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									                                           Module 13:
                                           Implementing Name
                                           Resolution
Contents

Overview                                    1
Introduction to Name Resolution             2
NetBIOS Name Resolution                     4
Examining WINS                             11
Host Name Resolution                       19
Troubleshooting Name Resolution            27
Best Practices                             34
Lab A: Configuring a Client Computer for
Name Resolution                            36
Review                                     42
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                                                  Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution          iii



Instructor Notes
Presentation:   This module provides students with the knowledge and skills necessary to
60 Minutes      configure, manage, and troubleshoot name resolution. Students will learn the
                concept of name resolution and the difference between network basic
Lab:            input/output system (NetBIOS) and Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) host
45 Minutes      names. They will learn how to configure a computer to use NetBIOS and
                Domain Name System (DNS) name resolution services, and how to use
                Microsoft® Windows® utilities to troubleshoot name resolution problems.
                After completing this module, students will be able to:
                   Describe the key concepts of name resolution.
                   Describe the differences between NetBIOS and host names.
                   Explain the various mechanisms that are used to perform name resolution.
                   Configure a computer to manage name resolution services.
                   Troubleshoot name resolution problems.
                   Apply best practices to implementing name resolution.


Materials and Preparation
                This section provides the materials and preparation tasks that you need to teach
                this module.

                Required Materials
                To teach this module, you need the Microsoft PowerPoint® file 2126B_14.ppt.

                Preparation Tasks
                To prepare for this module:
                   Read all of the materials for this module.
                   Complete the lab.
iv   Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution



Module Strategy
                       Use the following strategy to present this module:
                           Introduction to Name Resolution
                           In this topic, you will explain the need for resolution of names to Internet
                           Protocol (IP) addresses, and briefly describe the two forms of name
                           resolution.
                           NetBIOS Name Resolution
                           In this topic, you will explain how to identify when NetBIOS names are
                           used. You will outline the role of the Lmhosts file, Windows Internet Name
                           Service (WINS), and the NetBIOS name cache in resolving NetBIOS
                           names.
                           Examining WINS
                           In this topic, you will briefly describe how to configure a WINS server. You
                           will outline what WINS is, how to install WINS, how to configure various
                           operating systems as WINS clients, and how to examine the WINS
                           database.
                           Host Name Resolution
                           In this topic, you will explain how to identify the situations in which host
                           names are used. You will also outline the role of the Hosts file, DNS, and
                           the DNS resolver cache in resolving host names. Finally, you will explain
                           how to configure various operating systems as DNS clients.
                           Troubleshooting Name Resolution
                           In this topic, you will describe some of the command-line utilities that
                           students can use when troubleshooting name resolution.
                           Best Practices
                           In this topic, you will present the best practices for implementing name
                           resolution. Emphasize the reason for each best practice.
                                                                    Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution          1



Overview
Topic Objective
To provide an overview of
the module topics and
objectives.                                 Introduction to Name Resolution
Lead-in                                     NetBIOS Name Resolution
In this module, you will learn
about name resolution for                   Examining WINS
NetBIOS names and TCP
host names. You will learn                  Host Name Resolution
how to configure your
computer for both kinds of                  Troubleshooting Name Resolution
name resolution, and how to
troubleshoot problems.                      Best Practices




*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE******************************
                                 For Microsoft® Windows® 2000 and Microsoft Windows XP, the primary
                                 method for client computers to locate and communicate with other computers
                                 on an Internet Protocol (IP) network is by using the Domain Name System
                                 (DNS). DNS is a distributed database that is used in IP networks to translate, or
                                 resolve, computer names to IP addresses.
                                 However, clients using previous versions of Windows, such as Microsoft
                                 Windows 98 or Microsoft Windows NT® version 4.0, primarily use network
                                 basic input/output system (NetBIOS) names for network communication. As a
                                 result, these clients require a method of resolving NetBIOS names to IP
                                 addresses.
                                 You can install Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) to register NetBIOS
                                 computer names and resolve them to IP addresses. Implementing WINS in a
                                 Microsoft Windows 2000 network ensures that clients that use a previous
                                 version of Windows can locate and communicate with network resources as
                                 needed.
                                 Windows 2000 and Windows XP use DNS, but they support NetBIOS for
                                 backward compatibility with older networks, and to maintain compatibility with
                                 any NetBIOS applications.
                                 After completing this module, you will be able to:
                                    Describe the key concepts of name resolution.
                                    Describe the differences between NetBIOS and host names.
                                    Explain the various mechanisms that are used to perform name resolution.
                                    Configure a computer to manage name resolution services.
                                    Troubleshoot name resolution problems.
2         Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution



Introduction to Name Resolution
Topic Objective
To define name resolution
and provide an overview of
the various methods used to              The Process of mapping a name to an IP address
resolve names.
                                         Types of names:
Lead-in
To reach a remote computer                      NetBIOS name
on a network, its name must
first be resolved to an IP                      TCP/IP host name
address.
                                         Name resolution methods are configurable




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                              Name resolution is the process of mapping a textual computer name to a
                              numeric IP address.

                              NetBIOS Name Resolution
                              NetBIOS name resolution maps a NetBIOS name to an IP address. The
                              Microsoft implementation of Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
                              (TCP/IP) can use any of the following methods to resolve NetBIOS names.
                              Standard methods of resolution       Description

                              NetBIOS name cache                   The local cache containing the NetBIOS names
                                                                   that the local computer has recently resolved.
                              NetBIOS name server (NBNS)           A server that provides name resolution of
                                                                   NetBIOS computer names. The Microsoft
                                                                   implementation of this standard, WINS,
                                                                   conforms to RFC 1001/1002.
                              Local broadcast                      A broadcast on the local network for the IP
                                                                   address of the destination NetBIOS name.


                              Note For more information about NetBIOS Name Servers, see RFC1001,
                              Protocol standard for a NetBIOS service on a TCP/UDP transport: Concepts
                              and methods, and RFC 1002, Protocol standard for a NetBIOS service on a
                              TCP/UDP transport: Detailed specifications, under Additional Reading on the
                              Web page on the Student Materials compact disc.
                                  Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution             3


Additional Microsoft methods of
resolution                          Description

Lmhosts file                        A local text file that maps IP addresses to the
                                    NetBIOS computer names of Windows-based
                                    networking computers on remote networks.
Hosts file                          A local text file in the same format as the 4.3
                                    Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD)
                                    UNIX\etc\Hosts file. This file maps host names
                                    to IP addresses. This file is typically used to
                                    resolve host names for TCP/IP utilities.
DNS                                 A server that maintains a database of IP
                                    address/computer name (host name) mappings.


Host Name Resolution
Host Name resolution maps a Host Name to an IP address. The Microsoft
implementation of TCP/IP can use any of the following methods to resolve
Host names.
Standard methods of resolution      Description

Local host name                     The configured host name for the computer.
                                    This name is compared with the destination
                                    host name.
Host file                           A local text file in the same format as the 4.3
                                    Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD)
                                    UNIX\etc\Hosts file. This file maps host names
                                    to IP addresses. This file is typically used to
                                    resolve host names for TCP/IP utilities.
DNS server                          A server that maintains a database of IP
                                    address/computer name (host name) mappings.

