Kim Levin’s edition of Printed Project, entitled ‘Unconditional Love’ features works by artists internationally known for their extreme projects and interventions – sometimes possessing elements of possible danger or destruction, illegality or un-lovability. The 12 projects presented in the publication run the gamut from fantasy to reality, with some interesting connections arising between them.
07 ISSUE : 07 kim levin ekaterina degot maurizio cattelan marina abramovic tania bruguera christoph buchel luca buvoli andrea fraser kendell geers oleg kulik maurice o’connell santiago sierra nedko solakov tavares strachan kim levin curator/editor ISSUE : 07 kim levin curator/editor kim levin ekaterina degot maurizio cattelan marina abramovic tania bruguera christoph buchel luca buvoli andrea fraser kendell geers oleg kulik maurice o’connell santiago sierra nedko solakov tavares strachan ‘unconditional love’ 7.50 / £ 5 / $10 e published by Visual Artists Ireland ‘unconditional love’ kim levin kim levin Contents Printed Project ISSUE 7 Unconditional Love Curator/Editor Kim Levin Kim Levin Maurizio Cattelan Francis Bacon Marina Abramovic Tania Bruguera Luca Buvoli Andrea Fraser Kendell Geers Oleg Kulik Maurice O’Connell Santiago Sierra Nedko Solakov Tavares Strachan Ekaterina Degot Unconditional Love Death is Like the Shadow of Life Virginias Trust Workshop – Opening Reception Russia 2007 Flying – Practical Training For Beginners El Museo postpopfuck The Way of Grass Proposition for an Entire City Economic Study of the Skin of the Caraquenos (people of Caracas) An Inappropriate One The Chickcharney I Mission Afterword 2 11 19 27 39 49 59 67 75 85 93 101 108 Contributors 112 Unconditional Love Kim Levin In her idiosyncratic gallery talks, museum tour performances, ‘services’ and other projects, Fraser has turned the tables by transposing elements of the support system into the artwork itself. In her Official Welcome in 2001 (commissioned by the MICA Foundation, which announces its annual commission with an Official Welcome) she switched roles between artist, patron, supporter, and back to artist. Playing nine roles, she welcomed herself and then gave an acceptance speech while stripping off her clothes and putting them back on. It was a wild mix of bad faith, sincerity, cynicism, and unbridled imagination, with words appropriated from other acceptance speeches – by Mel Brooks, Benjamin Buchloh, and Thomas Hirschhorn, among others. As Fraser said in her role as the grateful artist, “It’s not about hope. It’s about showing my disgust with the dominant discourse.”5 Santiago Sierra moved to Mexico City from Madrid in 1995. Explaining what provoked his interventions, which explore class structures, capitalist exploitation, and economic systems, he said to Rosa Martinez: “I arrived in Mexico with the devaluation of the peso; there were a lot of people scrounging for food in rubbish bins. Violence generated by the free market in Latin America is as patent as it is distant and mediatised in the European Community.”6 At the outer limits of art practice, his resistant art, which mimics the exploitative aspects of labour and sometimes verges on vandalism, is about exploitation and exclusion, as well as race and immigration. In 1998, Sierra obstructed a freeway by positioning a white trailer truck perpendicular to the road, generating a traffic jam. Remarked Sierra: “At heart I am a Minimalist with a guilt complex.”7 He had already torched the walls and floors of a brand new gallery for his inaugural show. But he is best known for his many ‘remunerated’ works; he has paid eight labourers hourly wages to sit inside cardboard boxes, paid six unemployed men in Cuba to have a line tattooed across their backs, and arranged thirty paid immigrant workers in Vienna according to their skin colour. At the Spanish Pavilion in the 2003 Venice Biennale, he staged an exercise in exclusion. He covered the word Espana on the façade and blocked the main entrance with a rough cinderblock wall. A plaque instructed people of Spanish nationality to use the back door. There, two border officials in uniform stood guard, sternly demanding to see passports. Only people of Spanish nationality were admitted. Few witnessed a one-hour performance within. “I do indeed aspire to the ‘ideological placement of the political unconscious,’ ” 8 Sierra has stated. Writes Kendell Geers, an Afrikaaner from Johannesburg, “Imagine you wake up one morning and your country has disappeared. Your bed and your house are the same and your neighbourhood is almost the same, but your neighbours seem to have changed and the city is changing even as you get out of bed. On the news a man who you do not recognize is making an inaugural presidential speech, introducing a flag and national anthem you do not recognise and he is speaking about a country, yours, that you do not know. Very soon you will begin to change as well…” 9 If Sierra implicates the viewer as complicit in his work, Geers, who once pissed into Duchamp’s urinal as an aesthetic act, has been excoriated for the opposite reasons. His interventions – which are about domination and social control, individual and collective responsibility – catch the viewer by surprise. Dealing viscerally with power structures, forensic evidence, violence, and guilt, his provocations include a 6000-volt electric fence, a brick thrown through a window, museum bomb-threat texts, a hole blasted in a gallery wall, razor-wire installations, and the attempted appropriation of a nationalist celebration in Pretoria as his own artwork, as well as 2 3 When Printed Project invited me to be guest curator/editor of their Summer 2007 issue, I took the invitation quite literally. Printed Project, I declared, would be an exhibition in the form of a publication, a show that would exist only on the page. I proposed to curate the issue. I selected a dozen artists, and gave a number of pages to each of them. My suggestions to the artists: conceive a future project that may not be possible to realise in actuality; provide notes, plans, or images for a past project that didn’t or couldn’t happen; or just do something meant for the pages themselves. The artists I chose are internationally known for work that goes to extremes. They do temporal or performance-based provocations, interventions involving impropriety, obstruction and implausibility. They deal with displacement, disruption, and dysfunction. They are maverick conceptualists, maximal minimalists, process artists of a peculiar sort. ‘Post-studio’ artists who initially became known as enfants terribles, their outrageous interventions have created much immediate comment and sometimes scandal, but oddly enough, though many have been at work for over a decade, their art has generated little serious consideration.1 Only recently have they begun to be taken seriously. Maybe this was because their transgressions were too unpredictable or too barbed, aimed not just against the notion of art-as-commodity but against theoretical discourse and the Modernist tradition of negation. Addressing issues of privacy and property and institutional support systems, sometimes using humour or absurdity as a disruptive force, they systematically disrupt the structures that exist. They break, as it were, the social contract. Are the questions they raise maybe a little too hot to handle? In 2003 Andrea Fraser, who is known for her art of ‘institutional critique’, asked her gallery to arrange a commission that would involve the artist and an unidentified collector having sex. The commissioned work, Untitled, is a one-hour video that records just that. “My first impulse was probably, well, if I’m gonna-havta sell it, I might as well sell it,” said Fraser in an interview with curator Yilmaz Dziewior.2 “Against art-sex-as-fantasy of transgression or liberation, I started thinking about making a piece about art-sex-as-exchange.” Critics tend to talk about Untitled in terms of prostitution, metaphoric or otherwise. The artist says: “As it happened, in fact, the determining force in the project Untitled had much less to do with the contractual terms of economic exchange than the consensual terms of interpersonal exchange, which are both emotional and ethical, really.”3 But the crux of the matter lies in her following remark: “Untitled is also about the ambivalence of artists who want to be wanted and loved for what they do, even in their transgressions and their objectifications and their critiques. One of the things that critique is, after all, is a test of love.” 4 PRINTED PROJECT 07: Kim Levin PRINTED PROJECT 07: Kim Levin the hiring of a private detective to follow Stedelijk Amsterdam curator Rudi Fuchs for five days.10 Involving protest, vandalism, and homage, his work has provoked boycotts from museum staff, caused viewers to flee, and elicited death threats. His three, seemingly innocuous, black and white patterns for Printed Project raise old modern issues of abstraction and surface, positive and negative space, but the pattern itself – repeated, inverted, mirrored, flipped – involves a four-letter word. Try to read it and you get bounced back to the surface as if being told to “f off.” 11 In contrast to Robert Indiana’s once ubiquitous LOVE logo, it conveys the violence and aggression of public discourse “in a fucked-up world.” 12 Also alluding to indigenous tribal patterns, ideological logos, racist or nationalist emblems, and the Cyrillic initials for the USSR, it cues us to unexploded fragments from a contentious past13 that put its faith in mindless ideologies and senseless profanities. “When we involve the point of view of different biological species in the esthetic practice, it will produce a new Renaissance and an esthetic boom that is hardly imaginable today,” wrote Oleg Kulik in 1997. 14 The notoriety of Kulik’s post-human dog performance in Stockholm – when he began biting viewers who strayed into his territory and the Swedish curator called the police – preceded his 1996 appearance in Pavlov’s Dog, a month-long performance at Manifesta 1 in Rotterdam. Chained to a laboratory table by collar and paws, Kulik could be viewed from behind a barrier. The large installation included an array of scientific equipment, a human-size maze, dramatic lighting, melodramatic background music, and a lab technician, his collaborator Mila Bredikhina. When the naked artist wasn’t having his ears scratched or undergoing behavioural experiments, he lolled doglike on the table. Speaking of conditioned reflexes and man’s inhumanity to man and other beasts, Pavlov’s Dog summed up a century of cruel political and scientific experimentation in the name of revolution, reason, and progress. 15 Writes Tania Bruguera, “What we have left of history are rumours. Often, we cannot distinguish them, even if we are in a similar situation. We hear the rumours in the distance, rushing to implicate us. Then all that we are, and all that we want to be, comes together in a stunning moment. This fragile freeze is the result of ignorance and disorientation; we are blinded by light.” 16 In 2000, Bruguera did an installation in a pitch-black tunnel at the historic Morro-Cabana fortress/prison complex, a main site of the Havana Bienal. Viewers who experienced it, before it was abruptly disinstalled the day after the opening, trod blindly through the oppressive darkness on an unstable mush of fermenting sickly-sweet sugar cane, toward a dim blue glow of hope: a video collage of Castro’s life suspended from overhead. As you turned back, all senses on full alert, you perceived the presence of several bare living bodies, endlessly rubbing their mouths or performing other senseless compulsive acts. As a total sensory experience – contradictory, elusive, illusive, unfathomable – it summed up the invisibility, the history of exploitation, and, as the artist pointed out, the sweetness and danger of Cuba itself. Bruguera’s tactics were the opposite in 2002 for Documenta 11, where she dealt with Kassel’s history as a munitions manufacturing site. There, her brutal installation stunned viewers with blinding lights. A barrage of jackboots and hair-trigger clicks issued from a catwalk overhead, where a live sentry paced, endlessly reloading his gun. By the third preview day, this installation too was temporarily closed; the performer had a sore thumb. “Christoph Buchel’s work consistently deals with the use of space, the staking of claims, and the power relationships and hierarchies that articulate themselves when people try to appropriate .. spaces,” wrote Madeleine Schuppli in a 1998 catalogue.17 In September 2001, Buchel inaugurated New York’s Maccarone Gallery with a three-storey architectural project. Participants signed a release form before climbing through a jagged hole in a bathroom wall that led to a peculiar waiting room. After descending a ladder and negotiating a labyrinth of odd interiors, including a crawl-space classroom and a prison cell, you exited by climbing through the window of a small house and up a ladder to exit onto the building’s roof, which, inside the gallery space, was pelted by artificial rain. Private Territories, his 2004 installation at New York’s Swiss Institute, was equally Kabakovian and Kafkaesque. Entered through a tenement door, it was an apartment divided by a massive cinderblock wall that sliced through each room, creating a maze of disputed territories. Among its wealth of seedy details were strategically placed bike mirrors (so the fictitious roommates could spy on each other) and half a bathtub with the crucial faucets. The entrance to the other half of the space was through a tunnel18 under the bathroom sink. In Buchel’s extreme architectural makeovers, the viewer is an intruder, a voyeur, subject to physical and psychological risks. Recently, he transformed the warehouse gallery of Hauser & Wirth Coppermill in London into a sprawling recycling camp. Entered through a squalid hotel door, the vast space was heaped with discarded electronic innards and appliances, cargo containers that seemed to house illicit workers, and a secret archaeological dig with a woolly mammoth, whose semi-excavated tusks protruded from a block of earth. Physically demanding and psychologically disruptive, his work sums up the social and political displacements of the current climate.19 Maurice O’Connell’s name was repeatedly mentioned as a former artist rebel who had vanished from the Irish art scene. No one was specific about his past projects, and no one knew where to find him.20 I eventually located him, living in Cornwall. Since 1992, O’Connell has looked at institutions and artists in unconventional ways, “teasing out their roles,” as he puts it. All his past projects have investigated the possible roles of the artist. In his 1995 performance piece, Role Response Research Unit in ‘Beyond the Pale’ at the Irish Museum of Modern Art in Dublin, “I gave myself to the museum to look after for an entire month. It was about the importance of cultural objects. I was to be the object.” 