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					    Unit 15
The Future's Lisbon
    Contents

1   The Treaty of Lisbon


2   The European Union


3   The EU Constitution


4   Topics for discussion
          The Treaty of Lisbon
The Treaty of Lisbon is signed on 13 December
 2007.
Not a founding treaty.
Goal of the Treaty: A more democratic and
 transparent Europe
The increase of co-decision procedure in policy-
 making.
                   Changes in QMV
 The old system: A minimum of 73.9 % of all votes from
   14 member states is required to reach a qualified
   majority.
The new system: A minimum of 55%
of all votes, representing a minimum
of 65% of the EU's population. To
make it impossible for a very small
number of the most populous Member
States to prevent a decision from
being adopted, a blocking minority
must comprise at least four Member
States; otherwise, the qualified
majority will be deemed to have been
reached even if the population
criterion is not met.
             The Citizens’ Initiative
The ECI opens up the possibility for citizens to
 submit a proposal to the European Commission.
 At least one million EU citizens have to sign the
 initiative.
 There will no longer be a Commissioner from every country - but
  from two-thirds of the Member States. Commissioners will be
  selected on a system of equal rotation among the Member States to
  serve five-year terms.

 A new permanent post, the President of the European Council, is
  created. He or she will be appointed by the European Council for a
  two and a half years period. This will provide greater continuity and
  stability to the work of the European Council.
        The Charter of Fundamental Rights
 The Treaty of Lisbon makes a cross-reference to the Charter as a
  real catalogue of rights that the EU believes all citizens of the Union
  should enjoy vis-à-vis the Union's institutions and the Union's law
  binding guarantees. The six chapters of the Charter cover the
  following aspects: individual rights related to dignity; freedoms,
  equality, solidarity, rights linked to citizenship status and justice.
 The institutions of the Union must respect the rights written into the
  Charter. The same obligations are incumbent upon the Member
  States when they implement the Union’s legislation. The Court of
  Justice will ensure that the Charter is applied correctly.
               Institutions
            Institutions of EU

European Parliament,
European Council,
European Commission,
European Court of justice,
European Court of auditors
European Council
European Central Bank
               European Council

Gains institutional status

Gains decision making powers in relation to a
 number of ‘quasi-constitutional’ functions

Gains an individual President
           European Parliament
Number of MEPs  Principle of Degressive
 Proportionality

Benefits e.g., via Extension of Ordinary
 Legislative Procedure
              Increased Budgetary
               Powers
                European Court of Justice
 Renamed:
 Article 19 of the Treaty on European Union (post Lisbon)

 “1. The Court of Justice of the European Union shall include the Court
  of Justice, the General Court and specialised courts. It shall ensure
  that in the interpretation and application of the Treaties the law is
  observed.”

 New Appointments Procedure

 Extension of Court’s jurisdiction in JHA matters
High Representative for Foreign Affairs
         and Security Policy
                   Intended to provide
                    continuity and cohesion

                   Double-hatted role Vice-
                    President of the

                    Commission
                                     Presiding
                    over the Foreign Affairs
                                       Council
                   Possible overlap with role of
                    President of European
                    Council
      National Parliaments and the Treaty of
                        Lisbon
                Four specified rights:
   The right to police the so-called ‘subsidiarity’
    principle
   Formal role in drafting any future foundational
    Treaties
   A direct right to veto certain future Treaty
    amendments
   Information rights
                                                            http://www.bized.co.uk




     The European Union



All photographs and graphics courtesy of
European Commission Audiovisual Library
http://europa.eu.int/comm/mediatheque/photo/index_en.html
The European Union
          The EU, USA and Japan




Comparison between Japan-EU-USA population, share of world GDP, share of world trade
Institutions
                               Political
 EU Parliament – Currently 785 MEPs. Based in France, Belgium
  and Luxembourg
     Passes laws, monitors budget, monitors EU institutions
 EU Council – Ministerial representations from each member state
     Passes laws, approves EU budget, co-ordination
      of economic policies, develops foreign policy,
      co-ordinates anti-crime strategies
 EU Commission – 20 Commissioners appointed by each member
  state every 5 years
     Proposes legislation, implements EU policies,
      law enforcement, international co-ordination
                       Financial
 European Central Bank – inflation target
  of less than 2% per year, sets short term interest rates
  for the whole eurozone area,
    Implements and monitors Eurozone monetary
      policy
 European Investment Bank –
  ‘owned’ by member states.
  Raise finance through financial markets,
    Invest in projects to promote aims of EU –
      large scale projects
 Court of Auditors – monitors legality
  and efficiency of EU income and expenditure
  Court of Justice
 15 judges and 8 advocate generals appointed
  by member states for 6 year terms.