Additional Microsoft methods of
resolution                          Description

NBNS                                A server that provides name resolution of
                                    NetBIOS computer names. The Microsoft
                                    implementation of this standard, WINS,
                                    conforms to RFC 1001/1002.
Local broadcast                     A broadcast on the local network for the IP
                                    address of the destination NetBIOS name.
Lmhosts file                        A local text file that maps IP addresses to the
                                    NetBIOS computer names of Windows
                                    networking computers on remote networks.
4         Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution



      NetBIOS Name Resolution
Topic Objective
To define NetBIOS names
and examine methods for
resolving them.                         What Is a NetBIOS Name?
Lead-in                                 NetBIOS Name Cache
NetBIOS names have their
own resolution methods.                 Name Resolution Using Lmhosts
                                        Name Resolution Using a NetBIOS Name Server




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                             The NetBIOS name is a computer name used with some Windows operating
                             systems to identify computers on a network. To establish communications with
                             another computer, the name must be resolved to an IP address.
                             Specific mechanisms exist for the resolution of NetBIOS names: broadcasts, the
                             Lmhosts file, and NetBIOS name servers.
                                                                   Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution        5



What Is a NetBIOS Name?
Topic Objective
To list the characteristics of             NetBIOS names are 16-byte addresses that uniquely
NetBIOS names.
                                           identify a process for network identification
Lead-in
The NetBIOS name is the                    NetBIOS names are registered dynamically and
name assigned to a                         can be:
computer during installation.
                                               Used only once in a network
                                               Registered as unique names or group names
                                           Use browsing to locate shared resources on the
                                           network




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                                 NetBIOS names are 16 bytes in length. They are an alternative for naming
Delivery Tip                     computers, compared to the 255 characters of DNS host names. Windows 2000
Emphasize that other
NetBIOS-based computers,
                                 and Windows XP use DNS names for most functions, but a NetBIOS name
such as computers running        resolution method must exist on any network with computers that are running
previous versions of             earlier versions of Windows and applications that depend on NetBIOS names.
Windows, also use NetBIOS
names.                           NetBIOS Name Registration
                                 NetBIOS names are registered dynamically when computers and services start
Key Point                        and when users log on. A NetBIOS name can be registered as a unique name,
NetBIOS names are
registered dynamically when
                                 which maps to a single address, or as a group name, which maps to multiple
computers and services           addresses.
start and when users log on.
                                 Important Because multiple services that are running on the same computer
                                 can register a computer’s NetBIOS name, several NetBIOS name registrations
                                 can be generated for the same computer name. The registered name is the
                                 15-character computer name plus a sixteenth character. The sixteenth character
                                 uniquely identifies each service that uses the computer name to build its
                                 NetBIOS name.


                                 Example of NetBIOS Name Registration
                                 An example of a service that uses a NetBIOS name is the Server service in
                                 Windows 2000, which provides file and printer sharing. When you start your
                                 computer, the service registers a unique NetBIOS name that is based on the
                                 computer name. The registered name is the 15-character computer name, plus a
                                 sixteenth character of 0x20. The sixteenth character uniquely identifies the
                                 Server service.
                                 When you attempt to connect to a shared folder by using a NetBIOS name, a
                                 name query is initiated to search for the NetBIOS name of the Server service.
                                 Communication is established when the NetBIOS name is located, and then you
                                 can connect to the server on which the shared folder is stored.
6       Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution


                              Browsing
                              Windows NT, Windows 2000, and Windows XP can create lists of registered
Delivery Tip                  NetBIOS names to enable users to locate computers that contain shared
Describe the browsing
process, and demonstrate
                              resources on the network. The process of building these lists is called browsing.
the procedure for accessing   To access these shared resources on Windows 2000:
shared resources.
                              1. Open My Network Places, and then double-click Entire Network.
                              2. Click Entire contents.
                              3. Double-click Microsoft Windows Network.
                              4. Double-click the appropriate domain or workgroup, and then double-click
                                 the name of computer on which the resource is stored.


Key Point                     Note Open Network Neighborhood to access browsing information on
Open Network                  computers running earlier versions of Windows.
Neighborhood to access        For more information about browsing, see the appendix, “Windows 2000
browsing information on       Browser Service,” in the TCP/IP Core Networking Guide in the Microsoft
computers running earlier     Windows 2000 Server Resource Kit.
versions of Windows.
                                                                 Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution        7



NetBIOS Name Cache
Topic Objective
To explain the function of
the NetBIOS name cache.
Lead-in                                 A local cache containing most recently resolved
To improve performance, a               NetBIOS names
cache of recently resolved
names is maintained.
                                        Name resolution searches the cache first




*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE******************************
                             When a user initiates a Windows command, such as net use, the NetBIOS
                             name resolution process begins. The NetBIOS name cache is checked for the
                             NetBIOS name/IP address mapping of the destination host. The NetBIOS name
                             cache contains the most recently resolved NetBIOS names. If the NetBIOS
                             name is not found in the cache, the Windows client attempts to determine the IP
                             address of the destination host by using other methods.
                             After a NetBIOS name is resolved to an IP Address, a mapping entry is made in
                             the NetBIOS name cache, and is given a refresh interval of ten minutes. If the
                             name is resolved again within the refresh interval, the refresh time is reset to ten
                             minutes. If the refresh time is reached, the mapping is removed from the
                             NetBIOS name cache.
                             You can view the NetBIOS name cache by using the nbtstat –c command.
8         Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution



Name Resolution Using Lmhosts
Topic Objective
To describe the Lmhosts
                                         # Sample LMHosts file
file.
Lead-in                                  192.168.222.102   sqlsrv                         #apps server
The Lmhosts file is a static             192.168.222.123   homesrv                        #home server
ASCII file that is used to               192.168.222.112   machinename
map an IP address to its                 192.168.222.167   multihome #MH
corresponding NetBIOS                    192.168.222.168   multihome #MH
                                         192.168.222.98    printsrv    #PRE
name of a remote host.
                                         192.168.222.200   london      #PRE #DOM:nwtraders #DC for nwtraders

                                         #BEGIN_ALTERNATE
                                         #INCLUDE \\homesrv\public\lmhosts   #adds LMHOSTS from this server
                                         #INCLUDE \\london\public\lmhosts    #adds LMHOSTS from this server
                                         #END_ALTERNATE




*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE******************************
                               The Lmhosts file will be read by Microsoft clients after a broadcast has been
Delivery Tip                   sent attempting to resolve a NetBIOS name on the same subnet as the resolving
Use the graphic to explain
the elements in the Lmhosts
                               computer. If the broadcast does not return an IP address, only then will the
file.                          Lmhosts file be read. The Lmhosts file is a static ASCII file that is used to
                               resolve the NetBIOS names of remote NetBIOS-based computers. The Lmhosts
Key Points                     file has the following characteristics:
The NetBIOS name cache
and file are always read          It resolves NetBIOS names that are used in older Windows commands, such
sequentially. Add the most        as net use.
frequently accessed
computers to the top of the       Entries consist of one NetBIOS name and its corresponding IP address.
list.                             Each computer has its own file. The default directory location is in the form:
The entries tagged with           systemroot\System32\Drivers\etc
#PRE are added near the           A sample Lmhosts file (Lmhosts.sam) is included in this directory.
bottom, because they will
not be accessed again after
TCP/IP initializes.            The hash symbol (#) is used to indicate a comment, and also is used to identify
                               certain predefined keywords.
                                   Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution           9


Predefined Keywords
An Lmhosts file also contains predefined keywords, which are prefixed with a
hash symbol (#). The following table lists the possible Lmhosts keywords.
Predefined keyword               Description

#PRE                             Defines which entries must be initially preloaded as
                                 permanent entries in the name cache. Preloaded
                                 entries reduce network broadcasts, because names
                                 are resolved from cache rather than from broadcast
                                 or by parsing the Lmhosts file. Entries with a #PRE
                                 tag are loaded automatically at initialization or
                                 manually by typing nbtstat –R at a command
                                 prompt.
#DOM:[domain_name]               Facilitates domain activity, such as logon validation
                                 over a router, account synchronization, and
                                 browsing.
#BEGIN_ALTERNATE                 Defines a redundant list of alternate locations for
#END_ALTERNATE                   Lmhosts files. The recommended way to include
                                 remote files is by using a universal naming
                                 convention (UNC) path, to ensure access to the file.
                                 The UNC names must exist in the Lmhosts file with
                                 a proper IP address to NetBIOS name translation.
#INCLUDE                         Loads and searches NetBIOS entries in a separate
                                 file from the default Lmhosts file. Typically, a
                                 #INCLUDE file is a centrally located shared
                                 Lmhosts file.