21 In 1996, he performed The HandPainted O at the CCA in Glasgow, painting 60,000 individual Os by hand in order “to explore the potential economic value of the work.”22 In Proposition for an Entire City, O’Connell is basically commissioning the entire divided community of Belfast to work with him on a three-year process. “Instead of the artist being hosted and invited, I am shifting it to the other way round. It could be family services, or individuals I meet along the way. I support myself and them, and try to overcome poverty, stress, and such things. I will probably end up commissioning institutions and people. Manifestations and actions should begin to appear in the city in autumn 2007. It’s an individual initiative. It’s about accountability and responsibility. It’s sort of a political agenda but I’m looking at it as an artist without being political,” he explains.23 Instead of exclusion and exploitation, Luca Buvoli’s work is about process, imagination, and complete liberty. His instructions for flying, excerpted for Printed Project, originated in the insistently unheroic protagonist of his earlier work, Not-A-Superhero, star of animated films, .. .. 4 PRINTED PROJECT 07: Kim Levin 5 PRINTED PROJECT 07: Kim Levin sculptural installations (of cloth, cellophane, plastic tubing, and other abject scraps of materiality), and artist’s books in the form of comic books. Each of his exhibitions was the pretext for a new comic book, with incomplete narratives involving failure and betrayal, always ‘to be continued’. A disembodied entity whose saving grace was speed and mutability, Not-A-Superhero rejected the old modern heroics. The villains he outwitted were armed with the old rational structures: the power of logic, of the word, of scientific certainty and linear time. Buvoli’s installations insist on the innocence of a private narrative in the midst of the very public dissolution of the engine of modernity and its decaying myths. “His work is an anomaly,” I wrote of his 1997 installation24 at Café Florian in Venice. “Luca Buvoli creates an art so weightless it is able to fly.” Shortly afterward, he abandoned the comic-book format, and began his ongoing series of instructions (beginner’s, intermediate) for flying, which now refer directly to Futurism, Marinetti, and Mussolini “from an anti-heroic post-utopian perspective,” as art historian Christina Poggi has noted. 25 Coming from Bulgaria, a formerly marginal satellite state, Nedko Solakov posits an alternative universe of fragmenting narratives and makeshift objects as if to propel a new story in a different future, careening out of control. It is as if, with the collapse of the Soviet system and the sudden absence of a convincing historical narrative, he was absolutely free to improvise, inventing a world as bizarre as the old one. Mutating into a deconstructive yet talismanic act, his interventions can be read as parables of mutually exclusive yet co-dependent paradigms. His gently sarcastic commentaries make use of marginality itself. They have hidden in wallpaper designs, on the wings of airplanes, and among the objects in museums, as well as in tales of aliens, Old Master ghosts, and larcenous Yetis. Combining anxiety, compulsion, absurdity, and social critique, he points to the abnormal psychology of social systems, the dysfunctions of cultural codes, and the psychodrama of collective neurosis. In 1999, chosen as the official participant from Bulgaria for the Venice Biennale, Solakov simply produced a postcard of the Bulgarian flag. The other side reads: “Very Important Announcement: After nearly 30 years of absence from the officially participating countries at the Venice Biennial, the Republic of Bulgaria is pleased to announce that it is prepared to properly participate in the next Venice Biennial in 2001,” 26 which summed up the situation. In 2001, he staged A Life (Black and White), a five-month performance of two housepainters, who – speaking of inverted belief systems and eternal returns – continuously circled the room, repainting the walls in black and white. His preposterous projects are wildly liberated morality tales, but when disruption and displacement are the given conditions, interference is an appropriate strategy. “Question: What project has given you the most satisfaction? Answer: Probably the ones I couldn’t realise. They are stuck in my mind, and there is nothing I can do to get rid of them,” says Maurizio Cattelan. 27 Theft and unpredictability are tactics in Cattelan’s work. In his notorious project for De Appel in 1996, without the knowledge of the director but assisted by five curatorial trainees, he removed the entire exhibition, the office equipment, and the other contents of a trendy Amsterdam gallery from its premises. He relocated it all, carefully packaged, to ‘Crap Shoot’, an exhibition organized by the trainees at De Appel, where it briefly occupied a gallery before being confiscated by the police. Cattelan’s Pope Felled by a Meteorite caused a major political scandal when it was exhibited in Warsaw. His Picasso mask, paraded around MoMA’s lobby by an actor during one-too-many Picasso shows, offered parallels between the Picasso-exhibition industry and the Mickey Mouse impersonators at Disneyland. His elephant was titled Not Afraid of Love. His little praying Hitler was greeted with silent outrage. “I try to move sideways so there are no evolutions, only digressions,” 28 Cattelan has said. Marina Abramovic needs no introduction here. Her performances, including her early works with Ulay, are legendary. At the 1997 Venice Biennale, Abramovic perched on a mountain of bloody bones at the core of the main pavilion, weeping, keening, and compulsively scrubbing the bones clean. By the second day, the stench of Balkan Baroque was sickening, but in the midst of Serbian atrocities, Abramovic’s cathartic rites single-handedly saved that exhibition from irrelevance. In The House with the Ocean View in 2002, Abramovic was ‘a living installation’ for twelve days and nights on three open living units high up on a gallery’s wall29 in full view of spectators who acted as witnesses. The ladder to her living units had butcher knives instead of rungs. Her 7 Easy Pieces of 2005 was even more startling; she recreated legendary performances by other body artists of the ‘60s and ‘70s, including Acconci’s Seedbed, Beuys’s How to Explain Pictures to a Dead Hare, and a bloody 1975 work of her own.30 In the process, she showed how time, memory, and context inevitably alters meaning. In her new ritualised sexual video-works, she explores another means of accessing and disrupting collective memory. Tavares Strachan, who got his MFA from Yale in 2006, has a short but impressive history. While still a student, he retraced the journey of Admiral Perry to the Arctic Circle, partly in homage to Matthew Hensen, Perry’s black cohort who didn’t get proper credit. Strachan planted his own personal flag atop Mt. McKinley, and extracted a four and a half ton block of ice from a frozen river. In July 2006, he exhibited the block of ice inside a solar-powered elevator-like glass freezer in a school in the Bahamas, where he was born. 31 Transposing the frozen north and the hot tropics, The Difference Between What We Have and What We Want (Arctic Ice Project) is a displacement of space that takes a stand against global warming and entropy. The issues that power Strachan’s work are environmental, geographic, social, and very timely, as well as personal. 32 In November 2006, for a piece called Where We Are Is Always Miles Away (also known as Teleport), he moved twenty square feet of ‘public real estate’ – a 3000 pound cube of pavement, including cement, earth, parking meter, street lamp, “and accompanying air” in a hermetically sealed container – from a street in New Haven to a gallery in San Francisco. 33 Given his far-reaching spatial displacements, and his own personal displacement, his plans to go into orbit (with a Bahamian dog) make perfect sense. As Strachan explains, “Certain things drive the work. In the ‘60s and ‘70s artists were exploring the process of failure. My thinking has to do more with success. The idea of flying is hilarious and post-critical; you have to laugh. Success has to do with making that move and claiming the territory. And once you leave the planet, there is no real context, it’s spaceless and timeless.” 34 The early extreme artists of the ‘60s and ‘70s, in the midst of post-Minimalist and Conceptualist renunciations, posited the artist as victim. The extreme performance works of Acconci, Burden, Nauman, Beuys, Abramovic, Valie Export and others were about sacrifice and ritual acts. Other artists, such as Gianni Motti35, Roman Signer, Hannah Wilke, and Paul McCarthy, began the 6 PRINTED PROJECT 07: Kim Levin 7 PRINTED PROJECT 07: Kim Levin process of transforming victimhood into empowerment. The mavericks of today are at another stage in the development of radical art. The bodies in question may not be the artist’s own. And while some are still referencing the Minimalist cube or Conceptualist art-as-idea, systemic disruptions of space, time, and behaviour have replaced disembodied theory. Cathartic sacrifice has given way to a behavioural art based on the logic of sensation. Laced with complicity, voyeurism, transference, and transgression, absolute responsibility joins sheer liberty. Taking aim at privacy and property, economic systems, architectural structures, social contexts, and elements of institutional support, these artists risk the inadmissible, the seemingly senseless act. Like Gide’s antihero Lafcadio, they pursue what has been called ‘the surplus value of excess meaning’. They do it less for the sake of antisocial intent than pure gratuitousness, which masks their intense concern. They have experienced the disruptions of the early 21st century world. Unconditional Love is not about obsessive desire, or about love as represented in the media. It is not about seduction. Rather, it is about the practice of contemporary art, moving beyond modernist negations to demand unconditional acceptance.36 These artists test the tolerance, the fortitude, and the patience of the receiver. Like naughty children, they push the limits, whatever those limits may be. And despite their subversions, their criticality, and their resistance, they aspire to a state of pure trust. Buried within their works are touches of misplaced idealism that approach the visionary. These artists aren’t simply the jesters of the art world. They have been doing some of the most resolute, most obstructive, most difficult and deadly serious work around. Unconditional love, indeed.37 14 In an interview with Mila Bredikhina. Oleg Kulik, Family of the Future, 5th International Istanbul Biennial (Guelman Gallery, Moscow, 1997), 4. In that interview, which spoke of interspecies relationships, Kulik also asked: “How can you champion democratic values if you destroy other species?” 15 Among Kulik’s post-human animal performances were Mad Dog, Virtual Dog, and Reservoir Dog. He has also been a bird, a mirror-ball armadillo, and other species. In Family of the Future in Istanbul, Kulik lived with a dog in a house built to take into account a dog’s abilities and disabilities. When he arrived in New York for I Bite America, a performance at Jeffrey Deitch Gallery that referred to Beuys’ legendary coyote piece, he was transported from the airport by an animal transport van (Beuys had arrived by ambulance). In retrospect, the three fabricated hind ends of cows that he installed in ‘Europa’ at the 1997 Venice Biennale (through which viewers, if they pressed their faces to apertures in the cows asses, could see videotapes of buggery) can be considered precursors of The Way of Grass, which he calls “a real paper architecture project.” 16 Artist’s statement, 555. Documenta 11 Platform 5: Exhibition Catalogue (Hatje Cantz, 2002). 17 In the catalogue, Magsch no? for Buchel’s ‘Home Affairs’, a 1998 collaboration between Kunsthalle Basel and TBA Exhibition PRINTED PROJECT 07: Kim Levin 9 8 PRINTED PROJECT 07: Kim Levin Space in Chicago. 