blanket or free love primaries by liaoqinmei


Government and
 Chapter 9: Campaigns
    and Elections
• Elections form the foundation of a
  modern democracy, and more elections
  are scheduled every year in the United
  States than in any other country in the
  world. Collectively on all levels of
  government, Americans fill more than
  500,000 different public offices.
• Elections choose political leaders from a
  competitive field of candidates
• Elections are also an important form of
  political participation, with voting in
  presidential elections one of the most
  common types of participation by the
  American public in the political process.
• Elections give individuals a regular
  opportunity to replace leaders without
  overthrowing them, thus making elected
  officials accountable for their actions.
• Elections legitimize positions of power
  in the political system because people
  accept elections as a fair method for
  selecting political leaders.
• The Constitution provides for the election of
  members of the Housed of Representatives
  every two years, and it creates and defines
  the electoral college.
• By law Congress sets the date for national
  elections – the Tuesday after the first Monday
  in November.
• However, most electoral guidelines and rules
  are still set by the individual states.
 How Are Elections Conducted?
– Ballots
   • Office-block ballot groups candidates for elective
     office together under the title of the office
– States that use the party-column ballot list candidates
  in columns arranged by political parties
– Voting by Mail
– Vote Fraud
   • Failure to purge the electoral rolls of voters who
     have died or moved opens up possibilities of fraud.
   • Mistakes by Voting Officials. In some locales voting
     officials have purged many legitimate voters from
     the rolls by mistake.
        Primary Elections
– Types of Primaries
   • Closed, open, blanket, runoff
– Front-Loading the Primaries. Each state
  determines the date for its primary or caucus
   • Because early primaries are more influential,
     states have competed to schedule their
     primaries as early as possible
   • By choosing the nominees so early, there is a
     long lull in the news between the primaries and
     the national conventions.
• closed primaries - A voter must declare in
  advance his or her party membership, and on
  election day votes in that party's election.
  Most states have closed primaries.
• open primaries - A voter can decide when
  he or she enters the voting booth which
  party's primary to participate in. Only a few
  states have open primaries.
• blanket (or free-love) primaries - A voter
  marks a ballot that lists candidates for all
  parties, and can select the Republican for
  one office and a Democrat for another. Only
  three states have this type - Louisiana,
  Washington, and Alaska
    The National Convention
– Seating the Delegates.
   • A credentials committee approves all delegates.
     This is usually not controversial but there have
     been disputed delegations in the past.
– Convention Activities
   • The highlight of the convention is the
     nomination of the presidential candidate.
     Because the identity of the nominee is a
     foregone conclusion, the TV networks have
     drastically curtailed their coverage of the
     conventions in recent years.
The Twenty-First Century Campaign
 – The Changing Campaign
    • Before most households had televisions,
      campaigning was personalized. Campaigns today
      are often less personal, with voters receiving
      information through the media.
    • In the recent decades campaigns have become less
      party-centered and more candidate-centered.
 – The Professional Campaign
    • It is now commonplace for candidates even for
      local offices to hire consultants for their
  The Strategy of Winning
– Candidate Visibility and Appeal
– The Use of Opinion Polls
– Focus Groups
   Costs of campaigns, 2000

• All House and Senate campaigns: $1 billion

• Average winning House race: $847,000

• Average winning Senate race: $7.2 million
         Money and Politics:
• How do candidates
  raise and spend
  campaign funds?
• How does the
  government regulate
  campaign spending?
• How does money affect
  how certain social
  groups achieve
  electoral success?
   Sources of Campaign Funds
• The Federal Election
  Commission monitors
  campaign fundraising
• Sources of funds
  – Direct Mail
  – Political Action
  – The Candidates
  – Parties and Soft Money
  – Public Funding
   Why do people give money?
   Big donors (>$500)            Small donors (<$100)

Middle aged                    Young & very old

Very wealthy                   More middle class

Solicited by friends,          Give unsolicited $,
contacted in person            solicited in direct mail
Give for social, ideological   Give for mostly
reasons AND consider           expressive/ideological
likelihood of winning          reasons
Much more likely to ask        May be involved through
others to contribute           internet or grassroots
   What has Congress said?
• 1971 FECA
  – First disclosure rules
  – Limits candidate self-contributions
  – Limits media expenditures
• 1974 FECA Amendments
  – Presidential election public funding with spending
  – Limits independent expenditures
  – PAC and individual contribution limits (Hard
  – More disclosure requirements
  – Creates Federal Election Commission
• The 1976 Amendments allowed
  corporations, labor unions, and special
  interest groups to set up political
  action committees (PACs) to raise
  money for candidates. Each
  corporation or labor union is limited to
  one PAC.
PAC Contributions to Congressional
     Candidates 1986-2004
     Individual Contributor