Note The NetBIOS name cache and file are always read sequentially. Add the
most frequently accessed computers to the top of the list. Add the entries tagged
with #PRE near the bottom, because they will not be accessed again after
TCP/IP initializes.
10        Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution



Name Resolution Using a NetBIOS Name Server
Topic Objective                           net use x: \\france\public
                                          net use x: \\france\public
To explain how a NetBIOS
name is resolved to an IP
                                  NetBIOS name cache
                                   NetBIOS name cache
address by using a NetBIOS
                                 192.168.222.29 Malaysia
                                 192.168.222.29 Malaysia
name server, such as a           192.168.222.4 Sweden
                                 192.168.222.4 Sweden
WINS server.                     192.168.222.12 Australia
                                 192.168.222.12 Australia           NetBIOS
Lead-in                                                            Name Server
The most popular method of         1
                                   1
resolving NetBIOS names to
IP addresses is by using a                                     2
                                                               2                    3
                                                                                    3
NetBIOS name server.



                                 NetBIOS name = Lima                             NetBIOS name = France
                                 IP address = 192.168.222.29                     IP address = 192.168.222.29



*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE******************************
                              The most popular method of resolving both local and remote NetBIOS names is
Delivery Tip                  by using a NetBIOS name server.
Use the graphic to describe
how NetBIOS names are         When a user initiates certain commands, such as net use, or causes a NetBIOS
resolved by using a           application to interact with the network, the NetBIOS name resolution process
NetBIOS name server, such
                              begins. The NetBIOS name cache is checked for the NetBIOS name/IP address
as WINS.
                              mapping of the destination host. If the NetBIOS name is not found in the cache,
                              the client will attempt to determine the IP address of the destination host by
                              using other methods.
                              If the name cannot be resolved by using the NetBIOS name cache, the NetBIOS
                              name of the destination host is sent to the NetBIOS name server that is
                              configured for the source host. When the NetBIOS name is resolved to an IP
                              address, it is returned to the source host.
                                                             Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution       11



      Examining WINS
Topic Objective
To introduce the topics
involved in implementing
WINS for name resolution.               WINS Overview
Lead-in                                 Installing WINS
The most popular method of
resolving NetBIOS names to              Configuring Computers as WINS Clients
IP addresses is with a
NetBIOS name server.                    Examining WINS Database Records
                                        WINS Replication




*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE******************************
                             The most popular method of resolving NetBIOS names is with a NetBIOS
                             name server. A NetBIOS name server reduces broadcast traffic and enables
                             clients to resolve NetBIOS names of computers that are on different network
                             segments.
12        Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution



WINS Overview
Topic Objective                         net use x: \\france\public
                                        net use x: \\france\public
To explain how a NetBIOS
name is resolved into an IP     NetBIOS Name Cache
                                NetBIOS Name Cache
address using WINS.
Lead-in                           1
                                  1
                                                                                            Primary
                                                                                             Primary
For WINS to function                                                                       WINS Server
                                                                                           WINS Server
                                                  Not Resolved
properly, each client must
have an entry in the WINS                        2
                                                 2     Name Query Request
                                                       Name Query Request
database.                                              (resend to secondary
                                                        (resend to secondary
                                                       server if not available)
                                                        server if not available)

                                                                                               Secondary
                                                                                                Secondary
                                                                                               WINS Server
                                                                                               WINS Server


                                           3
                                           3             Requested Name
                                                         Requested Name
                                                          Does Not Exist
                                                          Does Not Exist
                                   Broadcast
                                   Broadcast


*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE******************************
                              WINS is the Microsoft implementation of a NetBIOS name server. For WINS
                              to function properly on a network, each client must:
                                 Register its name in the WINS database. When a client starts up, it will
                                 register its name with its configured WINS server.
                                 Renew the registration at configurable intervals. Client registrations are
                                 temporary, and from time to time a WINS client must renew its name or its
                                 lease will expire.
                                 Release names from the database when shutting down. When a WINS client
                                 no longer requires a name, for example when it is shut down, the client
                                 sends a message instructing the WINS server to release its name.

                              After it is configured with WINS as a name resolution method, the client will
                              also use WINS to perform NetBIOS name queries. It does the following:
                              1. If the client cannot resolve the name from its cache, it sends a name query to
                                 its primary WINS server. If the primary WINS server does not respond, the
                                 client sends the request two more times.
                              2. If the client does not receive a response from its Primary WINS server, the
                                 client resends the request to any additional WINS servers configured at the
                                 client. If a WINS server resolves the name, it responds to the client with the
                                 IP address of the requested NetBIOS name.
                              3. If no response is received, or if a “name not found” message is received
                                 from the WINS server, the client then moves on to its next configured name
                                 resolution method.
                                                                             Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution                 13



Installing WINS
Topic Objective                          Networking Services
To introduce the steps
                                         To add or remove a component, click the check box. A shaded box means that only part
involved when installing                 of the component will be installed. To see what’s included in a component, click Details.
WINS.                                    Subcomponents of Networking Services:

Lead-in                                           Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)                           0.0 MB
To implement WINS, install                        Internet Authentication Service                                      0.8 MB
                                                                                                                       0.0 MB

the service on a computer                         QoS Admission Control Service                                        0.0 MB

running Windows 2000                              Simple TCP/IP Services                                               0.0 MB

Server.                                           Site Server ILS Services                                             1.6 MB
                                                  Windows Internet Name Service (WINS)                                 0.9 MB


                                          Description: Sets up a WINS server that registers and resolves NetBIOS names
                                                       for clients.

                                          Total disk space required:           0.9 MB                                   Details...
                                          Space available on disk:          857.4 MB
                                                                                                         OK              Cancel




*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE******************************
                             To create a WINS server, install WINS on a computer running Windows 2000
                             Server.
                             To install WINS:
                             1. In Control Panel, double-click Add/Remove Programs.
                             2. Click Add/Remove Windows Components.
                             3. In the Windows Components Wizard, on the Windows Components page,
                                under Components, click Networking Services, and then click Details.
                             4. In the Networking Services dialog box, under Subcomponents of
                                Networking Services, select the Windows Internet Name Service
                                (WINS) check box, click OK, and then click Next.


                             Important You must configure the advanced TCP/IP settings on a WINS server
                             so that it is a WINS client of itself. This ensures that the WINS server registers
                             itself in its own database.
14        Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution



Configuring Computers As WINS Clients
Topic Objective
To show how to configure
your client computer to use
                                       Add addresses of
                                       Add addresses of
WINS.
                                       WINS servers
                                       WINS servers
Lead-in
To use WINS, your client
computer must be
configured correctly.

                                       Select Enable
                                       Select Enable
                                       NetBIOS over
                                       NetBIOS over
                                       TCP/IP
                                       TCP/IP




*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE******************************
                              A WINS client uses a WINS server to resolve queries and locate resources on
                              IP networks. In Windows, you configure a computer as a WINS client by
                              supplying the IP addresses of WINS servers to be used in name resolution.
                              The recommended method to configure a WINS client is to make it a Dynamic
                              Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) client and set the appropriate TCP/IP
                              options.
                              It is also possible to configure WINS clients manually.

                              Configuring Client Computers Running Windows 98
                              To configure a client computer that is running Windows 98 to use a WINS
                              server for name resolution:
                              1. In Control Panel, double-click Network.
                              2. Double-click the TCP/IP protocol that is bound to your network adapter.
                              3. In the TCP/IP Properties dialog box, click the WINS Configuration tab.
                              4. Select Enable WINS Resolution, and then type the IP addresses of the
                                 primary and secondary WINS servers.

                              Configuring Client Computers Running Windows NT 4.0
                              To configure a client computer that is running Windows NT 4.0 to use a WINS
                              server for name resolution:
                              1. In Control Panel, double-click Network.
                              2. On the Protocols tab, click the TCP/IP protocol, and then click
                                 Properties.
                              3. On the WINS Address tab, enter the IP addresses of the primary and
                                 secondary WINS servers.
                                 Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution        15


Configuring Client Computers Running Windows 2000
To configure a client computer that is running Windows 2000 to use a WINS
server for name resolution:
1. Right-click My Network Places, and then click Properties.
2. Right-click the connection, click Properties, then click Internet Protocol
   (TCP/IP) Properties, and then click Properties.
3. In the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box, click Advanced.
4. In the Advanced TCP/IP Settings dialog box, on the WINS tab, click Add
   to add new addresses of WINS servers.
5. Click Enable NetBIOS Over TCP/IP.