18 Once inside the other space, another tunnel led from a fireplace to a bunker with a final maniacal touch: a fan sucking out air and a bottle of cheap whiskey, from which you could take a swig. 19 His contribution to Printed Project consists of three randomly ripped out pages from each copy of this issue (“so every copy becomes incomplete in an incidental way”). At his request, the process was videotaped. Also at the artist’s request, the ripped pages, bundled for recycling, were briefly present at the publication’s release on 9 June at the Irish Pavilion in Venice. As a last step in the process, he has requested that the bundles be sent to his gallery in order to be recycled in the art sale system. 20 After spending weeks trying to locate O’Connell, I had decided that he would be my personal risk; his work would be included, sight unseen. I wasn’t disappointed. 21 In a telephone interview with the author, March 2007. 22 Ibid. 23 Ibid. It should be noted that Declan McGonagle of the University of Ulster, director of Interface, initiated the project. 24 From my text, Not-A-Superhero? for Temporanea: La realta possibili del Caffe Florian (Luca Buvoli, Not-A-Superhero, I presume), 1997. 25 In a leaflet for Buvoli’s exhibition, ‘Un Bellissimo Dopodomani’, at the Institute of Contemporary Art in Philadelphia, 2007. 26 Quoted in my text, Marginalia, for the catalogue of his exhibition at the Centre for Contemporary Art, Ujazdowski Castle, Warsaw, 2000. 27 Unattributed web interview of April 13, 2004, credited to Designboom. 28 Ibid. 29 In November 2002 at Sean Kelly Gallery, New York. 30 On seven consecutive evenings in November 2005 at Solomon R Guggenheim Museum, New York. 31 If this feat recalls the discovery of ice in Garcia Marquez’s fictional town of Macondo, its spatial displacements also refer to the Kim Levin work of Smithson, Heizer, and Matta-Clark. Sierra says he’s a Minimalist with a guilt complex; Strachan could be called a Minimalist with an ecological conscience. 32 In October 2006, his first solo show took place jointly at Brooklyn’s Pierogi Gallery and New York’s Feldman Gallery. At Pierogi Footnotes 1 Back in the late 90s, I proposed to curate an exhibition titled Unconditional Love to a few museum curators with whom I had he showed a ten-foot square cube of warm air, titled I Can’t Forget What I Have Forgotten, and Homeostatic Feedback Loop #1 (Natural Body Water), a year’s worth of his own urine, purified and bottled. At Feldman he showed Rain Maker, an artificial cloud formation inside a glass globe, and Absolute Symbiosis, a blown-glass circulatory system, whose heart and arteries were suspended almost invisibly in oil inside a 300-gallon aquarium. 33 Though the excavation on Crown Street in New Haven held up traffic for five hours, this wasn’t an act of vandalism. He had previously worked. They each reacted with – if not horror – then something akin to it. They politely let me know they wouldn’t touch such a show with a ten-foot pole: one unpredictable artist might add frisson, but as a group, they were more likely to make the whole show implode. 2 In an interview by Yilmaz Dziewor in Andrea Fraser (Works: 1984 to 2003), Kunstverein in Hamburg, (Dumont, 2003). 99. 3 Ibid, 100. 4 Ibid, 101. 5 Ibid. From the text for Official Welcome, 278. Fraser’s project for Printed Project, El Museo, is based on a cancelled commission negotiated permission from the City of New Haven’s Office of Cultural Affairs. It was shown in November-December 2006 at Luggage Store Gallery, San Francisco. 34 In a telephone interview with the author, March 2003. 35 Besides claiming the ability to levitate, Motti claimed responsibility for the explosion of the Challenger space shuttle and the California earthquake. 36 I recently found, in a folder from 1999, a note about Ekaterina Dogot. Speaking at a 1999 conference in Stockholm (about Oleg that involves television-script episodes featuring twisted references to real events and people. Little Frank and His Carp was an unauthorised intervention in the Guggenheim Bilbao, filmed with hidden cameras. In it, Fraser literally acts out the museum's audio-guide instructions, which lead to "museological seduction." Also in the audio-guide is a childhood tale of Frank Gehry, who went with his grandmother to buy live carp. In relation to her work, Fraser's background may also be of interest. Her parents were part of the '60s counter-culture. Her father, from Montana, became a Unitarian minister, while her mother, who was Puerto Rican, became a lesbian feminist psychologist. "I always imagine that we must have gone from crew cuts to long hair in a matter of weeks," Fraser has said. 6 Quoted in Rosa Martinez’s text, Merchandise and Death, Santiago Sierra, Spanish Pavilion 50th Venice Biennale, 17. 7 Ibid. Rosa Martinez interview, 169. 8 Ibid, 189. On March 24, 2007, Sierra’s Palabra de Fuego, planned as a live transmission of eight flaming 15-meter high letters Kulik’s dog performances, I believe), she said that uncritical love is more radical, more unpredictable, and more risky than modernist negation, which is why I asked her to write for this issue. 37 One final note: in order not to influence the projects, I was careful not to mention the title, Unconditional Love, to the artists until after their projects had arrived. But it seemed to be in the air. While planning his interview with Francis Bacon, who spent his earliest years in Ireland, Maurizio Cattelan remarked to me, “It’s like a blessing on the artists.” ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank Visual Artists Ireland for their invitation and their trust. I also thank Paul O’Reilly, Toby Dennett, Jason Oakley, Alan Bennis, Anya von Gosseln, Declan McGonagle, Michael Timpson, Paul O’Neill, Jon Bird, Caoimhin MacGiola Leith, Mike Fitzpatrick, Tony Shafrazi, Liz Beatty (Bacon Estate), Camillo Gatta (DACS), Tanya Bonakdar, Mila Bredikhina, Catherine Belloy, Andrea Teschke, Maureen Sarro, David Hubbard, Nicole Keller, Rebeca Rodriquez, Hiroko Onoda, Tei Carpenter, L.L. Powers, Richard Lukin, Sheila Page, Frank Smigiel, Aly Cha, and Zuzia/ Bohdanowicz, for their generous help and assistance of different sorts. I am grateful to the following galleries for their assistance: Pierogi, Ron Feldman, Friedrich Petzel, Sean Kelly, Stephen Friedman (London), Marian Goodman, Hauser&Wirth (Zurich), Rona Hofman (Chicago) Jeffrey Deitch Gallery. I thank Ekaterina Degot for her Afterword. And most of all, I acknowledge the crucial role of the artists: Marina Abamovic, Tania Bruguera, Christoph Buchel, Luca Buvoli, Maurizio Cattelan, Andrea Fraser, Kendell Geers, Oleg Kulik, Maurice O’Connell, Santiago Sierra, Nedko Solakov, and Tavares Strachan, all of whom were a pleasure to work with and without whom this issue truly would not have been possible. near the frontier between Mexico, Texas, and New Mexico, was cancelled in an act of apparent censorship, despite having previously been authorised. The word that would have combusted: sumision (submission). 9 Excerpt from the original text quoted on the artist’s website. The original text was not available. 10 During the group show ‘Crap Shoot’, organized in 1996 by the curatorial trainees at De Appel in Amsterdam. The private eye, however, followed the wrong man. 11 “Then again, those pages also make something quite beautiful and hypnotic from a degraded shard of everyday language,” as Jason Oakley, Production Manager of Printed Project, remarked. 12 See Geers’ homepage, where the phrase “in a fucked up world” flashes upside down, inside out, and white on black. 13 In a preliminary version, Geers included a date he has claimed as his birth date, May 1968, suggesting a connection to the protests and riots of that time. Death is Like the Shadow of Life Maurizio Cattelan and Francis Bacon 12 13 Maurizio Cattelan: We’re having this conversation for the Irish Pavilion at the Venice Biennale. I was trying to think of an interesting connection between Irish people and Italian people, and the first thing that came to me was Catholicism. Francis Bacon: I absolutely agree with you. And I think that most people who have religious beliefs, who have the fear of God, are much more interesting than people who just live a kind of hedonistic and drifting life. On the other hand, I can’t help admiring them but despising them, living by a total falseness, which I think they are living by with their religious views. But, after all, the only thing that makes anybody interesting is their dedication, and when there was religion they could be at least dedicated to their religion, which was something. But I do think that, if you can find a person totally without belief, but totally dedicated to futility, then you will find a more exciting person. MC: What’s the biggest Irish trait in your character? FB: I’m talkative. It’s the Irish in me. I don’t know. I was born in Ireland, though my mother and father were both English. I was born in Dublin, but the place where we lived was a house called Canny Court, near a small town called Kilcullen in County Kildare. We were there until the beginning of the First World War. My father went into the War office and we came to live in London. And then we vacillated very much between England and Ireland. MC: So do you feel you’re more at home in Ireland or in England? FB: Actually, of all the countries I know, France is my favourite. I love Paris so much that when I had a studio there, I couldn’t work as much as I should have because I went out all the time, just to look at the town. MC: All by yourself? FB: Oh yes. I feel as if I’ve spent most of my life alone. It is definitely much better for me not to be disturbed while I’m working. Perhaps one exception I would make would be if I was seriously in love, but that’s an exceptional situation indeed. As you get older you see fewer and fewer people, and people are less and less interested in you. It’s difficult to make friends at my age. What’s more, a lot of my friends have died. But life and death go hand in hand in any case, don’t they? Death is like the shadow of life. When you’re dead you’re dead, but while you’re alive, the idea of death pursues you. But everything comes second to my work. And the way people regard my work is not my problem, it’s their problem. I don’t paint for others, I paint for myself. What else have I got to work for? How can you work for an audience? What do you imagine that an audience would want? I have got nobody to excite except myself. MC: That’s interesting, when I work I tend to avoid my own opinions and just trust the others. Francis Bacon, Untitled (crouching Nude on Rail). 1952 Oil on Canvas 197 x 136cm, ©Estate of Francis Bacon/DACS 2007. PRINTED PROJECT 07: Maurizio Cattelan / Francis Bacon PRINTED PROJECT 07: Maurizio Cattelan / Francis Bacon FB: What makes one work fail and another work succeed remains a mystery. I don’t even understand how certain works about which so much has been written have managed to hold out. I wouldn’t know how to explain it to you. Since I most definitely do not have an orderly mind, it’s by a sort of process of continuous rejection that I manage to create something. MC: So it’s not a matter of inspiration? FB: No. I don’t really know what people mean by inspiration. Certainly, there are things called good runs, when you start and the things seems to work for you and as you go along you seem to be able to be carried along by it. I don’t know if that’s what they mean by inspiration. Or is it a kind of pressure within to start doing something? I suppose there are different interpretations. MC: Maybe it’s a question of luck. FB: Yes, well, some people are lucky. Luck’s a funny thing; it runs in long patches and sometimes one runs into a long patch of very good luck. When I was never able to earn any money from my work, I was able sometimes in casinos to make money, which altered my life for a time, and I was able to live on it and live in a way that I would never have been able to if I had been earning it. But now I seem to have run out of that patch. Hazard plays such odd tricks, one doesn’t know. Picasso once said: “I don’t need to play games of chance; I’m always working with it myself” . MC: It sounds indeed like a very hazardous process. Don’t you think it could lead to something disruptive or violent? FB: Possibly, possibly. Actually, I’m always very surprised when people speak of violence in my work. I don’t find it at all violent myself. I don’t know why people think it is. I never look for violence. There is an element of realism in my pictures, which might perhaps give that impression, but life is so violent; so much more violent than anything I can do! One is exposed to violence all the time these days, with the millions of images all over the world; violence is everywhere and is permanent. I really cannot believe that my work is violent. But maybe it’s the actual word violence that basically I don’t understand properly. In a certain way the Picassos that I like are violent, but not in their subject matter. They are violent because of the incredible charge, which they produce, and that is an impressive sort of violence. MC: That’s interesting coming from a man who witnessed two World Wars. Why do you think today’s society is more violent? FB: Perhaps the difference today is the media. We’re told everything that’s happening; we hear everything from everywhere. I don’t think that makes people more intelligent or that it develops their critical faculties to any greater extent; one might hope so, but I don’t feel that it’s the case. But then, who remembers or cares about a happy society? After hundreds of years or so, all they think about is what a society has left. I suppose it’s possible that a society may arise which is so perfect that it will be remembered for the perfection of its equality. But that hasn’t yet arisen, and so far one remembers a society for what it has created. MC: So we are creating violence. FB: It wasn’t me who referred to [violence]. It was you. MC: Maybe people think your paintings are violent because of the distorted way you portray them. 14 PRINTED PROJECT 07: Maurizio Cattelan / Francis Bacon 15 PRINTED PROJECT 07: Maurizio Cattelan / Francis Bacon Francis Bacon, Self Portrait (Unfinished) 1992. Oil on Canvas. 