- U.S. Department of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics <=T II ~ . . . . . . . . . . . _ • Households Touched \ by Crime, 1982 Twenty-nine percent (24.8 million) of June 1983 the Nation's households were touched by a crime of violence or theft in 1982 This is the third annual bulletin in the problem of crime in the (table 1). The percentage of households the series "Households Touched by United States. touched by crime in 1982 'was slightly Crime." Two years ago the It is the goal of the Bureau to lower than it was in 1981 (30%) and Bureau of Justice Statistics continue to develop statistical almost 3 percentage points lower than developed this new measure to measures that will ,\>rovide the " the 1975 estimate (32%). assess the frequency with which American public with a gt'eater American homes experience c['ime understanding of crime and crimi- t, In 1982, households with high in- directly. Its widespread accep- nal justice. ~ comes, those in central cities, and tance indicates that it has helped Steven R. Schlesinger r\ those headed by blacks continUl~d to be to provide a new perspective on Director <l most vulnerable to crime. A fifth of the Nation's households were victimized by larcenies, once again the most The percentage of households Households touched by common crime, While 7% of all house- touched by crime declined slowly selected crimes of violence holds were victims of an attempted or between 1975 and 1982. due mainly to a and theft, 1975 -82 completed burglary, and 6% had a drop from 15.9% to 13.3% in persci'nal Percent member who was the victim of a violent crime. larcenies without contact (thefts from a place away from the home, such as a restaurant or workplace). The per- centage of households toucherj by other 30 t- Any crime - - Table 1. Households touched by crime, 1982 crimes (such as burglary and crimes of 25 violence) did not fluctuate greatly Number between 1975 and 1982 and showed no 20 (millions) Percent discernible trend. Personal larceny wilhou~ contact U.S, households 85,0 100.0 Households touched by Detailed findings 15 All crimes 24.8 29.2 Rape .1 0.2 As in previous years, chances of ltobbery 1.2 1.4 victimization were related to a house- 10 Assault 3.8 4.5 Household burglary Aggravated 1.4 1.6 hold's family income, race, and place of Simple 2.7 3.2 residence (table 2). 5 Larceny 17.7 20.9 • Black households were more likely "Rape, robbery, and assault Personal 11.7 13.8 than white households to have had ,....Motor vehicle theft Household 8.2 9.6 Burglary 5.8 6.9 members who were victims of robbery o Motor vehiele theft 1.4 or aggravated assault in 1982. 1975 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 1.6 • 10% of all black households and 6% Note: Percent detail does not add to total of all white househo~ds were victims of because of overlap in households touched by at least one burglary or attempted and black households wore victims of various crimes. burglary in 1982. theft. • About the same proportions of whito • In general, the higher the income the - ------,.----- - - - ----- 1 Households touched by selected crimes, by race of household head, 1975 - 82 Households touched by selected crimes, by place of residence, 1975 - 82 burgl~y, larceny, and motor vehicle theft. Because the NeS counts only Percent crimes for which the victim can be interviewed, homicide is not counted in , Any NCS crime this analysis, but its exclusion does not Urban noticeably affect the estimates pre- Households touched by selected crimes, by family income, 1975 - 82 sented here. If each of the 1982 Percent .30 Suburban homicides (about 20,000) had touched a 25 different household and these house- holds had been touched by no other 25 crime (the largest possible effect), the 20 20 Rural result would not raise the overall percentage (29.2%J of households Personal larceny without contact - - - - -___ ...... $15.000+ 20 Personal larceny without contact touched by crime. 15 .......... White ........ Other crimes egainst persons or '____--.Black ......... Suburban - - - _ -.... $7.500-$14.999 15 " " - - - - l Urban their households--such as fraud, confi- Burglary Percent dence games, kidnaping, and arson- 10 Black 10 Rape. robbery. and assault 10 ...... ~.~~~;:~ ......•••............•.....•... ::::::::::: t::: :~:~ ~~.~gg Percent were not included because no reliable -- Rural r---------- - - - ' Urban measures are available for the number :t Black ~.