Configuring Client Computers Running Windows XP
To configure a client computer that is running Windows XP to use a WINS
server for name resolution:
1. Right-click My Network Places, and then click Properties.
2. Open the Properties dialog box for the connection, and then open the
   Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box.
3. Click Advanced, and then click the WINS tab.
4. In the WINS pane, use the Add button to add new addresses of WINS
   servers. You must also click Default or Enable NetBIOS Over TCP/IP.


Note For more information about DHCP, see Module 12, “Implementing and
Managing DHCP,” in Course 2126B, Managing a Microsoft Windows 2000
Network Environment.
16        Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution



Examining WINS Database Records
Topic Objective
To show students how to
view the WINS database
and search for specific
entries.
Lead-in
You can view the contents
of the WINS database and
search for specific entries by
using the WINS Manager.




*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE******************************
                                 WINS in Microsoft Management Console (MMC) enables you to view the
                                 contents of the WINS database and search for specific entries.

                                 Opening the WINS Database
                                 To open the WINS database:
                                 1. In WINS, expand the name of the server, and then click Active
                                    Registrations.
                                 2. Right-click Active Registrations, then click Find by Owner.
                                 3. In the Find by Owner dialog box, on the Owners tab, click All Owners,
                                    and then click Find Now.


                                 Note To view only those entries that originate from a specific WINS server,
                                 click This owner, and then select the WINS server. To view only certain record
                                 types, on the Record Types tab, select the check boxes for the types of records
                                 that you want to view, and clear the check boxes for all other record types.
                                  Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution          17



Examining WINS Record Information
WINS displays all records in the database and organizes WINS record
information into the following columns:
   Record Name. The registered NetBIOS name, which can be a unique name
   or can represent a group, internet group or multihomed computer.
   Type. The service that registered the entry, including the hexadecimal type
   identifier.

Note For a list of services and their identifiers, see “NetBIOS Name
Reference” in Windows 2000 Server Help.

   IP Address. The IP address that corresponds to the registered name.
   State. The state of the database entry, which can be Active, Released, or
   Tombstoned. A tombstoned entry is no longer active and will be removed
   from the database.
   Owner. The WINS server from which the entry originates. Because of
   replication, this is not necessarily the same server on which you view the
   database.
   Version. A unique hexadecimal number assigned by the WINS server during
   name registration. It is used by the server’s partners during replication to
   identify new records.
   Expiration. Shows when the entry will expire. When a replica is stored in
   the database, its expiration data is set to the current time on the receiving
   WINS server, plus the renewal interval that is set on the client.
18         Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution



WINS Replication
Topic Objective
To discuss the basic                                      A                       B
function of WINS replication.          HostA                                                           HostB
                                       HostA                                                           HostB
Lead-in
If there are multiple WINS
servers on your network,                                           Router
you can configure them to
replicate the records in their
databases to other WINS
servers.

                                                               WINS Replication
                                                               WINS Replication




                                           WINS ServerA                                 WINS ServerB


*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE******************************
                                 Although a WINS server can support more than 5,000 clients under typical
                                 workloads, fault-tolerance for your NetBIOS name resolution can be provided
                                 by installing a second server. A second server also allows localization of
                                 resolution traffic. This way, if one of the WINS servers fails, the remaining
                                 server continues to provide NetBIOS name resolution to the network.
                                 Each WINS server on a network maintains its own WINS database. As a result,
                                 if there are multiple WINS servers in your network, they must be configured to
                                 replicate the records in their database to the other WINS servers.
                                 Replication of WINS databases ensures that a name registered with one WINS
                                 server can be resolved by a WINS client that is configured to use a different
                                 WINS server. For example:
                                    HostA on SubnetA registers with the WINS ServerA on SubnetA.
                                    HostB on SubnetB registers with the WINS ServerB on SubnetB.
                                    WINS replication occurs, and each WINS server updates its database with
                                    the new entry from the other server’s database.

                                 As a result of replication, both WINS servers have information about both
                                 hosts, and HostA and HostB can resolve each other’s names by contacting their
                                 local WINS server.
                                 For replication to occur, each WINS server must be configured with at least one
                                 replication partner. When you configure a replication partner for a WINS
                                 server, you can specify the partner as a pull partner, a push partner or a
                                 push/pull partner for the replication process.
                                                            Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution     19



      Host Name Resolution
Topic Objective
To define host names and
examine methods for
resolving them.                       What Is a Host Name?
Lead-in                               DNS Resolver Cache
Host names have their own
resolution methods.                   Name Resolution Using Hosts
                                      Name Resolution Using DNS
                                      Configuring Client Computers to Use DNS




*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE******************************
                            DNS is the Windows 2000 and Windows XP standard used for naming host
                            computers. DNS provides a hierarchical namespace, as opposed to the flat
                            namespace of NetBIOS.
                            The mechanisms that are used for resolution of DNS names are the Hosts files,
                            DNS itself, and the DNS resolver cache.
20        Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution



What Is a Host Name?
Topic Objective
To define the host name
used by Windows 2000 and
common to UNIX                           An alias used to reference a TCP/IP host
environments.
                                         Provides a simplified way to access a TCP/IP host
Lead-in
A host name is used to                   Used by Ping and other TCP/IP utilities
identify a TCP/IP host or a
default gateway.                         Entries are stored in the Hosts File or DNS
A host name simplifies the               Viewed with the Hostname utility
way a host is referenced
because names are easier
to remember than IP
addresses.




*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE******************************
                              Host names are used in virtually all TCP/IP environments. The following list
                              provides a description of a host name:
                                 A host name is an alias that is assigned to a computer by an administrator to
                                 identify a TCP/IP host. The host name does not need to match the NetBIOS
                                 computer name, and can be any 256-character string. Multiple host names
                                 can be assigned to the same host.
                                 A host name simplifies the way that a user references other TCP/IP hosts.
                                 Host names are easier to remember than IP addresses.
                                 A host name can be used in place of an IP address when using the Ping
                                 utility or other TCP/IP utilities.
                                 A host name always corresponds to an IP address that is stored in a Hosts
                                 file or in a database on a DNS or NetBIOS name server.
                                 The Hostname utility displays the host name that is assigned to your system.
                                 By default, the host name is the same as the computer name of your
                                 Windows-based computer.
                                                               Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution       21



DNS Resolver Cache
Topic Objective
To explain the purpose and
operation of the DNS
resolver cache.                         Cache of most recently resolved host names
Lead-in                                 DNS resolver cache is searched first
To improve performance, a
cache of the most recently              Ipconfig /displaydns
resolved names is
maintained.




*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE******************************
                             Windows 2000 and Windows XP maintain a cache of the most recently
                             resolved names. When a name resolution is required, the cache is searched. If
                             no match is found, other resolution methods are used.
                             You can view the DNS resolver cache by using the ipconfig /displaydns
                             command.

                             Note There are more Ipconfig command line switches that can be useful when
                             troubleshooting your IP configuration. To see descriptions and usage of these
                             switches, type ipconfig /?
22        Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution



Name Resolution Using Hosts
Topic Objective
To explain how a host name                  ping HostB
                                            ping HostB                          1
                                                                                1
is resolved to an IP address
by using the Hosts file.
Lead-in                                                                                                                                     Router
                                                               HostB =
Unlike the Lmhosts file,
                                                               192.168.222.29
which is used only for
remote hosts, the Hosts file                                     192.168.222.102 sqlsrv
                                                                 #apps server
                                                                 192.168.222.123 homesrv




maps host names of both
                                                                 #home server




                                                       3
                                                       3                                                                                        4
                                                                                                                                                4
                                                                 192.168.222.112 machinename

                                                                 192.168.222.167 multihome    #MH
                                                                 192.168.222.168 multihome    #MH
                                                                 192.168.222.98 printsrv      #PRE
                                                                 192.168.222.200 london       #PRE #DOM:nwtraders #DC for




local and remote hosts to
                                                                 nwtraders