147.5 x 198 cm. ©Estate of Francis Bacon/DACS 2007. FB: Perhaps, let’s say that then I would trust you. I think that disruptive criticism, especially by other artists, is certainly the most helpful criticism. Even if, when you analyse it, you may feel that it’s wrong, at least you analyse it and think about it. But the only effective criticism is your own. That is what affects your work when you’re in the process of painting, but that is not the same thing. With the critical sense which comes into play, there is the faculty of discovering what is possible, which way you can go, with everything that’s already on the canvas, to bring about the best possible final image. MC: What would you paint today? FB: I don’t know. Since the invention of photography, painting really has changed completely. We no longer have the same reasons for painting as before. The problem is that each generation has to find its own way of working. MC: So let me put it in another way. If you were a young artist today, would you paint? FB: Absolutely. With painting you don’t have to gather together anything out of the ordinary in order to start work; just some paint, some brushes and a few canvases. Agreed, that all costs money, but I think it’s something you can manage even when you’re young, when you’re beginning and have no money at all. MC: Can you tell when you make a good painting? FB: What I want to do is to distort the thing far beyond the appearance, but in the distortion to bring it back to a recording of the appearance. And people believe – simple people at least – that the distortions of them are an injury to them – no matter how much they feel or how much they like you. I can quite easily sit down and make what is called a literal portrait of you. So what I’m disrupting all the time is this literalness, because I find it uninteresting. MC: Do you think you could really make a portrait of me? 16 PRINTED PROJECT 07: Maurizio Cattelan / Francis Bacon 17 FB: I think I might. MC: (smile) FB: I’ve always wanted and never succeeded in painting the smile. MC: Maybe having a drink or two could have helped. FB: This is a difficult thing to say. I haven’t done many things when I have had a lot to drink but I have done one or two. I did the Crucifixion in 1962 when I was on drink for about a fortnight. Sometimes it loosens you, but I think it also dulls other areas. It leaves you freer, but on the other hand it dulls your final judgment of what you hold. I don’t actually believe that drink and drugs help me. They may help other people, but they don’t really help me. MC: A question people have often asked me – why be an artist? FB: That’s just vanity. To be an artist is a form of vanity. And that vanity may be washed over by this rationally futile idea of immortality. It would also be a vanity to suggest that what one does oneself might help to thicken life. But, of course, we do know that our lives have been thickened by great art. One of the very few ways in which life has been thickened is by the great things that a few people have left. Art is a profoundly vain occupation really. MC: Have you ever considered teaching art? FB: No. I don’t believe in teaching. One learns by looking. That’s what you must do, look. I’ve probably been influenced by everything that I’ve seen. MC: I’ve been influenced quite a lot by Warhol. You knew him, right? FB: I can’t really say that I knew him, but I did meet him in New York at the home of Princess Radziwill. He took me to The Factory. He was a very intelligent person. I think that even if his films don’t mean anything to me, they are interesting and are part of the best work he’s done. Generally speaking, Warhol had good subjects, he knew how to choose them very well, but his problem, basically, was that what he did was realism, simple realism, and in the end it didn’t lead to anything interesting. MC: And you see this as a flaw. Realism is simply useless now. FB: Well, I don’t know. You may find somebody who comes along and is able to do it, but one knows very well that, with the people who have so far attempted to go back to figuration in the more accepted sense, it’s been extremely weak and really meaningless. We’re so saturated with all the arts, through all the means of reproducing them and seeing them and everything, that the saturation point has come so strongly that one just longs for new images and new ways by which reality can be created. After all, man wants invention, he doesn’t want to go on and on and on just reproducing the past. I mean, it was the end of Greek art, it was the end of Egyptian art, because they went on and on and on reproducing themselves. We can’t go on reproducing the Renaissance. You want something new. Three Studies for a portrait of John Edwards. Photo: John Edwards c. 1984. 147.5 x 198 cm. ©Estate of Francis Bacon/DACS 2007 PRINTED PROJECT 07: Maurizio Cattelan / Francis Bacon MC: Do you like the Renaissance? FB: I like certain works by Michelangelo enormously, especially the drawings with their grandeur of form and grandeur of image. But I don’t like all the works of the Renaissance; far from it. I don’t like the famous paintings like Da Vinci’s Mona Lisa at all. I find that they’re often boring works from which you get nothing. I find it hard to understand Duchamp’s joke with the Mona Lisa. For me it’s simply boring, and it’s even more boring because it’s so famous. MC: And then you’ve got at least something in common with Duchamp. You’ve been both rejected by Surrealists. FB: That’s true; my pictures were in fact refused because they were not sufficiently Surrealist. I myself think that my pictures weren’t at all Surrealist! As a matter of fact my relationship with Surrealism is a bit complicated. I think that I’ve been influenced by what the movement represented in terms of revolt against the establishment, in politics, religion and the arts, but my pictures haven’t really shown any direct influence. Well, perhaps a little in my early work. But in the end, my painting certainly has nothing to do with Surrealist painting. I’m not a Surrealist painter. MC: Is there anything you can do really well apart from painting? FB: I was a very good cook. This interview has been made possible thanks to Michele Robecchi. All words by Francis Bacon from: David Sylvester, Interviews with Francis Bacon, Thames & Hudson, London, 1975; Francis Bacon in conversation with Michel Archimbaud, Phaidon, London, 1993. Virginias Marina Abramovic 20 21 The term ‘Virginias’ refers to a traditional social role in the Balkans; that of men who were born females. These examples can be found in Bosnian, Serbian, Montenegrin, Croatian, Greek and Romanian minorities. ‘Virginias’ enjoy great privileges in comparison to those living as female. They can do things that only males are allowed to do. For example, they can smoke, use tools such as guns and knives, participate in events reserved solely for men, and play certain instruments that only men can play. They generally obtain respect the way any other men would, but they are forbidden to have sexual encounters with any other person. In many cases, the biologically born women stop menstruating and start growing facial hair, such as a beard or moustache. For a long time I have been very fascinated with this phenomena and I would like to go to Montenegro and Albania where some of them still live today. Similar to the Balkan Erotic Epic and my prior work with Balkan men and women, I plan to make a film about the ‘Virginias’ focusing on virgins from the Montenegro area, who have never performed before the camera which would be based on a larger project about the women warriors. Dressed in their national costumes, using traditional weapons such as knives and swords, I will stage a battle between the bearded virgin warriors and the bearded warrior men. The final result will be one single video projection. The viewer will be able to determine the outcome of the video by pressing YES and NO buttons at crucial moments during the fight. PRINTED PROJECT 07: Marina Abramovic PRINTED PROJECT 07: Marina Abramovic © Marina Abramovic, 2007. 23 PRINTED PROJECT 07: Marina Abramovic 22 PRINTED PROJECT 07: Marina Abramovic 25 PRINTED PROJECT 07: Marina Abramovic 24 PRINTED PROJECT 07: Marina Abramovic Trust Workshop: Opening Reception Moscow, 2007 Tania Bruguera 30 PRINTED PROJECT 07: Tania Bruguera 31 PRINTED PROJECT 07: Tania Bruguera with a workshop conductor, an ex-KGB agent. The “Trust Workshop” is a year long project The retired agent giving the service should have worked during the times of the cold-war Soviet, needed for his specific skill set instilled by the training program in a reversed manner. consisting of a space set up to enable Russians to share and resolve their trust issues 32 PRINTED PROJECT 07: Tania Bruguera 33 PRINTED PROJECT 07: Tania Bruguera Instead of using training given by the secret service for surveillance, propaganda, and persecution of the Socialist defectors, Such damage has combined with new challenges brought on by the new society to become a source of major impact on Russia’s current political system. the agent uses these skills to repair the psychological damage inflicted to victims of the era. The project tries also to propose a way in which a large section of the population, rendered unemployed after the fall of the Socialist Era, could be re-activated by updating their previous skills under the new conditions of the social and political system in Russia towards new goals. 34 PRINTED PROJECT 07: Tania Bruguera 35 PRINTED PROJECT 07: Tania Bruguera The Russians attending the workshop can address trust issues in a range going from their personal and family life to the government. and break free of negative preconceptions associated with those in the government. The ultimate goal of the workshop is to develop a sense of trust amongst the attendants 36 Rather than create objects or events, I’ve chosen as an artist to embark on a series of works where I create temporal institutions that embed the contradictions they are dealing with as their symbolic dimension/capital. How to present this project to the art world poses an ethical question. Accordingly, the only appropriate audience for such a work is the group of Russians for whom the work was created. I solved this problem of exhibition by a formal announcement of this project’s title, Opening Reception, at its commencement during the second Moscow Biennial. Display in this case means not a public showing, but an announcement of its existence. The existence then lies in either the imagination and speculation of the audience, or a real event conducted in the same discrete way in which the secret police work. The art world then serves as an advertisement space for the project with no concrete physical evidence. For years, I have worked with the concept of fear as a powerful manipulative tool. In this piece, the initial fear was transformed into a comfort zone that slowly dissolved into a deeper and more permanent horror, being manipulated with our permission. Going into a room where you are entertained and where you can fantasise on your “family picture” being taken by nice and very energetic young people providing domesticated animals dressed as babies, covers the very fact of the act and the picture of Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky, the creator of the Bolshevik secret police, the “Cheka”; later the Committee for State Security or KGB. From almost 76 people whose pictures were taken during the 2 hours opening reception, only one person declined their participation after seeing the portrait on the wall, it was a middle age Russian. The relationship between reality and art is one that has been explored endlessly – but oftentimes the art produced under such parameters only relays its existence in a representative manner recognised only in the art world. Such projects evade their responsibility as an active part of the reality that they are meant to address, and as a result what should be strategy exists only as a tactic. The works I create inhabit the parallel worlds of art and the reality of the addressed issue, encouraging audiences on either side to cross over and gain a deeper knowledge of the issue at hand. Ultimately I am interested in developing creative and symbolic activities seen as novel by both worlds. PRINTED PROJECT 07: Tania Bruguera Tania Bruguera March 2007 Flying – Practical Training For Beginners Luca Buvoli El Museo 2000-2002 Andrea Fraser EL MUSEO created by Andrea Fraser Treatment Excerpt (based on September 9, 2000 draft) 50 51 El Museo was conceived in response to an invitation to develop a project for the Bilbao-based art organisation Consonni. Consonni's past projects included a number of artistic interventions with a small Castilian-language television station broadcasting in the Basque Country. After an initial trip to Bilbao in May 2000, which included a visit to the Guggenheim Bilbao Museoa and the archives of the television station, I proposed to develop a fictional narrative television series set in a museum based on the