 The Court of Justice ensures that Community
   law is uniformly interpreted and effectively applied.

 It has jurisdiction in disputes involving Member States, EU
  institutions, businesses and individuals

 http://curia.eu.int/en/index.htm
The EU Headquarters

                Brussels, Belgium

                Selected as the
                 headquarters of the
                 European Union
                 because of its centralized
                 location in Europe.
Member States pre-Enlargement
                               Member States




Map reproduced with permission from www.theodora.com
Enlargement - New Members



            Hungary
            Estonia
            Cyprus
             Latvia
         Czech Republic




           Slovenia
           Slovakia
            Poland
             Malta
           Lithuania
Activities
                   Agriculture
 CAP – Common Agricultural Policy
    Sustainablility
    Food Quality
    Animal Welfare
    Food Safety
    Control
    Farmers welfare/incomes
    Employment in agriculture
                      Fisheries

 CFP – Common Fisheries
  Policy
    Conservation
     of fish stocks
    Aid to fishing industry
     to cope with changing
     circumstances
    Monitor supply
     and demand for fish
    Negotiate with non-EU
     members on fishing
     issues
Regions
 European Regional Development
  Fund
 European Social Fund
 European Agricultural Guidance and
  Guarantee Fund
 Financial Instrument for Fisheries
  Guidance
    Aims to encourage development of
     poorer regions
    Increase employment opportunities
    Encourage new industry to locate in
     areas
     of structural decline
    Develop infrastructure in poorer
     regions
    Encourage new training methods and
     facilities
            Finance/Economics
 Euro – monitor introduction and
  development
 Tax Harmonisation – reduce
  differentials
  in tax regimes throughout the
  single market
  to aid competition and
  transparency
 Single Market – free movement of
  goods, services, labour and capital
  between
  member states
            Eurozone 2001




Members of the Eurozone, 2001. UK, Denmark and
Norway currently outside the zone
   The
 European
Constitution
        Presented by Eveline
            Prelipceanu
           AIVb (2004/05)
        HISTORY of TREATIES
Treaty of Paris                    1951
Treaties of Rome            1957
Single European Act                1986
Maastricht Treaty           1992
Amsterdam Treaty            1997
Nice Treaty                        2001
The European Constitution   2004
          PREPARATION STAGE
European Convention on the Future of Europe
 28th February 02 – 20th June 03
PROCEEDINGS
   Dates, topics and documents were collected
   Contributions by members of the Convention
CONVENTION RESULTS
   Draft Treaty of a Constitution
Convention
          NEGOTIATION STAGE
 Intergovernmental Conference under Italian
  EU Presidency
     Rome 4th Oct. – Brussels 13th Dec. 03
 Push by Irish Presidency
     inaugurated on 1 January – June 2004
 Official Enlargement of EU
     25 member states on 1 May 2004
        RATIFICATION STAGE (1)

Approvment by the EU at the European Council
   Brussels: 18th June 2004
   signed in Rome: 29th October 2004
Candidate countries only signed Final Act
   Bulgaria, Romania, Turkey
observer nation
   Croatia participated as an observer, as it had not been
    represented in the Convention
Heads of state and government took signed
 the EU Constitution in the same room where
 the Treaty of Rome was signed in 1957.
        RATIFICATION STAGE (2)
 Member States need Ratification
   by referendum in:
    Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Ireland,
    Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, UK
    by Parliament in:
    Austria, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Greece, Italy,
    Lithuania, Malta, Slovenia, Sweden
    No decision has been made yet concerning the
     ratification process in:
    Hungary, Latvia, Slovakia
         Topics for Discussion
1. How is Lisbon treaty different from the
 former EU Constitutional Treaty ?
                               2. Why did some
                               countries veto the
                               EU Constitutional
                               Treaty ?
                               3. What sort of
                               Europe would
                               emerge after Irish
                               voters approved the
                               Lisbon Treaty ?

				
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