                                                                 # BEGIN_ALTERNATE
                                                                 #INCLUDE \\homesrv\public\lmhosts   # adds LMHOSTS fr om this server
                                                                 #INCLUDE \\london\public\lmhosts    # adds LMHOSTS fr om this server
                                                                 # END_ALTERNATE




their IP addresses.
                                                    Name                                                                                 IP Address
                                                  Resolution                                                                              Resolved

                                   Hostname = HostA                                                                                     Hostname = HostB
                                   IP address = 192.168.222.24              2
                                                                            2                                                           IP address = 192.168.222.29




*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE******************************
                               Unlike the Lmhosts file, which is used only for remote hosts, the Hosts file
                               maps host names of both local and remote hosts to their IP addresses. The
                               process is as follows:
                               1. Host name resolution begins when a user types a command, such as the
                                  ping command, by using the host name.
                               2. The originating computer determines whether the host name is the same as
                                  its local host name. If the two names are the same, the computer has
                                  successfully resolved the name (the destination host is the same as the
                                  source host), and it then uses the IP address of the host.
                               3. If the two names are different, the Hosts file is read sequentially. If the host
                                  name is found in the Hosts file, it is resolved to an IP address.
                               4. If the host name cannot be resolved and no other resolution methods—such
                                  as DNS, a NetBIOS name server, a broadcast, or the Lmhosts file—are
                                  configured, the process stops and an error message appears.
                                                                 Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution      23



Name Resolution Using DNS
Topic Objective                             ping HostB.training.nwtraders.msft
                                            ping HostB.training.nwtraders.msft
To explain how a host name
is resolved to an IP address
by using a DNS server.
Lead-in                                                                                 Router
Windows 2000 can use a                                        Domain Name
DNS server to resolve a                                       System Server
host name.
                                                      1
                                                      1                                  2
                                                                                         2


                                                  Name                          IP Address
                                                Resolution                       Resolved

                                                                            FQDN =
                                                                            HostB.training.nwtraders.msft


*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE******************************
                               A DNS server is an online database that is used to resolve FQDNs and other
                               host names to IP addresses. All versions of Windows 2000 and Windows XP
                               can be configured to use DNS servers, and all server versions of Windows 2000
                               provide DNS server services. Resolving a domain name by using a DNS server
                               is similar to using a Hosts file.
                               If Windows 2000 or Windows XP are configured to resolve host names by
                               using a DNS server, the process is as follows.
                               When a user types a command by using an FQDN or a host name, the DNS
                               server looks up the name in its database and attempts to resolve it to an IP
                               address. The DNS server may not be able to resolve the name; if this is the case,
                               the DNS server can query other DNS servers to assist in the resolution process.
                               If the DNS server does not respond to the request, additional attempts are made.
                               If the DNS server does not respond to any of the attempts, and no other
                               resolution methods—such as a NetBIOS name server or Lmhosts—are
                               configured, the process stops, and an error is reported.

                               Note For more information about managing a DNS Server and the DNS
                               processes, see Module 5, “Managing DNS,” in Course 2126B, Managing a
                               Microsoft Windows 2000 Network Environment.
24         Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution



Configuring Client Computers to Use DNS
Topic Objective
To illustrate the TCP/IP
settings for configuring a
DNS client.
Lead-in
You configure client
                                   IP address can be
                                    IP address can be
computers to use the DNS
                                   provided by a DHCP
                                    provided by a DHCP
Server service by changing
                                   server or manually
                                    server or manually
the TCP/IP settings on the         configured
                                    configured
client computer.

                                   DNS server
                                   DNS server
                                   addresses can be
                                   addresses can be
                                   provided by a DHCP
                                   provided by a DHCP
                                   server or manually
                                   server or manually
                                   configured
                                   configured



*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE******************************
                                A DNS client uses a DNS server to resolve queries and locate resources on IP
                                networks. In Windows 2000 and Windows XP, you configure a computer as a
                                DNS client by using two configuration parameters: the IP address of the DNS
                                server, and the primary DNS suffix of the client computer.
                                The recommended way to configure a DNS client is to make it a DHCP client
                                and set the appropriate TCP/IP options. It is also possible to configure DNS
                                clients manually.

Delivery Tip                    Configuring Client Computers Running Windows 98
Describe the procedure for
                                To configure a client running Windows 98 to use DNS for name resolution:
configuring a client to use a
DNS server for name             1. In Control Panel, double-click Network.
resolution.
                                2. Double-click the TCP/IP protocol that is bound to your network adapter.
                                3. In the TCP/IP Properties dialog box, click the DNS Configuration tab.
                                4. If a DNS server is available, click Enable DNS.
                                5. In the Host dialog box, type the computer name.
                                6. In the Domain dialog box, type the DNS domain name.
                                7. In the DNS Server Search Order dialog box, use the Add button to enter
                                   the IP addresses of the DNS servers that you want this client to use.
                                 Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution       25


Configuring Client Computers Running Windows NT 4.0
To configure a client running Windows NT 4.0 to use a DNS server for name
resolution:
1. In Control Panel, double-click Network.
2. On the Protocols tab, click TCP/IP protocol, and then click Properties.
3. In the DNS Server Search Order dialog box, on the DNS tab, use the Add
   button to enter the IP addresses of the DNS servers that you want this client
   to use.
4. In the Host dialog box, type the computer name.
5. In the Domain dialog box, type the DNS domain name.

Configuring Client Computers Running Windows 2000
To configure a client running Windows 2000 to use a DNS server for name
resolution:
1. Right-click My Network Places, and then click Properties.
2. Right-click the connection, and then click Properties.
3. Click Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), and then click Properties.
4. In the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box, click Use the
   following DNS server addresses.
5. In the Preferred DNS server box, type the IP address of the primary server.
   If you are configuring a second DNS server, in the Alternate DNS server
   box, type the IP address of the additional DNS server.

To configure the primary DNS suffix:
1. Right-click My Computer, and then click Properties.
2. In the System Properties dialog box, on the Network Identification tab,
   click Properties.
3. In the Identification Changes dialog box, click More.
4. In the DNS Suffix and NetBIOS Computer Name dialog box, in the
   Primary DNS suffix of this computer box, type the DNS domain name for
   the computer.

Configuring Client Computers Running Windows XP
To configure a client computer running Windows XP to use a DNS server for
name resolution:
1. Right-click My Network Places, and then click Properties.
2. Open the Properties dialog box for the connection, and then open the
   Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box.
3. Click Use the following DNS server addresses.
4. In the Preferred DNS server dialog box, type the IP address of the primary
   server. If you are configuring a second DNS server, in the Alternate DNS
   server dialog box, type the IP address of the additional DNS server.
26   Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution


                       To configure the primary DNS suffix:
                       1. Right-click My Computer, and then click Properties to open the System
                          Properties dialog box.
                       2. On the Computer Name tab, click Change.
                       3. In the Computer Name Changes dialog box, click More.
                       4. In the DNS Suffix and NetBIOS Computer Name dialog box, in the
                          Primary DNS suffix of this computer box, type the DNS domain name for
                          the computer.


                       Note For more information about DHCP, see Module 12, “Implementing and
                       Managing DHCP,” in Course 2126B, Managing a Microsoft Windows 2000
                       Network Environment.
                                                                 Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution        27



      Troubleshooting Name Resolution
Topic Objective
To show how to diagnose
problems in name
resolution.                             Using the Ipconfig Utility
Lead-in                                 Using the Ping Utility
Many problems can arise in
networks. This section                  Using the Tracert Utility
discusses troubleshooting
tools that are designed to              Using the Nslookup Utility
diagnose problems at all
levels.                                 Using Net and Nbtstat to manage NetBIOS name
                                        resolution




*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE******************************
                             A number of utilities are available to troubleshoot name resolution and other
                             network configuration problems. These utilities include the following:
                                The Ipconfig utility displays IP configuration data on your computer. Use
                                this utility to verify that your IP configuration is valid, and that IP addresses
                                have been assigned if using DHCP, or are correctly configured if using
                                static addressing.
                                The Ping utility verifies that you can communicate with another computer,
                                or even loop back to your own computer, by using TCP/IP. Use the Ping
                                utility to verify that communication is possible.
                                The Tracert utility reports the routes that have been used to reach a certain
                                IP address. Use the Tracert utility to diagnose problems of slow
                                connections.
                                The Nslookup utility uses DNS to translate a computer name to an IP
                                address. Use the Nslookup utility to verify that the remote computer name is
                                registered with the appropriate DNS servers.
                                The Net utility displays network settings for a computer. The Nbtstat utility
                                is the primary tool used for managing the NetBIOS name cache information,
                                and it can be used to display statistics and details about current TCP/IP
                                connections.
28         Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution



