarthy           c. Richard Nixon
   b. Dwight Eisenhower d. Harry Truman
___**27. What future United States President would gain
      national fame for his role on the House of Un-
      American Activities Committee?
   a. Joseph McCarthy           c. Richard Nixon
   b. Dwight Eisenhower d. Harry Truman
___**27. What future United States President would gain
      national fame for his role on the House of Un-
      American Activities Committee?
   a. Joseph McCarthy           c. Richard Nixon
   b. Dwight Eisenhower d. Harry Truman
__*32. In the excerpt above, President Eisenhower was
      responding to Senator Joseph McCarthy’s public
      attempts to –
   a. promote religious tolerance
   b. limit free speech
   c. increase U.S. literacy rates
   d. restrict conservative political influence
__*32. In the excerpt above, President Eisenhower was
      responding to Senator Joseph McCarthy’s public
      attempts to –
   a. promote religious tolerance
   b. limit free speech
   c. increase U.S. literacy rates
   d. restrict conservative political influence
____#39. The National Defense Education Act was passed
     in response to —
   a.   the launching of Sputnik by the Soviet Union
   b.   the discovery that the Soviets had nuclear
              weapons
   c. Truman’s attempt to bring all development of
       atomic energy under the control of the federal
       government
   d. Eisenhower’s call for educational reform
____#39. The National Defense Education Act was passed
     in response to —
   a.   the launching of Sputnik by the Soviet Union
   b.   the discovery that the Soviets had nuclear
              weapons
   c.    Truman’s attempt to bring all development of
        atomic energy under the control of the federal
        government
   d.   Eisenhower’s call for educational reform
 Review for Unit 10 TEST
    Ch 22 and Ch 24 Sec 1
“The Domestic 1950s
  and Civil Rights”
Practice Questions and Study Aides
  continued
on next slide
Chapter Objectives
Section 1: Truman and Eisenhower
• Explain the Truman administration’s efforts
  on the domestic front. 
• Describe President Eisenhower’s domestic
  agenda.




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Checking for Understanding
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on
the left.
 B
__ 1. a law making it illegal to         A. closed shop
         require employees to join a     B. right-to-work
         union                                law
D
__ 2. practice of limiting work                    C. union shop
      output in order to create more
      jobs                                         D. featherbedding
A
__ 3. an agreement in which a                      E. dynamic
      company agrees to hire only                     conservatism
      union members
E
__ 4. policy of balancing economic
      conservatism with some
      activism
C
__ 5. a business that requires
      employees to join a union
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Truman’s Domestic Program (cont.)


How did the GI Bill help the American economy?

It gave veterans money to go to college enabling
them to move into white collar positions.
It gave veterans loans to open businesses which
allowed them to hire more people.
It gave cheap housing loans to veterans allowing
the home building markets to take off.



                                                (pages 687–689)
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Return to a Peacetime Economy (cont.)


How did the Taft-Hartley Act limit the
powers of organized labor?
This act outlawed the closed shop, or the
practice of forcing business owners to hire
only union members. States could pass
right-to-work laws outlawing union shops,
or shops where new workers were required
to join the union. The act also prohibited
featherbedding, the limiting of work output
in order to create more jobs.           (pages 686–687)
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Truman’s Domestic Program (cont.)


What was Truman’s Fair Deal?

Truman’s Fair Deal was a series of domestic
measures that sought to further the work done
as part of Roosevelt’s New Deal. The Fair Deal
measures included the following proposals: the
expansion of Social Security benefits, the raising
of the legal minimum wage, a program to ensure
full employment through aggressive use of
federal spending and investment, public housing
and slum clearance, long-range environmental
and public works planning, a system of national
health insurance, and a civil rights bill.   (pages 687–689)
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Truman’s Domestic Program (cont.)


Why were some reasons that Truman was not a
popular president while in office?
America was facing a Red Scare and China had
fallen to the communists and the Soviets had the
bomb.
Truman was in favor of Civil Rights legislation which
upset Republicans and Southern Democrats.
Truman had desegregated the military through an
executive order.
America was locked up in a long war in Korea.
                                                 (pages 687–689)
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The Eisenhower Years (cont.)