                                                Candidate “A”
     Individual Contributor   $

     Individual Contributor
                              $                 Candidate “B”
     Individual Contributor

                              $             $    State Party
     Individual Contributor
                                      PAC        Committee
     Individual Contributor   $
                                                National Party
     Individual Contributor
                                  $              Committee

     Individual Contributor                     TV & Radio Ads

     Individual Contributor

Individuals can contribute a
  maximum of $5,000 to a
       PAC per year
               Buckley v. Valeo
• Challenge to the 1971 FECA which placed
  limits on how much money a candidate could
  spend on his or her own campaign.
• In 1976, the Supreme Court ruled that this
  provision was unconstitutional.
  – “The candidate, no less than any other person,
    has a First Amendment right to engage in the
    discussion of public issues and vigorously and
    tirelessly to advocate his own election.”
  Bipartisan Campaign Finance
   Reform Act of 2002 (BCRA)

• Bans national party soft money
• Limits state party soft money
• Raises hard money limits
      Hard Money limits under

• Individuals:
   – Can give $2,000 per candidate per campaign
   – Can give $25,000 to a party, per year
   – Can give a maximum of $95,000 to candidates, parties, and
• PACs:
   – Still can give $5,000 to each candidate
   – Still can give $15,000 to each party
   – No limit on overall contributions
• The 2002 restrictions of contributions to
  parties led to the “527” phenomenon of
  the 2004 presidential campaign.
• These independent but heavily partisan
  groups gathered millions of dollars in
  campaign contributions for both
  Democratic and Republican candidates.
    Individual Contributor

    Individual Contributor
    Individual Contributor
                                                TV & Radio Ads
    Individual Contributor    $

    Individual Contributor
                              $           527
    Individual Contributor
                                  $               Literature
     Individual Contributor

     Individual Contributor

     Individual Contributor

There is no limit on the amount
 of money that individuals can
      contribute to 527s
       Top Ten Democratic 527s in
America Coming Together - NonFederal Account      79,795,487
Joint Victory Campaign 2004                       71,811,666
The Media Fund                                    59,404,183
Service Employees International Union Political
Education & Action Fund                           48,426,867
AFSCME Special Account                            25,144,915 Voter Fund                             12,558,215
New Democrat Network Non Federal Account          12,726,158
Citizens for a Strong Senate                      10,853,730
Sierra Club Voter Education Fund                   87,271,27
EMILYS List Non Federal                            77,399,46
      Top Ten Republican 527s,
Progress for America Voter Fund                     44,929,178
Swift Boat Vets and POWs for Truth                  25,758,413
Club for Growth                                     19,365,903
College Republican National Committee, Inc.         16,830,651
Club for                                  4,115,037
National Association of Realtors 527 Fund            3,215,263
The November Fund                                    3,151,170
CA Republican National Convention Delegation 2004
  Account                                            4,393,055
Republican Leadership Coalition, Inc.                2,365,550
National Federation of Republican Women              2,201,533
Soft Money Raised by Parties,
         Citizens United vs. FEC
• Overrules the ban on independent expenditures paid
  for by corporations or unions out of their treasuries 60
  days before an election

• Overturns ban on independent expenditures from
  corporate and union treasuries
   – "If the First Amendment has any force, it prohibits Congress
     from fining or jailing citizens, or associations of citizens, for
     simply engaging in political speech," - Justice Kennedy
 Running for House of
• Every two years all members
  – Downside to every two years?
• Primary Race (same party)
• Running for the General Election.
  – Incumbents v. Challengers.
  – Advantage?
• Safe Seats?
• Coattails
• Midterm Elections
86                                             Incumbents Relected
     1984   1988   1992   1996   1998   2000
      Running for the Senate
• Run every 6 years - staggered.
• Two from each state.
• Incumbents have an
  unbelievable advantage.
• There is often not a primary
  from your own party.
• Very little coattail impact.
• There are many safe seats.
• The average Senate election
  costs over $300 Million.
     Running for the Presidency
• Deciding to run.
• Presidential Primaries - for
  Party Nomination.
• National Party Convention.
  – Party Platform
  – Vice-President
• Presidential debates
• Fundraising - all throughout
• Strategy for Electoral College
Voter Turnout 1900-2002
                Voter Turnout
– Voter participation in the United States is
  low compared with other countries. In
  congressional elections in years when a
  president is not elected, the turnout rates are
  lower. Turnout rates are even lower yet for
  most local elections.
       Restrictions on Voting
– Historical Restrictions
   • Property Requirements
   • Further Extensions of the Franchise
   • Is the Franchise Still Too Restrictive?
– Current Eligibility and Registration
 Factors Influencing Who Votes
–Minority status
–Party competition
Factors Influencing who votes
   Why People Do Not Vote
–Uninformative media coverage and
 negative campaigning
–External Efficacy
–Loss of Confidence
–Poor Choices

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