Using the Ipconfig Utility
Topic Objective                                 ipconfig /all
                                                ipconfig /all
To show how to use the
Ipconfig utility to display IP            Windows 2000 IP Configuration
                                           Windows 2000 IP Configuration
configuration parameters.                         Host Name . . . . . . . . . . . . : W2KServer_06
                                                   Host Name . . . . . . . . . . . . : W2KServer_06
                                                  Primary DNS Suffix . . . . . . . : MyPC.MyOffice.com
                                                   Primary DNS Suffix . . . . . . . : MyPC.MyOffice.com
Lead-in                                           Node Type . . . . . . . . . . . . : Hybrid
                                                   Node Type . . . . . . . . . . . . : Hybrid
The Ipconfig utility is used to                   IP Routing Enabled. . . . . . . . : Yes
                                                   IP Routing Enabled. . . . . . . . : Yes
verify that there are not any                     WINS Proxy Enabled. . . . . . . . : No
                                                   WINS Proxy Enabled. . . . . . . . : No
problems in the IP                        Ethernet Adapter Local Area Connection:
                                           Ethernet Adapter Local Area Connection:
                                                  Connection-specific DNS Suffix . :
configuration on the                               Connection-specific DNS Suffix . :
                                                  Description . . . . . . . . . . . : Intel PCI Adapter
                                                   Description . . . . . . . . . . . : Intel PCI Adapter
computer.                                         Physical Address. . . . . . . . . : 02-00-4C-4F-4F-50
                                                   Physical Address. . . . . . . . . : 02-00-4C-4F-4F-50
                                                  DHCP Enabled. . . . . . . . . . . : Yes
                                                   DHCP Enabled. . . . . . . . . . . : Yes
                                                  Autoconfiguration Enabled . . . . : Yes
                                                   Autoconfiguration Enabled . . . . : Yes
                                                  Autoconfiguration IP Address. . . : 169.254.25.129
                                                   Autoconfiguration IP Address. . . : 169.254.25.129
                                                  Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . : 255.255.0.0
                                                   Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . : 255.255.0.0
                                                  Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . :
                                                   Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . :
                                                  DNS Servers . . . . . . . . . . . :
                                                   DNS Servers . . . . . . . . . . . :




*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE******************************
                                  The Ipconfig utility displays the current TCP/IP configuration parameters on
                                  your computer. At a command prompt, type ipconfig followed by its
                                  parameters.
                                  Without the /all option, ipconfig produces a short listing, including the IP
                                  address and subnet mask. This is useful when DHCP automatically assigns an
                                  IP address to ensure that a valid address has been assigned. When using a static
                                  IP address, this can verify that the correct address is assigned.
                                  With the /all option, ipconfig produces a display of the current IP
                                  configuration, and parameters for the network connection on your computer.
                                  This is useful for checking that the client is configured with the correct WINS
                                  and DNS server IP addresses.

                                  Note To display the IP configuration of computers running Windows 95 or
                                  Windows 98, use Winipcfg.
                                                                      Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution         29



Using the Ping Utility
Topic Objective                               ping 192.168.188.20
                                              ping 192.168.188.20
To show how to use the
Ping utility to verify that your                 ping MyHost
                                                 ping MyHost
computer can communicate
with another computer.                       Pinging MyHost [192.168.188.20] with 32 bytes of data:
                                              Pinging MyHost [192.168.188.20] with 32 bytes of data:
Lead-in                                      Reply from 192.168.188.20: bytes=32 time<10ms TTL=128
The Ping utility is used to                   Reply from 192.168.188.20: bytes=32 time<10ms TTL=128
                                             Reply from 192.168.188.20: bytes=32 time<10ms TTL=128
                                              Reply from 192.168.188.20: bytes=32 time<10ms TTL=128
verify that IP communication                 Reply from 192.168.188.20: bytes=32 time<10ms TTL=128
                                              Reply from 192.168.188.20: bytes=32 time<10ms TTL=128
is functional between your                   Reply from 192.168.188.20: bytes=32 time<10ms TTL=128
                                              Reply from 192.168.188.20: bytes=32 time<10ms TTL=128
computer and another host.
                                             Ping statistics for 192.168.188.20:
                                              Ping statistics for 192.168.188.20:
                                                 Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
                                                  Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
                                             Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
                                              Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
                                                 Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms
                                                  Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms




*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE******************************
                                   The Ping utility tests for low-level communication over IP to another host in the
                                   form of an echo request on the network. If the Ping utility fails, it returns an
                                   error message.
                                   You can receive various messages when you are using the Ping utility. A
                                   “Destination host unreachable” error message indicates that there is a problem
                                   at the IP routing level between your computer and the remote host.
                                   An “Unknown host hostname” error message indicates that none of the client’s
                                   name resolution mechanisms recognize the name that you typed. In this case,
                                   you must check that you typed the host name correctly.
                                   A “Request timed out” error message indicates that at least one of the name
                                   resolution mechanisms recognized the name, but the target either did not
                                   receive the request or did not respond to it. In this case, you must check
                                   connectivity to the target host.
                                   The Ping utility can also perform a loopback test to the computer that it is
                                   running on. At a command prompt, type ping 127.0.0.1 or ping loopback
                                   If this loopback test fails, there is a problem with the IP configuration. For
                                   example, your computer may not have been set up to use IP, or it may not have
                                   restarted after TCP/IP was installed and configured.
                                   The Ping utility can accept an IP address or a host name. In this way, the Ping
                                   utility can also be used to test name resolution. If the Ping utility that uses an IP
                                   address connects, but the Ping utility that uses a host name fails to connect,
                                   there is a problem with name resolution.

                                   Note For security reasons, many Internet resources are configured to not
                                   respond to the Ping utility. If you attempt to ping a Web address, such as
                                   www.microsoft.com, you will receive a “Request timed out” error message
                                   because the address has been configured to not respond to ping requests.
30   Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution


                       To resolve a communication problem, use the Ping utility as in the following
                       example:
                       1. At a command prompt, type ping loopback or ping 127.0.0.1. to ping the
                          loopback address. If this fails, verify that TCP/IP has been installed and
                          configured on your computer, and that your computer has been restarted.
                       2. Ping the IP address of a computer that you want to reach on your own
                          subnet. If this fails, verify that TCP/IP has been installed and configured on
                          that computer, and that the computer has been restarted.
                       3. Ping the IP address of the default gateway. If this fails, verify that the
                          default gateway IP address is correct and that the gateway is operational.
                       4. Ping the IP address of a remote host on a different subnet. If this fails, verify
                          the IP addresses of the remote host and the gateways. Verify that the remote
                          host and all gateways are operational.
                       5. Ping the IP address of the DNS server. If this fails, verify that the DNS
                          server IP address is correct, and that all gateways between this computer and
                          the remote host are operational.


                       Note For more information about the Ping utility, see Microsoft Windows 2000
                       Server Help.
                                                                     Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution                 31



Using the Tracert Utility
Topic Objective                          tracert 192.168.180.113
                                         tracert 192.168.180.113
To show how to use the
Tracert utility to display                   tracert Suva
                                             tracert Suva
details of network routing
used to reach a particular        C:\tracert suva
host.                              C:\tracert suva
                                  Tracing route to suva.suvadom.nwtrades.msft [192.168.180.113] over aamaximum of 30 hops:
                                   Tracing route to suva.suvadom.nwtrades.msft [192.168.180.113] over maximum of 30 hops:
Lead-in                           11 <10 ms <10 ms <10 ms
                                         <10 ms <10 ms <10 ms
The Tracert utility is used       glasgow.nwtraders.msft [192.168.222.1]
                                   glasgow.nwtraders.msft [192.168.222.1]
                                  22 <10 ms <10 ms <10 ms
                                         <10 ms <10 ms <10 ms
when a remote host is not
                                  router2.network.microsoft.com [192.168.10.1]
                                   router2.network.microsoft.com [192.168.10.1]
reachable, or when
                                  11 <10 ms <10 ms <10 ms
                                         <10 ms <10 ms <10 ms
communications are slow.          SUVA [192.168.180.113]
                                   SUVA [192.168.180.113]




*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE******************************
                              When you use the Ping utility and do not get a successful reply, you must
                              determine the source of the problem. The Tracert utility is similar to the Ping
                              utility, except that it reports back from each router on the path from source to
                              target. If you know the network topology in your organization, you can
                              determine which router is unresponsive or slow.
                              The Tracert utility can also be used to determine whether a server has been
                              configured to not answer pings. In this case, it shows a reply from every router
                              on the path from source to destination, but not from the destination server itself.