Guggenheim Bilbao. Consonni agreed to support the project through the completion of a treatment, a pilot script, and three episode outlines suitable for submission to broadcasters and production companies. A first draft of the treatment, or ‘bible’, for the series was completed in September 2000. Describing a situation comedy with serious themes, the bible laid the groundwork for a series that would revolve around four characters working in low-level positions within the museum: a young working-class Basque-Castilian in her early 20s in the job of a gallery attendant; an upper-class Basque art-student-turned-art-handler in his mid-20s; a Catalan-Lebanese art history doctoral student in her early-30s working as a museum guide; and a gay man from Navarro in his early-40s with a job in the museum restaurant. The treatment was developed over the course of 2001 and 2002 in collaboration with the Consonni staff and professional television writers. By the summer of 2002, the ‘bible’ had been finalised and advanced drafts of scripts for two episodes were being revised. In the fall of 2002, I decided to discontinue the project due to inadequate funding and disagreements over process and content. Andrea Fraser PRINTED PROJECT 07: Andrea Fraser PRINTED PROJECT 07: Andrea Fraser OVERVIEW When a New York foundation builds an architecturally spectacular modern art museum in a decaying industrial city, the whole world celebrates its extraordinary success. Tourists, celebrities and media pour into town, transforming the old city into a new international cultural capital. But the museum’s success brings with it new conflicts as well, widening the gap between participants in the new economy and casualties of the old; between a fiercely defended national culture and the global culture of international art, media, and consumerism-dividing families and friends. Andrea Fraser, Little Frank and His Carp, DVD, 2001. Courtesy Friedrich Petzel Gallery. Against the backdrop of globalisation, nationalist terrorism and celebrity visits, four employees at the new museum cross social boundaries as they join forces to understand and challenge the culture of the new economy. At first strangers to each other, the Museum Guard, Museum Guide, Art Handler, and Bartender gradually form an alliance as they quietly engage in anonymous acts of subversion. In the process, they explode the Museum’s-and the media’s-official, corporate version of cultural freedom and individual expression with their own hilarious and sometimes heroic acts of transgression. El Museo challenges the packaging of cultural freedom, creativity and individual expression by big museums, corporations and celebrity-obsessed media by portraying the unofficial culture developed by people every day as they struggle for their own forms of freedom. El Museo will be shot in the pseudo-verite style of series such as NYPD Blue and ER, with hand held cameras, POV pans, over-the-shoulder shot/counter-shots, shallow focus, and slanting camera angles. At the same time, subtly warping lenses will mimic Guggenheim architecture in selected scenes, while art direction and lighting will add a surrealist edge. The Museum Guard, who views the world in part through the lens of a security camera, will serve as a surrogate for television viewers, involved in yet isolated from events in her work-place and city, as mediated by media. Scenes involving a supporting character who is a television journalist will use style of news footage as reference. Archival news footage documenting celebrity visits and other news events will also be incorporated. In some scenes, characters will comment on and interact around news footage on monitors. In other scenes, the camera will cut from a detail on a monitor to fictionalised scenes based on, or presented as, news footage in narrative context. 52 PRINTED PROJECT 07: Andrea Fraser 53 PRINTED PROJECT 07: Andrea Fraser ART DIRECTION AND CINEMATOGRAPHY Exaggerating the contrast between the old industrial city and the new city of culture and advanced services, the look of El Museo oscillates between gritty TV realism and slick MTV surrealism. Exterior shots of the city feature dirt and rust and decay and are shot on locations that emphasise the regional and provincial character of the ‘old’ town. These shots will morph directly into scenes that feature Bilbao’s new high-tech architecture and public facilities, such as Norman Foster’s subway system and Santiago Calatrava’s Airport. The ‘new’ is biomorphic, shiny and clean, but also anonymous, alienating, disorienting and lacking specificity, like a could-beanywhere theme park spectacle. MUSIC The theme music of El Museo will feature techno versions of Basque folk songs. The music will be more techno or more folk depending on the narrative context. EL MUSEO Episode 2: ‘The Noodle’ (Inspired by a true story) The Museum Director and Museum Patron have dinner at an expensive Italian restaurant to celebrate the museum’s success and strategise about marketing and merchandising. When they order the special pasta, much to their dismay, they are served noodles in the shape of the museum! The next day, a team of museum lawyers descend on the restaurant to serve the Chef with threat - cease production of the noodle or prepare to be sued for copyright infringement. The Museum Guard and Art Handler are outraged by the museum’s attack on free expression. This time, they join forces with the Museum Bartender, who used to work for the Chef. Noodles in the shape of Chanel Cs, Gucci Gs, and Nike swooshes start to appear in soups and pastas served at the museum restaurant. Sauces are dripped in the shape of the Coca-Cola, Pepsi and BMW logos. When the noodles turn out to be made of rubber instead of semolina, the museum restaurant is shut down by the health department and crisis ensues. Finally, the museum and Chef agree to a profit-sharing pastapartnership, and the official ‘museum noodle’ goes on sale in the museum gift shop. Episode 3: ‘The Miracle’ A sculpture in the museum’s inaugural exhibition sparks controversy. Representing the Virgin Mary surrounded by garbage and sexual imagery, the Church accuses the artist of blasphemy and demands the artwork be removed from the exhibition. Demonstrations outside the museum are hurting revenues. When an elderly visitor suddenly jumps out of his wheelchair and starts dancing around the sculpture, a miracle is attributed to the artwork. The museum is transformed from a destination of protest to one of pilgrimage. The Church, however, is even less pleased by NARRATIVE BLOCKS 54 PRINTED PROJECT 07: Andrea Fraser 55 PRINTED PROJECT 07: Andrea Fraser ‘BUT IS IT ART?’ Funny and unsettling things are happening at the new Museum. The Museum Director, Museum Patron and the New York Curator are not amused. While the Chief of Security investigates, the Guard discovers that the Art Handler may be responsible. Or is it the Museum Guide? Or the Bartender? Will she go to her boss? Or will she join them in their subversive activities? Episode 1: ‘The Birth of a Museum’ On her first day of work, the Museum Guard discovers what she believes is a plot to plant a bomb in a sculpture that will be unveiled at the museum's grand opening. In fact, the sculpture is the work of a celebrity artist who blows things up and is supposed to explode. What the Museum Guard has discovered, it turns out, is a plot by the Art Handler to sabotage the opening ceremonies by defusing the official bomb. Instead of turning him in, they join forces to prevent the sculpture from exploding. However, their act of sabotage is undone by nationalist terrorists who plant their own bomb. The sculpture explodes on schedule and the opening goes off without a hitch, much to the dismay of our protagonists. The episode ends with peaceful anti-globalisation protestors being dragged off by the police. the cultish mysticism developing among the pilgrims and continues to pressure the museum to remove the statue. When our protagonists discover that the museum is making secret arrangements to accommodate the demands of the Church, they decide to steal the sculpture - and install it in the village square of the Bartender’s home town in Navarro, much to the delight of his devout mother. Corporate sponsorship has gotten out of control. Product placement and logos are absolutely everywhere. A group of American cultists believe the museum is a space ship. They camp out around museum, waiting to be taken to paradise in another galaxy. The museum organises an exhibition of the ‘art’ of a lingerie company. The museum director and his celebrity ‘lingerie gang’ come to the opening in lingerie from the company. A scandal develops when the staff tip off a journalist that the company is a big sponsor of the show. Someone is sabotaging the museum’s audio guides with new recordings telling visitors to do strange things. We see museum visitors with audio guides looking at art works upside down, doing the Hokey-Pokey, and even humping the walls of the museum! A visiting artist does a museum tour as a project. It is not as interesting as the tours our character, the Museum Guide, gives. 56 PRINTED PROJECT 07: Andrea Fraser 57 PRINTED PROJECT 07: Andrea Fraser OTHER SELECTED EPISODE IDEAS (based on a list developed in November, 2000) Museum staff threaten to strike. Visitors confuse job actions and employee sabotage with art events. The museum is such a success that it is impossible to get in! Even our protagonists can’t get in to go to work. The entire episode takes place outside the museum with people waiting in line. Fight breaks out as VIPs go in without waiting. People have photos taken with cardboard cutout figures in ski masks and sing Basque folksongs. Museum staff are subjected to ‘hospitality training’. (Use real Guggenheim Bilbao handbook.) The training produces robotic, ‘Stepford’ staff, as they are drilled to mouth the museum's rhetoric of freed expression. Maybe they actually are robots? Sci-fi subplot? A secret deal between the museum and a real estate mogul to speculate on property near the museum. A red and yellow painting is vandalised. Museum visitors and staff start wearing red and yellow (the colors of Spanish flag). Other people appear wearing white, red and green (colors of Basque flag). An American tourist comments about Christmas. Different groups attempt to censor red and yellow art and white, red and green art. postpopfuck Kendell Geers The Way of Grass Oleg Kulik 68 PRINTED PROJECT 07: Oleg Kulik 69 PRINTED PROJECT 07: Oleg Kulik Description Regarding myself as the only consistent follower of Leo Tolstoy in his later period, for a decade I have undertaken most resolute attempts to renounce languages of culture. I bit like a dog, mooed like a cow… This revolutionary breakthrough upwards failed for one reason. An animal – be it a dog or a cow – stays outside the total power of the language, but it is not free from it. Culturation reaches deep below the human horizon. So we lose the real world, acquiring increasingly more ambiguous discourse; excitement in exchange. Today I feel that it is logical to try and reach beyond the limits of endless speeches about the world getting at the absolute reality from the top down, going through the fusion with nature, mystic revelation, sacral experience, through the dialogue with the transcendental. But one thing is confusing. As it happens, when I regarded myself as a contemporary artist, I have not been a human being yet. In this project titled The Way of Grass I would like to combine, strictly at the level of human horizon, both my antagonistic attempts to reach beyond it. The Way of Grass is my view upon the place of contemporary art in this world. Just as with culture as a whole, art has to demonstrate its show potential, the potential of an attraction, even when it deals with most serious matters. The Way of Grass as an object is a huge street sculpture (a 4-storey architectural structure) in the form of a transparent grazing cow with the stream of spectators getting inside it through its ‘mouth’, and traveling inside it through a complex arrangement of pathways, getting out at the back of the cow, from under its ‘tail’. The transparency of the cow and the way it fits the landscape are of principal importance. While traveling inside the ‘cow’, moving in different directions, going up and down, the spectators retain an opportunity to watch urban landscapes, the sky over their heads and the ground under their feet. Thus, the territory allocated to art remains an indispensable part of environment with every turn of their route. The spectators are distracted from the contemplation of environment by meditation music and insistent voices uttering key statements of the famous XX century artists. The loudspeakers are placed along the route in such a way that at its every portion the spectator can hear only one voice clearly. All the other voices sound as rumbling in the belly, as noise (the ‘noise of language’, in the terms of Roland Barthes). Notes 1. The specifications of the inner structure of the cow were designed by architect Nikolai Chertoprud. 2. Staircases and pathways are equipped with railings for safety reasons, but the experience of being hung up in the air, of instability is pervasive. 3. The form of the cow is built upon a frame structure of aluminum or wooden lathes. The structure is covered with transparent film no less than 4 mm thick. 