Why was Richard Nixon almost dropped
from the Republican ticket?

It was reported that Nixon had received gifts
of $18,000 as a senator. In a radio
broadcast, Nixon insisted the money had
been used for legitimate political purposes.


                                               (pages 689–691)
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The Eisenhower Years (cont.)


How did Richard Nixon save his political
career?
He had a paid television spot where he
exposed his finances and also played on
American heartstrings with a story about a
dog named “Checkers”.



                                               (pages 689–691)
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Reviewing Key Facts

     What were three characteristics of the
     economy of the United States after
     World War II?

     Three characteristics of the postwar
     economy were abundant goods, low
     unemployment, and a housing boom.




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Reviewing Key Facts
     How did the Federal Highway Act of
     1956 change America?

     It led to more jobs as roads were needed
     It led to more people moving out to the
     suburbs on highways (white flight)
     It led to many jobs in support of the
     growing use of cars (motels, drive ins,
     drive throughs, gas stations).
     Led to greater pollution as more cars
     were now on the roads.


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Chapter Objectives
Section 2: The Affluent Society
• Explain the reasons for and the effects of the
  nation’s economic boom. 
• Describe changes to the American family that
  took place during the 1950s.




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Checking for Understanding
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on
the left.
 B
__ 1. jobs in the manual labor field,
         particularly those requiring
         protective clothing                 A. white-collar
 D
__ 2. the right or license to market a             B. blue-collar
      company’s goods or services in an            C. conformity
      area, such as a store of a chain
      operation                                    D. franchise
 E
__ 3. a marked rise in birthrate, such as          E. baby boom
      occurred in the United States
      following World War II
 A
__ 4. jobs in fields not requiring work
      clothes or protective clothing, such
      as sales
 C
__ 5. life in middle class suburbs;
      wanting to be like others in the
      neighborhood or at work; keeping
      up with the Joneses
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American Abundance (cont.)


What evidence supported John Kenneth
Galbraith’s idea of an “economy of
abundance?”
Between 1940 and 1955, personal income
for many American’s almost tripled.
Americans produced more than they could
use, and there was a huge increase in the
number of homeowners.

                                               (pages 692–694)
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Reviewing Key Facts (cont.)

      What caused many Americans to move
      to the suburbs in the 1950s?


      They wanted to escape urban crime and
      make a better life for their families.
      They had automobiles to transport them
      to and from work.
      The GI Bill gave them loans and the
      Federal Highway Act gave them routes to
      the suburbs.


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Reviewing Key Facts (cont.)

      What is “white flight”?



      The idea that most of the people that
      moved to the suburbs were middle class
      whites that could afford it, thus leaving
      behind impoverished people of the inner
      cities and the problems that occurred as
      the property values close to downtowns
      deteriorated.



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The 1950s Family (cont.)


Why did the American birthrate explode
after World War II?
Many young couples had delayed marriage
until after the war and were now ready to
marry and begin a family. Other factors in
this boom were the GI benefits that
encouraged the growth of families, and
television and magazines promoting
pregnancy and large families.
                                               (pages 694–695)
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Technological Breakthroughs (cont.)


Why did American families in the 1950s
have increased free time?

The computer and improvements in
communication and transportation systems
allowed many Americans to work more
quickly and efficiently.


                                               (pages 695–697)
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Checking for Understanding (cont.)

      Describe how and why the suburbs
      became popular places to live.


      Government programs made
      homeownership more affordable and
      improved construction made houses
      cheaper. Some people wanted to
      escape urban problems or increase
      their standard of living.



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Reviewing Themes

     Continuity and Change How was the
     affluent society of the United States in
     the 1950s different from previous
     decades?
     All segments of American society showed
     measurable economic improvement.




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Critical Thinking

      Interpreting What caused the advertising
      industry to boom in the 1950s?