                              Note For more information about the Tracert utility, see Microsoft
                              Windows 2000 Server Help.
32         Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution



Using the Nslookup Utility
Topic Objective                            nslookup www.nwtraders.msft
                                           nslookup www.nwtraders.msft
To show how to use the
Nslookup utility to verify the
operation of DNS functions.
                                     Server: london.nwtraders.msft
                                      Server: london.nwtraders.msft
Lead-in                              Address: 192.168.222.200
                                      Address: 192.168.222.200
The Nslookup utility is used
when other diagnostic tools          Name: hostA.europe1.nwtraders.msft
                                      Name: hostA.europe1.nwtraders.msft
work with IP addresses, but          Addresses: 192.168.230.229, 192.168.230.219, 192.168.197.113
                                      Addresses: 192.168.230.229, 192.168.230.219, 192.168.197.113
not with host names.                 Aliases: www.nwtraders.msft
                                      Aliases: www.nwtraders.msft




*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE******************************
                                 The Nslookup utility displays information from DNS servers. To optimize the
                                 use of this tool, you must be familiar with how DNS works.
                                 If one parameter is supplied, it is used as the name to be resolved, and the
                                 server that is configured by default for the computer is used as the server. If a
                                 second parameter is supplied, it is assumed to be the server that will be used for
                                 name resolution. The resulting nslookup command is:
                                 Nslookup WKS1 DNSServer3

                                 This command queries DNSServer3 for the IP address of the host, WKS1.
                                 The Nslookup utility can also be run in interactive mode by typing nslookup at
                                 a command prompt, with no parameters. The command then displays its own
                                 prompt. Type help to obtain a list of valid commands.

                                 Note For more information about the Nslookup utility, see Module 5,
                                 “Managing DNS,” in Course 2126B, Managing a Microsoft Windows 2000
                                 Network Environment.
                                                               Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution          33



Using Net and Nbtstat to Manage NetBIOS Name Resolution
Topic Objective
To show how to use the net
and nbtstat commands to
manage NetBIOS name                       Use the net command to view network settings
resolution.
                                             Net config workstation
Lead-in
If you have problems with                 Use the nbtstat command to view and manage NetBIOS
NetBIOS name resolution,                  cache and other settings
check the NetBIOS name
information, and confirm
what is in the NetBIOS
name cache.




*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE******************************
                             The net command is primarily used for viewing network settings for the
                             computer. The main net command that is used for testing NetBIOS name
                             resolution is the net config workstation command. The Net config
                             workstation command reports the NetBIOS name and the domain name of the
                             computer.

                             Note For more information about the net command, at a command prompt,
                             type net help

                             The nbtstat command checks the state of current NetBIOS over TCP/IP
                             connections, updates the Lmhosts cache, and determines your registered name.
                             This command is also useful for troubleshooting and preloading the NetBIOS
                             name cache.
                             The following table shows the nbstat command options that you can use to
                             diagnose protocol statistics and TCP/IP connections.
                             Command                                   Description

                             nbtstat -n                                Lists the NetBIOS names registered by the
                                                                       client
                             nbtstat -c                                Displays the NetBIOS name cache
                             nbtstat -R                                Manually reloads the NetBIOS name
                                                                       cache by using entries in the Lmhosts file
                                                                       with a #PRE parameter


                             Note For more information about the nbtstat command, at a command
                             prompt, type nbtstat /?
34        Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution



Best Practices
Topic Objective
To highlight some best                 Configure Clients with More WINS server IP addresses
                                       Configure Clients with More WINS server IP addresses
practices when
implementing name
resolution.
Lead-in                                Preload the NetBIOS Name Cache
                                       Preload the NetBIOS Name Cache
Here we address some best
practices for implementing
name resolution.
                                       Use NBTSTAT –RR
                                       Use NBTSTAT –RR



                                       Every Line in the Hosts File Should Contain an IP address
                                       Every Line in the Hosts File Should Contain an IP address



*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE******************************
                               Configure clients with more WINS server IP addresses.
                               In Windows NT, you could configure clients to use only a primary and
                               secondary WINS server. For Windows 2000, you can configure WINS
                               clients, either manually or through DHCP, to use up to 12 WINS servers. A
                               larger list of WINS servers gives clients additional fault tolerance for WINS
                               when their configured primary WINS server is not available.
                               Preload the NetBIOS name cache.
                               Entries that you add are always answered first from the NetBIOS name
                               cache and not sent to the WINS Server when queries are made to resolve
                               these NetBIOS names to IP addresses. The NetBIOS name cache can be
                               preloaded with an Lmhosts file containing #PRE entries.
                               Use NBTSTAT –RR to register and troubleshoot client connectivity.
                               For Windows 2000, the NBTSTAT –RR command-line option supports
                               purging of remote names from the local NetBIOS names cache and forces
                               immediate renewal and re-registration of local client names. You can use
                               this command-line option to refresh the client entries in WINS and replicate
                               them to other replication partners without requiring a client reboot.
                                                                 Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution        35


                                   Preload the client resolver cache.
Delivery Tip
Mention that this best             Entries you add are always answered first from the local resolver cache and
practice regarding hosts           not sent to the DNS query when queries are made locally to resolve these
files is only a best practice if   names to host (A) resource records.
you are using them. A better
best practice might be to          Every line in the Hosts file should contain an IP address followed by one or
use DNS.                           more host names.
                                   For example, you could add a line such as the following with an IP address
                                   (10.0.0.1) that maps to more than one host name:
                                   10.0.0.1 computer-a computer-a.example.nwtraders.msft computer-
                                   b.example2.nwtraders.msft
                                   Likewise, a single host name can correspond to more than one IP address if
                                   each of the addresses is mapped and used in separate lines. For example,
                                   you could add lines for the following multi-homed or multi-addressable
                                   DNS host computer:
                                   10.0.0.1 computer-a.example.nwtraders.msft
                                   10.0.0.2 computer-a.example.nwtraders.msft
                                   10.0.0.3 computer-a.example.nwtraders.msft
36         Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution



Lab A: Configuring a Client Computer for Name
Resolution
Topic Objective
To introduce the lab.
Lead-in
In this lab, you will configure
and test the name resolution
configuration for clients
running Windows 2000.




*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE******************************

Key Points                        Objectives
The lab does not reflect the
                                  After completing this lab, you will be able to:
real-world environment. It is
recommended that you              • Configure and test a Windows 2000 client’s name resolution configuration.
always use complex
passwords for any
administrator accounts, and       Estimated time to complete this lab: 15 minutes
never create accounts
without a password.               Important Outside of the classroom environment, it is strongly advised that
                                  you use the most recent software updates that are necessary. Because this is a
Outside of the classroom          classroom environment, we may use software that does not include the latest
environment, it is strongly       updates.
advised that you use the
most recent software
updates that are necessary.
Because this is a classroom
environment, we may use
software that does not
include the latest updates.
                                                        Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution   37


Lab Setup
 Tasks                             Detailed steps

 •   Log on to your domain as      a.   Press CTRL+ALT+DEL to open the logon screen.
     Administrator with a          b.   In the User Name box, type Administrator
     password of password.
                                   c.   In the Password box, type password
                                   d.   In the Domain box, ensure that your domain is listed.
                                   e.   Click OK.