•......... ----_ $7.500-$14:999 Rape. robbery. and assault of such crimes that occur or the White 1 - - - - - - - - - - - 1 Suburban ??J~:~- ------1 White $15,000+ 5 5 5 Rural number of househOlds victimized by these crimes. = O~------- _________ ~ Traditional measures of crime are in OL---------------------~ 1975 76 n 78 79 80 81 82 o~--------------------~ 1975 76 n 78 79 80 81 82 ~~7~5-=76~~7=7~~78~~7=9~~8=0--~87'~82· 1975 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 1975 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 the form of volume or rates. Data on the volume of crime have limited more likely a family was to be a victim • 13% of urban (but only 10% of subur- household was victimized only once in a both a household c:-ime and a personal Nation's households) were victims of usefulness, unless the size of the popu- of theft. ban and 8% of rural) households were single year. Ratios greater th&n 1.0 to crime of theft or violence. both violent crime by strangers and lation base is taken into account. • Families with low incomes were the victims of crimes of high concern 1 show the extent to which the average • 11% of the households touched by burglary. Rates-expressed in the National Crime most likely to be \'ictims of burglary. (violent crimes by strangers and bur- household touched by crime was victim- personal crimes (2% of all households in Survey as crimes per 1,000 households • At least a third of all urban house- glaries). ized more than once in the same year. the Nation) were victims of both Function and makeup of the indicator or crimes per 1,000 persons-automati- holds were touched by crime. violence and theft. cally correct for different population • The greater vulnerability of urban Multiple victimization of households In 1981, the ratio for all crimes was • 7% of the households touched by The households-touched-by-crim e sizes, but they do not show whether a than suburban households was due 1.6 to 1; that is, the average victimized crimes of high concern (1 % of the indicator was introduced by the Bureau given level of crime within a given primarily to higher urban rates for The ratio of the number of crime househol1 experienced 1.6 incidents of Justice Statistics in 1981. Its aim is population is widdy spread or highly burglary and violent crime. incidents per year to the number of (table 3). The ratios for individual to improve our understanding of the concentrated. • Households in rural areas were less households touched by crime provides a types of crime ranged from 1.0 to 1.3. Percent of households impact of crime on our society. 2 The likely than those in urban or suburban way to examine the degree to which Many households were victims of at touched by crimes of high household was chosen as the unit of For each type of crime examined, a arel'lS to be victims of any crime. households touched by crime w...·e least two different crimes during that concern*, 1982 analysis because the effects of a crime household is counted only once regard- • Urban households were only a bit victims of more than one crime inci- year. Evidence of the extent of are not limited to the victim a'lune but les!> of how many times that household more likely than suburban households to dent during the year. A ratio of 1.0 to I multiple victimization comes from Any high·concern c1Ime are also felt by other members of the was victimized. For example, if a be victims of larcenies. means that the average victimized examining the overlap in the number of victim's household. household was burglarized twice and households touched by individual crimes one of its members was robbed once and by composite crime categories. Race Households-touched-by-crime during the year, it is counted once for Table 2. Percent of households touched by crime by selected characteristics, 1982 • 5% of all households were touched by statistics are derived from National households touched by burglary even -- White I Crime Survey (NCS) data on rape, Race of head Annual famil~income (dollars) Place of residence 1NCS incident data were not yet available for 1982, so 1981 incident and households- , Black J personal robbery, assault, household 3These crimes are defined in Measuring Crime, BJS Low Medium ~ touched data were used for this aspect of the Bulletin, NCJ-75710, February 1981. under 7,500- 15,000- Cen~ral White Black 7,500 14,999 24,999 25,000+ cities Suburban Rural analysis. Family income ~ Prevalence of Crime, Bureau of Justice 4 Est.imate derived from Uniform Crime Reports, Statistics BUlletin, NCJ-75905. March 1981. 1982 Preliminary Annual Release, FBI, April 1983. Any crime 28.7 33.2 25.7 28.6 30.7 33.9 34.6 30.1 23.2 Table 3, Ratio of incidents to houreholds Le&S than $7,600 I touched by crime, 1981 $7.500-$14.999 I -, Violent crime 5.5 7.1 6.1 6.0 5.5 5.8 7.3 5.7 4.1 Households touched by crime, Households touched by crimes against Rape Robbery 0.2 1.2 0.2 2.8 0.3 1.8 0.2 1.5 0.1 1.3 0.1 1.1 0.2 '2.5 0.1 1.2 0.1 0.6 Households $15.000 -.$24.999 J by type of crime, 1982 persons, by type of crime, 1982' Assault 4.5 4.7 4.5 4.7 4.3 4.8 5.2 4.6 3.7 Incidents touched $25,000+ Aggravated 1.6 2.3 1.9 1.8 1.5 1.5 2.0 1.6 1.4 (millions) (millions) Simple 3.2 2.8 3.0 3.2 3.2 3.7 S.