      Increased product mass production
      generated new emphasis on higher
      sales of consumer goods.




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Reviewing Key Facts (cont.)

      What were two reasons for the economic
      boom of the 1950s?


      The economic boom was the result of
      consumerism and the GI Bill.




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Chapter Objectives
Section 3: Popular Culture of the 1950s
• Explain the characteristics of the new youth
  culture. 
• Discuss the contributions of African Americans
  to 1950s culture.




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The New Mass Media (cont.)


What types of television shows were
Americans watching in the 1950s?
Television shows fell into the categories of
comedy, action and adventure, variety-style
entertainment, and quiz shows. Action
shows like Gunsmoke and Dragnet were
also hugely popular.


                                               (pages 698–701)
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The New Mass Media (cont.)


How was the average American family
portrayed on television in the 1950s?
White family living in the suburbs as the
father went to his white collar job in the city
and the wife took care of the home.




                                                (pages 698–701)
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The New Youth Culture (cont.)


Who were the beats?
This was a group of mostly white artists
who chose an unconventional lifestyle,
which highlighted the values gap in the
1950s. The word may have come from
the group feeling beat down by American
culture.


                                              (pages 701–702)
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Checking for Understanding
Define Insert the key term that best completes the following
sentence.
A cultural separation between parents and their children is
called a generation gap .




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Checking for Understanding (cont.)

      How did motion pictures and radio
      attempt to compete with television in the
      1950s?.

      Motion pictures tried gimmicks like special
      effects, drive-ins and 3-D movies.
      Radios played off the idea that they could
      be portable (transistors) and included
      local programming (weather and news)



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Reviewing Key Facts (cont.)

      How did the scientific discovery of the
      transistor affect communications?


      The transistor made the miniaturization
      of radios and calculators possible and
      resulted in improvements in
      communication and transportation.




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Reviewing Themes

     Culture and Traditions What roles did
     African Americans play in television and
     rock ’n’ roll?

     They had limited opportunities on
     television but more success in the music
     industry.




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Critical Thinking

      Comparing How did the themes of
      television shows of the 1950s differ from
      the themes of the literature of the beat
      movement?
      Television shows depicted middle-class
      values endorsing American society; beat
      literature depicted it as meaningless and
      sterile.




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Chapter Objectives
Section 4: The Other Side of American
Life
• Identify those groups that found themselves
  left out of the American economic boom
  following World War II. 
• Explain the factors that contributed to the
  poverty among various groups.




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Checking for Understanding
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on
the left.
C
__ 1. a government policy to bring                 A. poverty line
      Native Americans into mainstream             B. urban renewal
      society by withdrawing recognition
      of Native American groups as legal           C. termination
      entities                                        policy
A
__ 2. a level of personal or family                D. juvenile
      income below which one is                       delinquency
      classified as poor by the federal
      government
__ 3. government programs that attempt
B
      to eliminate poverty and revitalize
      urban areas
D
__ 4. antisocial or criminal behavior of
      young people
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Poverty Amidst Prosperity (cont.)


Which groups of Americans lived below the
poverty line in the 1950s?

Americans who lived below the poverty line
in the 1950s included single mothers, the
elderly, people living in the inner cities,
African Americans, Hispanics, Native
Americans, and people living in Appalachia.

                                               (pages 706–709)
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African American Entertainers (cont.)


Which groups were left out of the American
dream in the 1950s?

The country’s minorities, rural poor, and
African Americans were left out of the
American dream.



                                               (pages 702–703)
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Juvenile Delinquency (cont.)


What were some reasons people used to
explain the rise in juvenile delinquency?

It was blamed on a variety of reasons
including poverty, lack of religion, television,
movies, comics, racism, busy parents,
rising divorce rates, and anxiety over the
military draft.

                                                (pages 709–710)
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Checking for Understanding (cont.)

      Evaluate how the federal government’s
      termination policy affected Native
      Americans.

      The policy deepened their poverty.