71 PRINTED PROJECT 07: Oleg Kulik 70 PRINTED PROJECT 07: Oleg Kulik 73 PRINTED PROJECT 07: Oleg Kulik 72 PRINTED PROJECT 07: Oleg Kulik Proposition for an Entire City Statement of an individual intention, part of a discussion document, before a process begins Maurice O'Connell Articles of Association 76 PRINTED PROJECT 07: Maurice O'Connell 77 PRINTED PROJECT 07: Maurice O'Connell Memorandum of Association of a Process 1. Name of Process The name of the activity is a process, called in this document ‘the Process’. Aim: To explore and find a successful process for an individual to participate in the ongoing social, economic and cultural development of an entire city. To develop/evolve a role which is constructive within and without the ongoing process of change; to drive, to lead, facilitate and broker. Introduce activities and actions in the public interest in a reasonable and practical manner. 2. Registered Office The registered office of the process will be in Cornwall 3. Objects of the Company 3.1 The objects of the Process are: (a) To relieve poverty, distress and sickness among those living or working in the Local Government administrative area of Belfast and its immediate vicinity (the area of ‘benefit’). (b) To advance education and learning, including training in skills relevant to securing employment among those living or working in the area of benefit. (c) To preserve, protect and enhance in any way for the benefit of the public amenities including the buildings or features of historical architectural, cultural, or natural interest within the area of benefit. (d) To further any other charitable purpose or purposes for the benefit of those living or working in the area of benefit. 4. 78 PRINTED PROJECT 07: Maurice O'Connell Charity through trading and to establish the same either as wholly owned subsidiaries of the Charity or jointly with other persons, companies, government departments or local authorities and to finance the same if the Trustees see fit by way of a secured loan or share subscription on commercial terms provided that the Charity shall seek professional legal advice before financing such companies. (p) To establish, support or join with any charitable companies, institutions, societies or associations whose objects are the same as or similar to its own. 79 Statement of Intention The Process must remain non-party in politics and non-sectarian in religion. It must not discriminate on the grounds of race, sex, religious, cultural or political beliefs or other opinion. (q) To co-operate with other charities, voluntary bodies and statutory authorities operating in furtherance of the objects or similar charitable purposes and to exchange information and advice with them. (r) Purchase or otherwise acquire any of the property, assets and liabilities of any of the charities, institutions, societies or associations with which the Process is authorised to join, and perform any of their engagements. Transfer any of the process’s property, assets, liabilities and engagements to any of the charities, institutions, societies or associations with which the Company is authorised to join. Open and operate banking accounts and other banking facilities. PRINTED PROJECT 07: Maurice O'Connell 5. What the Process May Do 5.1 The Process may do anything lawful that may be necessary in order to promote its objects, including the use of the following powers: (a) Provide, manage, maintain, furnish and fit with all the necessary furniture and other equipment the buildings and any other premises which the Company may need for its objects. (s) (t) (b) Employ and pay any employees, officers, servants and professional or other advisers so long as no member of the Management Committee is so employed. (c) Subject to any consents required by law to raise funds and borrow monies, invite and receive contributions from anyone through subscriptions or the running of a lottery or in any other way. (u) Enter into any arrangements with any governments, authorities or any person, company or association necessary to promote any of the process’s objects. (v) Insure any risks arising from the Company’s activities. (w) To pay out of the funds of the charity the cost of any premium in respect of indemnity insurance to cover the liability of the Management Committee (or any management committee member) which by virtue of any rule of law would otherwise attach to them in respect of any negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust of which they may be guilty in relation to the charity. Provided that any such insurance shall not extend to any claim arising from any act or omission which the Management Committee (or any Management Committee member) knew was a breach of trust or which was committed by those persons or person in reckless disregard of whether it was a breach of trust or not. (x) (y) 6. To make such ex-gratia payments as are considered reasonable and fair with the consent of the Charity Commissioners. To pay all the expenses and costs of establishing and running the process. (d) Subject to any consent required by law to buy, take on a lease, sell, lease or otherwise dispose of, hire, charge or mortgage or acquire any land or property of any sort. (e) (f ) Construct, alter and maintain any equipment, building or structures. Promote, encourage or undertake research and disseminate the results of such. (g) Produce, print and publish anything in written, oral or visual media in furtherance of the objects. (h) To provide or procure the provision of counselling and guidance in furtherance of the objects or any of them. (i) (j) (k) (l) To promote and advertise the Process’s activities. Apply for, seek, obtain and accept government or other grants. Invest any money that the process does not immediately need in any investments, securities or properties. Undertake any charitable trust or any charitable agency business which may promote the Process’s objects. 7. Use of income and property 6.1 The income and property of the process must be applied solely towards promoting its objects. None of it may be paid or transferred directly or indirectly to members of the process in any way except as shown below under ‘Allowed Payments’. Allowed Payments 7.1 The Process may pay: (a) Reasonable and proper payment to any officer or servant of the Process who is not a member of its Management Committee for any services to the Company. (m) Make all reasonable and necessary provision for the payment of pensions and superannuation to or on behalf of employees and their wives, husbands and other dependants. (n) To carry on trade insofar as either the trade is exercised in the course of the actual carrying out of a primary object of the Process or the trade is temporary and ancillary to the carrying out of the objects of the Process. (o) To establish, promote and otherwise assist any limited process or processes for the purpose of acquiring any property or of furthering in any way the objects of the (b) Interest on money lent to any member of the process or its Management Committee. The annual rate of interest must not be more than 2% below the base rate of one of the clearing banks or a rate of 3%, whichever is greater. (c) Reasonable out-of-pocket expenses to any member of the Management Committee. (d) Reasonable and proper payment to a company or other business of which a member of the Management Committee holds capital or other interest in, or is employed by. (e) (f ) 80 PRINTED PROJECT 07: Maurice O'Connell Nature of Engagement Reasonable and proper rent of premises demised or let by any member of the process or its Management Committee. All reasonable and proper premiums in respect of indemnity insurance effected in accordance with the powers in this Memorandum PROVIDED THAT no member of the process or the Management Committee shall be present during the discussion of or voting on any decision to borrow money from or pay rent to that member or make payment to any company or other business in which that member holds capital or other interest in or is employed by. 81 PRINTED PROJECT 07: Maurice O'Connell 8. Alterations to this Memorandum 8.1 No alterations to this Memorandum may be made which would cause the Process only be made by special resolution. For a special resolution to be valid, 21 days’ clear notice of it must be given, and 75% of those voting must be in favour of it. Such a resolution may be passed on less notice if 95% of the total number of members having the right to vote agree. No resolution to alter may be passed at a meeting unless not less than 2 members of the Management Committee are present. 8.2 Alterations may only be made to the objects of the Process or any clause of this Memorandum or Articles which directs or restricts the way monies or the property of the process may be used with the Charity Commissioner’s prior written consent. 8.3 The Charity Commission and Companies Registrar must be informed of alterations and all future copies of the Memorandum issued must contain the alteration. 9. Limited Liability 9.1 The liability of the members is limited. 10. Guarantee by Members of the Process 10.1 Every member of the Process agrees to contribute to the process £1 or any smaller amount required if: (a) the Process is wound-up while he or she is a member or within a year afterwards; and (b) the Process has debts and liabilities which it cannot meet out of its assets. 11. Winding-up of the process 11.1 If the Process is wound-up or dissolved, and there remains any property after all debts and liabilities have been met, the property must not be distributed among the members of the process. Instead it must be given or transferred to some other charitable institution or institutions. The other institution must have similar objects to those of the Process and must prohibit the distribution of its income and property among its members to an extent at least as great as that required by this Memorandum of Association. 11.2 Such institutions will be chosen by the members of the Process at, or before. the time when the Process is wound-up or dissolved. Modes of Participation 82 PRINTED PROJECT 07: Maurice O'Connell Integrating Institutional action into a process 83 PRINTED PROJECT 07: Maurice O'Connell Introduce and test other methods of participation and involvement in the process of change. Readjust roles, relations and responsibilities in these modes of activity. Use the successful models to achieve and form new practice for protagonists and participants. Communicate change to others. Outcomes: Ever changing methodologies to directly engage others in the delivery process of change. Economic Study of the Skin of the Caraquenos (people of Caracas) Santiago Sierra 86 87 ESTUDIO ECONÓMICO DE LA PIEL DE LOS CARAQUEÑOS Caracas, Venezuela. Septiembre de 2006. Se fotografió la piel de la espalda de 10 personas que declararon tener cero dólares, obteniéndose un tono medio en escala de gris para ese valor. Luego se fotografío la piel de la espalda de 10 personas que declararon tener mil dólares obteniéndose un tono medio diferente para ese valor. Finalmente se fotografíó la piel de la espalda de 10 personas que declararon tener un millón de dólares obteniéndose un tono medio diferente de los anteriores para ese valor. Una vez obtenidos los tres diversos tonos en escala de grises para cero, mil y un millón de dólares, se dedujo el valor del tono negro y el valor del tono blanco en dólares. Obteniéndose como valor del negro menos -2.106 dólares y como valor del blanco 11.548.415 dólares. PRINTED PROJECT 07: Santiago Sierra PRINTED PROJECT 07: Santiago Sierra ECONOMICAL STUDY ON THE SKIN OF CARACANS Caracas, Venezuela. September, 2006 The skin on the back of 10 persons who declared to have zero dollars was photographed. A medium tone in a greyscale was assigned to that value. The skin on the back of 10 persons who declared to have a thousand dollars was photographed. A different medium tone in a greyscale was assigned to that value. Finally, the skin on the back of 10 persons who declared to have a million dollars was photographed. A medium tone in a greyscale, different from the other two, was assigned to that value. Once a tone of grey in the scale had been assigned to zero, a thousand and a million dollars, the value of black and white was calculated in dollars. The value of black turned out to be minus 2.106 dollars; and the value of white 11.548.415 dollars. 