                     Important This Lab does not reflect the real-world environment. It is
                     recommended that you always use complex passwords for any user or
                     administrator accounts, and never create accounts without a password.
38          Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution


     Exercise 1
     Verifying and Testing TCP/IP Communications for a
     Windows 2000 Computer
     In this exercise, you will verify the TCP/IP configuration information and then use Ipconfig and
     Ping to verify proper operation.


     Scenario
     You stopped by a user’s office to install an application when they told you they were unable to
     connect with a server on a remote network. You need to verify the user’s IP configuration and then
     use Ping to verify network connectivity to a local and remote network.


       Tasks                                 Detailed steps

       1.    View the TCP/IP properties       a.   Click Start, point to Settings, and then click Network and Dial-up
             in the Local Area                     Connections.
             Connection Properties            b.   In Network and Dial-up Connections, right-click Local Area
             dialog box.                           Connections, and then click Properties.
                                              c.   In the Local Area Connection Properties dialog box, click to
                                                   highlight Internet Protocol (TPC/IP), and then click Properties.

               What is your current IP configuration? Record your settings below.

               IP address:

               Subnet mask:

               Default gateway:

               Preferred DNS server:

               What is a benefit to manually configuring network servers IP configuration instead of using DHCP? What is
               not a benefit?


               Benefit: The IP configuration is not effected by a lease so the IP configuration will not expire.
               Not a Benefit: Each server must be manually configured.




       1. (continued)                         d.   Click Cancel to close the Local Area Connection Properties dialog
                                                   box and then close all open windows.
                                                           Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution           39




Tasks                                Detailed steps

2.   View the IP address, subnet      a.   Click Start, point to Programs, point to Accessories, and then click
     mask, and default gateway             Command Prompt.
     information for all              b.   In the Command Prompt window, type ipconfig and then press
     connections using the                 ENTER.
     Ipconfig utility, and the
     view all of the configuration    c.   Verify that the information listed matches the information previously
     information by using the              recorded.
     /All switch.                     d.   In the Command Prompt window, type ipconfig /all and then press
                                           ENTER.
                                      e.   Verify that the information listed matches the information previously
                                           recorded.

      TIP! At the command prompt you can press the up or down arrow to scroll through the commands you
      have run. Also you can press F7 to see a complete list and then use the up or down arrow to select from
      among them.
3.   Ping the Loopback                a.   In the Command Prompt window, type ping 127.0.0.1 and then press
     Connection.                           ENTER.
                                      b.   Verify that you receive four reply messages.

4.   Ping the IP address of your      a.   In the Command Prompt window, type ping ip_address (where
     computer.                             ip_address is the IP address you recorded previously), and then press
                                           ENTER.
                                      b.   Verify that you receive four reply messages.

5.   Ping the IP address of the       a.   In the Command Prompt window, type ping ip_address (where
     Default gateway.                      ip_address is the IP address of the Default gateway), and then press
                                           ENTER.
                                      b.   Verify that you receive four reply messages.

6.   Ping the IP address of the       a.   In the Command Prompt window, type ping ip_address (where
     London computer.                      ip_address is the IP address of London), and then press ENTER.
                                      b.   Verify that you receive four reply messages.

7.   Ping the London computer         a.   In the Command Prompt window, type ping london and then press
     using its server name.                ENTER.
                                      b.   Verify that you receive four reply messages.
40          Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution


     Exercise 2
     Viewing TCP/IP Information in Windows 2000
     In this exercise, you will verify that the Ipconfig and Nbtstat utilities are available on computers
     running Windows 2000, identify which switches are available with each, and what those switches
     do.


     Scenario
     You stopped by a user’s office to install an application when they told you they were unable to
     connect with a server on a remote network. You need to verify the user’s IP configuration and then
     use Ipconfig and Nbtstat to remove the information stored in cache.


       Tasks                                 Detailed steps

       1.    Run the Ipconfig utility with   a.   In the Command Prompt window, type ipconfig /all |more and then
             the /All switch.                     press ENTER.
                                             b.   Verify that the configuration information displayed matches the
                                                  information you recorded earlier.

       2.    Run the Ipconfig utility with    •   In the Command Prompt window, type ipconfig /displaydns and then
             the /Displaydns switch.              press ENTER.

               Are there any entries in the DNS cache?


               Yes. There are DNS entries for any computers that you ran ping using their server names.




       3.    Run the Ipconfig utility with    •   In the Command Prompt window, type ipconfig /flushdns and then
             the /Flushdns switch.                press ENTER.

       4.    Run the Ipconfig utility with    •   In the Command Prompt window, type ipconfig /displaydns and then
             the /Display switch.                 press ENTER.

               Are there any entries in the DNS cache?


               No. Only the local host entry appears in the DNS cache.




       5.    Ping Glasgow.                   a.   In the Command Prompt window, type ping glasgow and then press
                                                  ENTER.
                                             b.   Notice that the Ping reply is for Glasgow.nwtraders.msft.

       6.    Ping server_name (where         a.   In the Command Prompt window, type ping server_name and then
             server_name is the name of           press ENTER.
             your server).                   b.   Notice that the Ping reply is for server_name.domain.nwtraders.msft.
                                                           Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution           41




Tasks                                Detailed steps

7.   Ping student_server (where      a.   In the Command Prompt window, type ping student_server (where
     student_server is the name           student_server is the name of another student’s server) and then press
     of another student’s server).        ENTER.
                                     b.   Notice that the Ping reply is for student_server.

8.   Run the Nbtstat utility with     •   In the Command Prompt window, type nbtstat –c and then press
     the –c switch.                       ENTER.

       Are there any entries in the NetBIOS name cache? Why is there no entry for Glasgow?


       Yes. There is an entry for student_server (where student_server is the name of another student’s
       server in the classroom). There is no entry for Glasgow or server_name (where server_name is the
       name of your server) because DNS was used to resolve the name.




9.   Run the Nbtstat utility using   a.   In the Command Prompt window, type nbtstat –r and then press
     the following switches:              ENTER.
     -r                              b.   In the Command Prompt window, type nbtstat –R and then press
     -R                                   ENTER.
     -c.
                                     c.   In the Command Prompt window, type nbtstat –c and then press
                                          ENTER.
                                     d.   Close all open windows and log off.
42        Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution



Review
Topic Objective
To reinforce module
objectives by reviewing key
points.                                  Introduction to Name Resolution
Lead-in                                  NetBIOS Name Resolution
The review questions cover
some of the key concepts                 Examining WINS
taught in the module.
                                         Host Name Resolution
                                         Troubleshooting Name Resolution
                                         Best Practices




*****************************ILLEGAL FOR NON-TRAINER USE******************************
                              1. In Windows operating systems, what two methods are used to resolve host
                                 names to IP addresses?
                                 NetBIOS host names are resolved with WINS, and TCP/IP host names
                                 are resolved with DNS.


                              2. What is the main use of the #Include directive in the Lmhosts file?
                                 The #Include directive is used to include entries in a remote Lmhosts
                                 file as if it were part of the local Lmhosts file. In that way, you can
                                 create a centralized Lmhosts file that network clients use.



                              3. Describe the basic steps that are involved in DNS host name resolution.
                                 1. The name that is being resolved is compared to the computer’s host
                                    name. If the two names are the same, resolution ends.
                                 2. The Hosts file is checked for the name that is being resolved. If the
                                    name is found, resolution ends.
                                 3. The DNS server that is used by the client computer is asked to
                                    resolve the host name.
                               Module 13: Implementing Name Resolution     43


4. How do you configure a client running Windows 2000 to use a specific
   DNS server?
   If the client computer uses DHCP, the DNS server can be assigned with
   the IP address for the client computer. Alternatively, you can designate
   the IP address of the DNS server in the TCP/IP properties of the client
   computer.



5. A computer on your network cannot access network resources. You suspect
   that the computer’s TCP/IP configuration is incorrect. What command can
   you use to quickly obtain a list of the computer’s TCP/IP configuration?
   At a command prompt, type ipconfig with the /all option. This reports
   the IP address, subnet mask, default gateway, DNS servers, WINS
   server, and other details.
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