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                     16 The observation of angiosperms

1.   Experimental Principle
Angiosper ms are the biggest group in the pla nt kingdom ,which are most widely
distributed and closest to huma n on the pla net.In the long process of system evolving ,
angiosper ms has been differentiated into ma ny different species. Angiosper ms usua lly has
been differentiated into Dicotyledoneae and Monocotyledoneae, and according to
Cronquist system, Dicotyledoneae are differentiated into six subclasses -- Magnoliidea,
Hamamelidae,        Caryophylliaae,    Dilleniidae,     Rosaiaae,    and     Asteriaae.then
Monocotyledoneae are differentiated into five subclasses --------Alismatidae ,
Zingiberidae, Liliidae; Arecidae, and Commelinidae------Liliidae and Commelinidae have
most species.Alis matidae , ZingiberidaeLiliidae; Arecidae, Commelinidae
2.   experimental objectives
1) To master the key feature
2) To learn and master the basic method of identifying pla nt and discr imina ting the
frequent species
3. Article for experimental use

1)、Materia ls: Gymnosper mous examples which were infused,dried and fresh as well.

2)、Instrumenttation: platoscope , ma gnifying glass , nippers; dissecting knife; dissecting
needle and so on.
4.   Method and procedure;

1、(Magnoliidea )

(1)(Magnolia denudata Desr.)

(2)(Magnolia grandiflora L.)

(3)Michelia figo (Lour)Spreng)

(4)(Ranunculus chinensis Qunge)

(5)(Lauraceae )-- [(Cinamomum inuctum Meissn]

2、Hamamelidae )

(1)Morus alba L.)

(2)(Castanea mollissima B1.)
3、(Caryophylliaae )

(1)(Dianthus chinensis L.)

(2) [Stellaria med ia(L.)Cyr.]

4、(Dilleniidae )

(1)(Gossypium hirsutum L.)

(2)(Cucumis sativus L.)

(3)(Salix ma na koidz)

(4)(Brassica campestris L.)

5、(Rosaiaae )

(1)(Spiraea cantoniensis Lour)

(2)(Rosa chinensis Jacq.)

(3)(Chaenomeleslaqenaria koictz)

(4)(Prunus persica Batseh)

(5)(Albizzia kalkora prain)

(6)(Cercis chinensis Bunge)

(7)(Pisum sativum L.)

(8)(Sophora japanica Linn)

(9)(Ricinus communis L.)

6、(Aster iaae)

(1)( Ajuga Cilia ta Bunga )

(2)(Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz.)

7、(Poa annua L.)

8、(Lilium Irownii F.E. Brown var. virid ulum Baker)

9、 [Bletilla striata(Thumb)Rchb. f.]
5.   debate.

1 、 which characters of Magnoliaceae ma nifestate primitive, and which is different to

2、what are characters of Cruciferae, labia tae and labia tae?

3、list the different and common characters of caesalpiniaceae and papillionaceae?

4、what are distinctions between four subfamilies of Rosaceae?

5、what are characters of Compositae ,and which is ma nifestating advancement?

6、what are main characters of liliaceae?

7、what are main characters of orchida les? and which is ma nifestating advancement?

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