88 PRINTED PROJECT 07: Santiago Sierra 89 PRINTED PROJECT 07: Santiago Sierra 10 Imagenes Clase Pobre / 10 Images Lower Class 10 Imagenes Clase Media / 10 Images Middle Class Comparativo Clase Rica / Comparative Upper Class CuadroClaseMedia / Comparative Middle Class Comparativo Clase Pobre / Comparative Lower Class 90 91 PRINTED PROJECT 07: Santiago Sierra PRINTED PROJECT 07: Santiago Sierra 10 Imagenes Clase Rica / 10 Images Upper Class An Inappropriate One Nedko Solakov The publisher has decided not to reproduce Nedko Solakov’s original contribution to Printed Project An Inappropriate One. The publisher took this decision due to concerns that the content of the work had the potential to be considered defamatory. Claiming an artistic, humorous and/or satirical intention for the work would not provide a legal defence in Ireland and the UK. After consulting with its legal advisors, the editor/curator and the artist, it was agreed to restrict full publication of the work by blurring the contents beyond recognition. The publisher expresses its regret with regard to the unfortunate necessity of restricting the publication of An Inappropriate One. The Chickcharney I Mission Tavares Strachan The Chickcharney I Mission BRIEF EXCERPTS OF MISSION PLAN CHICKCHARNEY-ATLAS 1 AT A GLANCE MISSION – Manned orbital flight to (1) evaluate the performance of man-spacecraft system; (2) investigate man’s capabilities in the space environment; (3) obtain the pilot’s opinions on the operational suitability of the space craft and supporting systems for manned space flight. (4) set up communication system for audio and visual relay systems. LAUNCH DATE – The flight currently is scheduled no earlier than January 26th, 2008. On whatever day, the launch will be attempted between 7.30 and may 'slip' on a day-today basis as required. Launch timing will be planned to provide at least three hours of daylight search time in the probable recovery areas. FIGHT DURATION – Depending on literally thousands of variables, the Space Craft Operations Director (Manned Spacecraft Center Associate Producer Christopher Hoover) may elect a one-, two- or three-orbit mission. That decision will be made only minutes before launch and may be changed at any time during the mission. Recovery after one full orbit is planned for about 500 miles east of the Bahamas; after two orbits, some 500 miles south of Bahamas; three orbits, about 800 miles southeast of Cape Canaveral, Fla. Each orbit takes about 90 minutes, carrying the craft between 100 and 150 miles altitude, 32 degrees north and south of the equator. If the mission ends after orbit one or two, the astronaut will be moved to the Princess Margaret Hospital in the Bahamas for a 48-hour rest and debriefing. If the mission goes the full three orbits, he will be flown to Grand Turk Island (Bahamas) for a similar operation before being returned to the Unites States. Citizen of the Bahamas, Strachan, who is trained as a sculptor, will begin astronaut training in early 2008. Backup subject for this mission is Christophe Thompson, 29. (See biographies). SPACE CRAFT – Bell-shaped, the MA-6 craft - listed as No. 13 in Engineering documents stands 9 feet high and measures 6 feet across the base. Spacecraft weight at launch will be about 4,200 pounds; spacecraft weight in orbit (after jettisoning of escape tower) – 3,000 pounds; on-the-water recovery weight – 2,400 pounds. LAUNCH VEHICLE – A modified Atlas D is used to launch orbital test missions, reaching a speed of 17,500 miles per hour. At launch, booster and spacecraft stand 93 feet tall, including a 16-foot tower above the spacecraft. The tower contains a solid propellant rocket hooked to an abort sensing system. Should trouble develop on the launch pad or in the early boost phase of the mission, the escape system will be triggered automatically, by the pilot or from the ground to pull the spacecraft away from the booster. David Johnson of Yale University Department of Chemistry and Physics manufactures the booster. NETWORK – The Mission Tracking Network consists of 3 stations around the world. Including two ships, one on the equator in the Atlantic, off the cost of Africa and the other in the Indian Ocean. Some 25 technicians man the stations, all of which are in radio or cable communication with the BAHAMAS GOVERNMENT at the Sir Linden Pilndling airport in Nassau Bahamas. RECOVERY – More than 4 ships will be deployed in the Atlantic alone to take care of prime and contingency recovery areas. In addition, ships and rescue planes around the world will go into action in the event of an emergency landing. More than 50 men will have a hand in the recovery, search and rescue effort. RESPONSIBILITY – Project Chickcharney 1, the nation’s first manned space flight research project, was conceived, and is directed by Tavares Strachan and collaborated with through many contributions from many members of the Astronaut Community. The Bahamas Government has a revived interest charged with the exploration of space for peaceful and scientific purposes. MIR and the Canadian Space Training supply technical project direction for Mercury. In all, more than 2,000 persons will have a part in this mission, including government and industry. Chickcharney I Page 1 Page 2 Chickcharney I About every 30 minutes, the pilot will make detailed voice reports on spacecraft systems and operations conditions. His own transmissions will include critical information as mode of control, precise altitude, planned retrofire time, control system fuel, oxygen, and coolant. MISSION PROFILE Powered flight – the manned Mission spacecraft launch location is undetermined at this time but it will be determined following a two-day split countdown. Technical conditions or weather could, of course, delay the launch from minutes to days. According to the flight plan, the spacecraft will be launched on a path along the Project Chichnarney World-Wide Tracking range on a launch heading of about 72 degrees just north of east from Cape Canaveral. An internal programmer in the ship will guide the vehicle from lift-off until staging occurs. All of the Atlas liquid propellant engines are ignited before lift-off. At staging, about two minutes after lift-off, the two booster engines will drop and the sustainer and vernier engines will continue to accelerate the vehicle. Staging occurs at an altitude of about 40 miles and a range of about 45 minutes from the launch pad. During the first two and a half minutes of flight, an electronic brain, called the Abort Sensing and Implementation Systems (ASIS) is capable of sensing impending trouble in the rocket and triggering the escape rocket. Strachan can also trigger the Mercury escape rocket to pull the spacecraft away from the ship. About 20 seconds after staging, assuming the flight is proceeding as planned, the 16-foot escape tower and rocket will be jettisoned. Landing system will be armed. The MercuryAtlas vehicle will continue to accelerate toward the orbit point guided by ground command guidance. Until orbital insertion, the abort sensing system will continue to watch for trouble. If significant deviation should occur, the system would actuate circuits to release the spacecraft-to-Atlas clamp ring and fire the posigrade rockets on the base of the spacecraft. About five minutes after lift-off, guidance ground command will shut down the sustainer and vernier engine. As the engines shut down, the spacecraft-to-booster clamp ring is released automatically and posigrade rockets are fired to separate the craft from Atlas. Strachan will participate actively during the flight. This will include the following tasks; (1) Help manage the operation of all spacecraft systems, particular the control system, electrical system, environmental control system, and communication systems. (2) Assist in the observation and correct any discrepancies in system operation. Discrepancies will be correlated with telemetered observations received at ground stations. (3) Monitor critical events during launch, and terminate the mission if necessary. (4) Maintain a complete navigation log during flight that will enable him to compute his retrofire time if ground communications should fail. This onboard navigation will include periscope ground sightings, which indicate position over ground altitude. (5) Ground communications to receive updated retrofire information, and receive detailed behavior of spacecraft systems as determined from ground telemetry. (6) Evaluate his physical condition to augment the biomedical data, which are telemetered to the ground. Chickcharney I Page 3 Page 4 Chickcharney I ORBITAL INSERTION – After a few seconds of automatic damping - getting rid of any unusual motions - the space craft will swing 180 degrees so that the blunt face of the craft is turned forward and upward 34 degrees above the horizontal. From that point on, during orbital flight, the pilot can control the spacecraft in proper attitude automatically or manually. Cameras – A 14 mega pixel digital camera will be installed to the left of Strachan’s head to photograph the instruments panel display from the launch through recovery. Periscope – An earth periscope is located approximately two feet in front of the pilot and will provide a 360-degree view of the horizon. The pilot may manually adjust for 'low' or 'high' the field of flight magnification. Pilot support couch – Strachan’s couch is constructed from a crushable honeycomb material bonded to a fiberglass shell and lined with rubber padding. Each astronaut has a flight couch contoured to his specific shape. The couch is designed to support the pilot’s body loads during all phases of the flight and to protect him from acceleration forces of launch re-entry. Restraint System – The restraint system, which consists of shoulder and a chest strap, leg straps, crotch strap, lap belt and toe guards, is designed to keep the astronaut in the couch during maximum deceleration. Environmental Control System – The environmental control system provides the spacecraft cabin and the astronaut with 100-percent oxygen environment to furnish breathing, ventilation, and pressurisation gas required during flight. The system is completely automatic, but in the event of automatic control failing, emergency controls can be used. The systems consist of two individual control circuits (the cabin circuit and the suit circuit), which will normally operate on the astronaut closing the faceplate on his helmet. Unless there is a failure in the cabin circuit causing loss pressure, the pilot’s pressure suit will not inflate. Communications – The spacecraft may remain in touch with the ground through the use of high frequency and ultra-high-frequency radios, radar recovery beacons, and if the situation dictates, a telegraph code key. Food, Water, and Waste Storage – 3,000 calories per person per day are used on the spacecraft -beef and mixed vegetables - and about six pounds of water. The water will be in flat bottles, each fitted with a tube. The food is in two tubes, about the size of toothpaste tubes. In addition, there will be some quick-energy sugar tablets. Survival Equipment – The survival package will consist of a single person life raft, desalting kit, shark repellant, dye markers, first aid kit, distress signals, a mirror, portable radio, survival rations, matches, a whistle, and ten feet of nylon cord. A new lightweight, radar-reflective life raft is fabricated of Mylar (for air retention) and nylon (for strength). The three-pound, four-ounce raft features three water ballast buckets for flotation stability and a deflectable boarding end which may be reinflated by oral inflated through the oral inflation tube following boarding. ORBITAL DOG FLIGHT: Pot Cake inclusion As a part of this orbit mission, the presence of a stray from the islands of the BAHAMAS for data analysis shall be used. The dog Zula fits the requirements and considerations for orbital flight. To fit the limited payload space (9.8 cubic feet) of the R-1, along with all of the collateral equipment, Zula’s female midsection is appropriate. Zula was pulled from a group of the derelict dogs that live in the wild where the level of immunity and durability is high. Zula is 22 months old, an appropriate age for travel. Zulu will be filmed during flight so her light tan color will be perfect for the vessel’s dim background. The final requirement for this process is Zula's being female, making it much easier to fit into the sanitary device to the dogs' suit. Chickcharney I Page 5 Page 6 Chickcharney I Looking for an Extreme, Desperately Ekaterina Degot It affects art more than we know and radically changes all our stereotypes. Using cliches of the innovating artist vs the conservative society, we fail to realise just how much has changed irrevocably. We live in a world with completely different normative ideas, a world in which candy and ice cream are our children’s daily staples (sold in high school vending machines), while soup is only eaten on holidays. Humble food has become feast, fasts have become acts of self-love; carnival and laughter take place all the time everywhere, not only on special occasions. Promiscuity, rather than the observance of restrictions, has become the norm. Freedom is no longer a goal, but (supposedly) an everyday reality of instability and precariousness. Advertisements tell consumers to be ‘different’, ‘innovative’, and ‘creative’ – as maverick as their credit cards will allow. Under these conditions, how can art still go to extremes, and to what extremes? How can artists still be critical, and do they need to be? Nedko Solakov shows us one way to be really transgressive.1 By breaking all the rules of corporative loyalty, he is challenging the collective oblivion in which this world is immersed. An artist who does not wish to be mentioned by name on these pages found another clever way to sabotage the very project he is participating in. And Santiago Sierra is among those who deliberately and openly reject the path of ‘criticism’. Or, to put it differently, the only thing he actually is critical about is a flaneur-like critical attitude – passive, impotent and, finally, collaborative with the capitalist system. Sierra takes the path of provocation instead; provoking by acting rather than observing, acting often deliberately wrongly, with the sole purpose of making the wrongs visible and arousing a reaction. In his extremely disturbing projects, Sierra is appropriating anonymous governmental actions or revealing uncomfortable statistics, concealed by political correctness, which now work as another veil over drastic social contradictions. While the traditional avant-garde idea of an artist includes his or her right to ‘press where it hurts’, Maurice O’Connell’s Proposition for an Entire City is firmly committed to actively overcome divisions in the city of Belfast; by doing so, he is challenging the very status of this ‘invited controversialist’ by really taking charge. It is to be noted that only a radical challenge of ‘critical attitude’ in fact