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Critical Thinking (cont.)

       Evaluating What factors led to a rise in
       juvenile delinquency in the United States
       during the 1950s?

       Different reasons were suggested,
       including poverty, a lack of supervision,
       media influences, racism, and a lack of
       discipline or of religion.




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Reviewing Key Facts (cont.)

      Which groups of Americans found
      themselves left out of the postwar
      economic boom?

      Single mothers, the elderly, minority
      immigrants, rural Americans, inner-city
      residents, African Americans, Hispanics,
      Native Americans, and people in
      Appalachia were left out of the postwar
      economic boom.



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Reviewing Themes

     Continuity and Change Why did urban
     renewal fail the poor of the inner cities?


     The high-rise buildings were too crowded,
     destroyed more housing than they
     created, and created an atmosphere
     of violence.




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Critical Thinking

      Interpreting What were some possible
      reasons for a dramatic rise in juvenile
      delinquency in the 1950s?

      Reasons offered included poverty, a lack
      of supervision, media influences, racism,
      and a lack of discipline or of religion.




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Chapter Objectives
Section 1: The Movement Begins
• Explain the origin of the Southern Christian
  Leadership Conference. 
• Discuss the changing role of the federal
  government in civil rights enforcement.




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  continued
on next slide
Checking for Understanding
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on
the left.
__ 1. doctrine established by the
A                                                  A. separate-but-
      1896 Supreme Court case                         equal
      Plessy v. Ferguson that                      B. de facto
      permitted laws segregating                      segregation
      African Americans as long as
      equal facilities were provided               C. sit-in
__ 2. a form of protest involving
C
      occupying seats or sitting
      down on the floor of an
      establishment
B
__ 3. segregation by custom and
      tradition



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The Origins of the Movement (cont.)


How did the NAACP and CORE challenge
the Supreme Court’s decision in Plessy v.
Ferguson?




                                               (pages 746–748)
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The Origins of the Movement (cont.)


The NAACP supported court cases intended
to overturn segregation. It provided lawyers
to African Americans and helped cover the
costs of their cases. CORE used sit-ins as
a form of protest against segregation and
discrimination. In 1943 CORE used sit-ins
to protest segregation in restaurants. These
sit-ins resulted in the integration of many
restaurants, theaters, and other public
facilities in Chicago, Detroit, Denver, and
Syracuse.                               (pages 746–748)
The Civil Rights Movement Begins
                                                  (cont.)



How did the Court’s decision in Brown v. Board of
Education of Topeka, Kansas, affect African
Americans and Southerners?
The ruling convinced many African Americans that
it was time to challenge other forms of segregation.
The ruling enraged many Southerners, who became
even more determined to defend segregation. In
1956 a group of 101 Southern members of Congress
signed the “Southern Manifesto” which denounced
the Supreme Court rulings and encouraged
Southerners to defy the Supreme Court by not
upholding the ruling to end segregation.
                                                 (pages 748–750)
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African American Churches (cont.)


How did African American churches and
ministers help the civil rights movement?
African American churches served as
forums for many of the protests and
planning meetings. The churches also
mobilized many of the volunteers for
specific civil-rights campaigns. African
American ministers, led by Dr. Martin
Luther King, Jr., established the SCLC,
which was set up to eliminate segregation
from American society and to encourage
African Americans to register to vote. (pages 750–751)
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Eisenhower and Civil Rights (cont.)


What did the SCLC do after the Civil Rights
Act of 1957 was passed?

The SCLC began a campaign to register
2 million new African American voters.




                                               (pages 751–752)
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Eisenhower and Civil Rights (cont.)


Why do some cities have “de facto
segregation”?
Some ethnic group choose to live together.
Economic prosperity for white America
allowed them to move out to the suburbs
while leaving impoverished minorities
behind in the inner cities. This was not
done by law but rather by the tradition of
discrimination in the workplace
                                               (pages 751–752)
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Checking for Understanding (cont.)

      State the outcome of the Brown v. Board
      of Education case.