~ 3.4 2.5 B:!ill£ All r::rimes 39.6 24.9 1.6 to 1 Property crime Place of residence Personal larceny 13.7 13.7 9.6 12.7 15.0 18.6 15.4 15.4 10.3 Violent 5.6 4.9 1.2 to 1 Burglary Household larr::eny 6.4 9.5 10.2 10.5 8.6 9.1 6.7 10.0 6.3 10.1 6.4 Hl.l 8.9 11.5 6.3 9.4 5.7 8.0 Rape Robbery 0.2 1.2 0.2 1.1 1.0 1.1 to to 1 1 Urban I Violent crimes Motor vehicle theft U. 2.5 1.8 1.6 1.9 1.7 2.6 1.5 0.7 Assault 4.3 3.9 1.1 to 1 suburban I only Serious violent crime 1 2.8 5.0 3.7 3.3 2.8 2.6 4.5 2.8 2.0 Larceny Personal 25.2 15.0 17.7 11.5 1.4 to 1 1.3 to t Rural I Total larceny2 20,8 22.6 25.8 22.3 16.8 21.3 16.4 20.1 23.4 Household Burglary 10.2 7.4 8.5 6.1 1.2 to 1 1.2 to 1 , I Both o 5 10 15 1Rape , robbery, aggravated assault Motor vehicle Percent 2personal larceny, hous,,'lold larceny theft 1.4 1.3 1.1 to 1 Personal larceny 'Rape. robbery or assault by strangers. only or burglary ,'¢ : --6, ... I ~ ~ ,," .,,~ ,:'" ~ .. ' / -. • though it was victimized twice by victimization risk to other life events, burglary. It is also counted once for Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletins the per\!ent of households touched by households touched by robbery. Finally, are prepared principally by the staff crime during a multiyear period, and a it is counted once in the overall of the bureau. Carol B. Kalish, chief topic further discussed in this bulletin, measure, households touched by crime. of policy analysis, edits the bulletins. multiple victimization of households. Marilyn Marbrook, publications unit In future years, additional character is- ' For instance, the households- chief, administers their production, tics of the households-touched-by- touched-by-crime estimate for 1982 assisted by Julie A. Ferguson. The crime indicator will be examined. (29.2%) is less than the sum of the author of this bulletin is Micha.el R. estimates for households touched by Rand. Eventually estimates may be personal crimes (17.7%) and those devised to show how often a household touched by household crimes (14.5%), NCJ-!l8671, June 1983 is touched by crime during a longer because almost 5% of U.S. hou.;eholds span of time. For example, how many were victims of both personal and of the households among the 29% household crimes. Similarly, because Because the estimates in this touched by crime in 1982 were also almost 2% of the U.S. households were bulletin are derived from sample survey among those touched by crime in 1981 touched by both theft and violence, the data, theY5are subject to sampling and in previous years'? Is a household sum of households touched by theft variation. The techniques used to touched by a crime of violence more (14%) and those touch<ad by violence derive the estimates produce standard than once in a single year likely to have (5.7%) exceeds the estimate of those errors about 8% higher than those for a several members who were victims or touched by personal crime (17.7%). victimization estimate with the same one member who was victimized base and rate. The estimates are also several times? The answers to these Methodology subject to respondent errors. Examples and other questions about the preva- are crimes that are forgotten or with- lence of crime should do much to All data in this bulletin are from the held from the interviewer. Respondent increase our knowledge of how crime is National Crime Survey. The Bureml of errors tend to understate the £!lumber of distributed 'lmong its victims. Justice Statistics contracts with the households touched by crime. U.S. Bureau of the Census to collect Further reading and compile the survey data. This bulletin, as did its predecessor, Households Touched by Crime 1981, To be added to the mailing list for IIHouseholds ll as used throughout this eX'lmined aspects of the indicator not bulletins or National Crime Survey bulletin refers to a dwelling unit and covered in t: original bulletin, The reports or to obtain a copy of BJS the people who occupy it. No attempt Prevalence of Crime. That first-- reports referenced in this bulletin, was' made to locate people who moved bulletin examined only the characteris- write to the National Criminal Justice during an interview period. Instead, the tics of households touched by crime. Reference Service, Box 6000, Rock- people who moved into the v8.cated The second bulletin began to explore ville, Md. 20850, telephone (301) 251- dwelling unit were interviewed for the other areas such as comparison of 5595. Public-use tapes of BJS data sets rest of the year. Biases produced by and other criminal justice data are people moving during the year affect 5Details of the NCS sample design, the standard available from the Criminal Justice the estimates to a minor degree error computation, and the customary estimation Archive and Information Network, P.O. because only about 20% of all house- procedure for victimization rates and counts may be Box 1240, Ann Arbor, Mich. 48106, tele- found in appendix III of the BJS report Criminal h0lds move during a typical year. Victimization in the United States, 1980, NCJ- phone (313) 764-5199. IIFamilyll has been used as synonymous 84015, June 1983. with IIhousehold. 1I Actually, 75% of all 6A more detailed description of the procedures used households are families, 22% are t() estimate households touched by crime appears in persons living alone, and 3% are groups an unpublished memorandum prepared by the U.S. Bureau of the Census. The memorandum is of unrelated persons. available on request from the author at BJS. 11 U.S. Department of Justice Official Business Postage and Fees Paid iI [I). Penalty for Private Use $300 U.S. Department of Justice I Bureau of Justice Statistics Jus 436 THIRD CLASS i BULK RATE I I Washington, D.C. 20531 I I, t. )' i [ Bulletin t t i ------------------- .------- --:--.:::... r r !,!
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