      Segregation in public schools
      is unconstitutional.




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Reviewing Themes

     Government and Democracy Why did
     the role of the federal government in civil
     rights enforcement change?

     The role of the federal government
     changed because its authority and
     decisions were challenged by
     individual states.




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Critical Thinking

      Interpreting Do you think the civil rights
      movement would have been successful
      in gaining civil rights for African
      Americans without the help of the
      NAACP and the SCLC? Explain.
      The NAACP and the SCLC provided
      financial support, leadership, and
      organization to the civil rights movement.




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Reviewing Key Facts

     Why was Rosa Parks arrested in
     Montgomery, Alabama?


     She refused to give up her seat to a white
     man.




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Reviewing Key Facts

     How was Martin Luther King, Jr.
     influenced by Gandhi?


     MLK decided to use non-violent passive
     resistance and television to shame
     America into action towards equality




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Reviewing Key Facts (cont.)

      Why was the decision in Brown v. Board
      of Education a significant step toward
      ending segregation?

      It was the first case in which the Court
      found segregation to be unconstitutional.




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Reviewing Key Facts (cont.)

      What was the role of SNCC in the civil
      rights movement?


      It worked for the desegregation of public
      facilities and voter registration.




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Reviewing Key Facts (cont.)
      How did Dwight Eisenhower’s attitude
      about the federal government’s role in
      Civil Rights change during his
      presidency?

      At the time of the Brown decision, he felt
      the federal government should not force
      the states to change social order.
      By the time of Little Rock, he decided that
      it was the role of the federal government
      to enforce the Supreme Court’s decision
      and he sent in the 101st Airborne division
      to do it.

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 Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Key Terms
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on
the left.
D
__ 1. jobs in fields not requiring work            A.   closed shop
      clothes or protective clothing,              B.   union shop
      such as sales
                                                   C.   featherbedding
F
__ 2. the right to license and to
      market a company’s goods or                  D.   white-collar
      services in an area, such as a               E.   blue-collar
      store of a chain operation
                                                   F.   franchise
B
__ 3. a business that requires
      employees to join a union                    G.   baby boom
A
__ 4. an agreement in which a                      H.   generation gap
      company agrees to hire only                  I.   urban renewal
      union members
                                                   J.   Braccerro
                                                        Program
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Reviewing Key Terms (cont.)
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on
the left.
 I
__ 5. government programs that                     A.   closed shop
      attempt to eliminate poverty                 B.   union shop
      and revitalize urban areas
                                                   C.   featherbedding
H
__ 6. a cultural separation between
      parents and their children                   D.   white-collar
E
__ 7. jobs in the manual labor field,              E.   blue-collar
      particularly those requiring                 F.   franchise
      protective clothing
                                                   G.   baby boom
C
__ 8. practice of limiting work
      output in order to create more               H.   generation gap
      jobs                                         I.   urban renewal
                                                   J.   Braccerro
                                                        Program
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Reviewing Key Terms (cont.)
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on
the left.
J
__ 9. a government policy put                      A.   closed shop
      together during WWII to                      B.   union shop
      encourage Mexicans to come
      work in America, later kept                  C.   featherbedding
      them entrapped in poor                       D.   white-collar
      conditions
                                                   E.   blue-collar
G
__ 10. a marked rise in birthrate,
       such as occurred in the                     F.   franchise
       United States following World               G.   baby boom
       War II
                                                   H.   generation gap
                                                   I.   urban renewal
                                                   J.   Braccerro
                                                        Program
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Geography and History (cont.)

      Interpreting
      Graphs What
      trend in the
      percentage of
      suburban dwellers
      does this graph
      show?

      The graph
      shows a rising
      trend.


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Geography and History (cont.)

      Understanding
      Cause and
      Effect How might
      the trend of
      suburban dwellers
      shown on this
      graph have
      affected life in
      suburbs and
      cities?
      The trend might have caused urban life to
      decline and suburban life to become the
      ideal.
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