makes critique possible again. It is hardly a secret that, in the contemporary art world, artists who proclaim themselves critical of society, power, or institutions, are usually safe from an art critic’s attacks. They will hardly be told their newest installation is weaker than the previous one: advanced art critics and theorists rarely delve into these details. Under the current division of labour, the critic’s role is usually to explain what the artist is critical of in order to secure him a place in history. One hand washes the other. This becomes especially apparent in comparison to film and theatre criticism, which still lauds or berates directors and offers its readership advice on which premieres to visit. One generally assumes that this is because neither film nor theatre are as advanced as ‘art’, where the audience’s reaction can already be safely ignored (especially since the number of visitors even to the major biennials bears no direct relation on sales). This state of affairs is to the artist’s liking. One could say that the art world is sitting pretty. Recently, however, some artists have emerged who see the fame of a Steven Spielberg as something seriously worth fighting for, and are ready to part with their psychological security in doing so. (After all, film critics will generally throw annihilating mockery in Spielberg’s direction and complain how sick they are of him, but they will do so on the front page.) These artists – and Maurizio Catellan is among those who brilliantly play with the opportunities this position opens – are ready to renounce a place in history, in order to get a place in the very 108 109 Since the advent of the avant-garde, art has been supposed to go to extremes, in plural. That spatial metaphor is normally interpreted as the ultimate freedom – the artist’s license to evolve in every possible direction. Looking closer, however, we could not help but see that art is really only expected to reach one extreme point – that of negation. Such things as ‘radical positivity’ and ‘extreme approval’ are still nearly unheard of. In the best case they would be put away in the drawer of kitschy and cathartic totalitarian art. Already in cubism, art was flirting with destruction, damage and dissociation. The painful experience of World War I contributed to this vision of art as a nihilistic statement with tragic overtones. Until recently, it was essential to dwell on the lack, the loss, and the longing, as a necessary condition of an artwork’s ‘seriousness’. Modernism, whose heroes felt themselves excluded from society, developed the language of exclusion, built upon a system of taboos. It started with a ban on crowd-pleasing illusionism, and then went beyond to introduce new commandments – from ‘thou shalt not paint human figures’ to ‘thou shalt not create autonomous art at all’. This restrictive attitude was meant to reveal the ultimate truth about the restrictive character of modern capitalist society and the commercialisation of art. From these early Modernist imperatives, only a few have survived; anorexic flatness is no longer a rule, illusion is acceptable, and as for styles, it seems that nobody cares. The belief in the critical potential of negation, however, has rarely been challenged. ‘Serious’ art might look very unserious now, but it must be critical. After this position has been clearly uttered, an artist has a right to do anything he or she likes. One could even imagine it might be possible to exhibit a still life with apples, if the painter would claim he was actually critical of this fruit. The ubiquitous ‘criticism’ simply took the place of ‘representation’. ‘Protest’ means ‘beautiful’. When Kendell Geers turns a bold and allegedly subversive ‘fuck’ slogan into a sophisticated typographic ornament, he is clearly demonstrating to what extent aesthetic negation has turned into routine. By doing so, Geers also makes us ask ourselves what should have been asked in the first place. Why is wild freedom of expression only allowed to be expressed in specific and rigid forms? And why, moreover, in forms representing lack of freedom, such as the grid, flat surface, and enclosed space? Why does subversion even have a form? In Andrea Fraser’s ironical El Museo TV-series script, artistic and social protest is expressed by the unauthorised production of noodles in the form of well-known commercial logos. Another surrealistic turn in her script – a supposedly terrorist plot with a self-exploding sculpture – turns out to be an artist’s project, which real protesters aim to sabotage by not allowing it to explode. This brings us back to questions of negation and assertion, mainstream and margins, bourgeois society and an innovative avant-garde. Contemporary democratic, multicultural and postcolonial society likes to see itself as built on affirmative action rather than segregation, on incorporation rather than exclusion, on permissions rather than prohibitions. Maybe this self-delusive image is what we call the global world. PRINTED PROJECT 07: Ekaterina Degot PRINTED PROJECT 07: Ekaterina Degot different context of media. It is evident that, on TV, in glossy magazines, movies, and comics, the pressure to innovate has been lifted completely, since the contemporary audience has a short memory: magazines and news sites unscrupulously re-publish material after a very short time, sure the reader will be recycled by then. Catellan’s fictitious interview with Francis Bacon who is long gone (with a tongue-in-cheek hint at this fact in the title) could easily be published in the daily news. In this ‘media terrorism’ as in his other witty projects, Catellan assumes different roles, transgressing the contemporary artist’s routine image. For Catellan, to be finally criticised for not being as good as, let’s say, Buster Keaton, would represent a real triumph and, at the same time, a ‘trip into extremes’; contemporary art would finally leave the territory of its invulnerability, cutting through the umbilical chord that connects it to history, and landing in the ‘now and here’ of the physical moment with no past and future, where Francis Bacon might very well be interviewed in the daily news. Like Walter Benjamin in his famous 1927 statement (in One-Way Street), many contemporary artists could say that there is no safe place for a distant and unengaged critic in the contemporary world, and that to think otherwise is a dangerous delusion. Benjamin was one of the first to feel the pressure of an upcoming globalism abolishing distance, time, space, and differences in an all-embracing ‘whole’ where contradictions are concealed. Gradually from the 1960s on, and especially in the 1990s, art started to look for a response to this challenge, to revise its language of negativity. Art started to experiment with the rhetoric of life rather than the rhetoric of death, to work with notions of the ‘open’, the ‘polymorph’, the ‘hybrid’, and the ‘multiform’. Organic unity, denounced by Adorno, was rehabilitated under the name of a ‘complex dichotomy’. Hierarchic representation, the ‘either-or’, was to be challenged by the friendly ‘both’. In praxis, with layered projections and prints, sounds dispersed in space and events dispersed in time, the idea of manifold possibilities has too often flowed into the consumerist greed, which Baudrillard called “too much of too much.” Marina Abramovic, as always sensitive to the rhetoric of ‘embracing oppositions’ which was the official ideology of Soviet Marxist-Leninist dialectics, is subtly provocative in her project about the Balkan social phenomenon of ‘virginias’. Making a film about these human beings, who transgress oppositions of male and female and therefore defy the impasse of dilemmas, she nevertheless intends to impose the inevitable choice on the viewer, making viewers decide who will be the winner in a battle between virginias and men. Although computer game players do not usually perceive this kind of decision as a burden, to the extent it represents a moral judgement it certainly is; in Abramovic’s project, the very multi-formity and interactivity becomes disconcerting. Tania Bruguera, who grew up in Cuba, is another artist who is well aware of the inherent violence of dialectically merged oppositions – and, at the same time, of its mighty critical potential. In her project for the latest Moscow Biennial, Bruguera invited visitors to be photographed, in a silly touristic way, in front of a portrait of the legendary chief of Soviet secret police. The very juxtaposition of a happy image with a grim background serves as a reminder of this inherent conflict inside any optimistic communist children-cum-flowers painting – a conflict of which every Soviet citizen was completely aware. It is exactly this dialectical conflict that gives a necessary frisson to the allegedly totalitarian or, at least, utopian ‘extreme positivity’ of these paintings. It is time to see ‘unconditional love’ as a form of critique, too. Utopia may serve as a form of criticism – criticism of those narrow-minded and physically challenged simple humans, in comparison with utopian ideals. As Ilya Kabakov once put it, the loud optimistic marches which inundated every Soviet citizens’ daily life only served to tell them they were unequal to the occasion. Vladimir Tatlin’s Letatlin was not just a passionate expression of freedom, but an ardent incrimination of immobility as well; so is Luca Buvoli’s project Flying for beginners. It is an artist’s radical engagement – as are the elaborated mega-projects of Tavares Strachan, who plans an orbital space flight – which transgresses and challenges passivity and conformism in contemporary society. In fact, we are so accustomed to contemporary art (and trained by it) we no longer discern its overtones of hostility; we have even learned to enjoy it. Many authors have accused modernism of holding ‘ordinary people’ in contempt, but for modernism, the ‘ordinary person’ actually collaborates with capitalism and deserves punishment. Unlikable products, damaged goods (paintings impossible to savour; pissoirs impossible to piss in), even hostile commodities that would harm their owners immediately or over time (Andrea Fraser’s sculpture-as-bomb is the ultimate avant-garde dream) – this is what contemporary art offers to us, in order to deprive us of pleasure. Art has to separate people from consumption, “waking the artist in them and fostering his development,” as Lenin put it. It is just that the sadism of depriving the spectator of pleasure proved capable of establishing a loyal following: Oleg Kulik’s monumental project where he plans to identify the visitor with grass and to make him or her follow its internal way of transformation into bovine excrement would be an indisputable success. Kulik is a champion at offending his usually grateful audience, whom he has already coerced to eat hastily with their hands, to step on paintings, to be given meat of a pig slaughtered in their presence and to feel trapped in other morally dubious situations. As strange as it seems, this modernist sadism is still effective, much more than modernist criticism. Only now, it has become torture through consumption and not through the inaccessibility of consumption; torture through never-ending pleasure, unrelenting digestion, total access, and continuous erections. This is the sadism of our time, in which ‘nothing’ has been replaced by an excruciating ‘everything’. 110 PRINTED PROJECT 07: Ekaterina Degot 111 PRINTED PROJECT 07: Ekaterina Degot 1 Publishers note. Unfortunately, that same work was a bit too transgressive for our lawyers who recommended omission of Solakov's work for fear of libel action. Likewise, the end of the first sentence of Ekaterina Degot's description of Solakov's work had to be edited out. Contributors Marina Abramovic, born in 1946 in Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Since the beginning of her career in Belgrade during the early 1970s, Abramovic has pioneered the use of performance as a visual art form. The body has always been both her subject and medium. Exploring the physical and mental limits of her being, she has withstood pain, exhaustion, and danger in the quest for emotional and spiritual transformation. Abramovic’s concern with creating works that ritualise the simple actions of everyday life like lying, sitting, dreaming, and thinking; in effect the manifestation of a unique mental state. As a vital member of the generation of pioneering performance artists that includes Bruce Nauman, Vito Acconci, and Chris Burden, Abramovic created some of the most historic early performance pieces and is the only one still making important durational works. Recently she held a series of performances called Seven Easy Pieces at the Guggenheim Museum in New York. Abramovic was awarded the Golden Lion for Best Artist at the 1997 Venice Biennale for her extraordinary video installation/ performance piece Balkan Baroque and in 2003 received the Bessie for The House with the Ocean View. Her work is included in many major public collections worldwide. Bruguera has been a participant in Documenta 11, the 49th and 51st Venice, Sao Paolo, Istanbul, Johannesburg, Moscow, Havana biennials among others. Her solo exhibitions include The Kunsthalle Wien; FRAC Lorraine, Kunsthalle Kiel; Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, and her work has been exhibited at several museums in the United States, Europe and Latin America. In 1998 she was selected as a Guggenheim fellow (United States). In 2000 and in 2007 she received a Prince Claus Grant (The Netherlands). Bruguera was featured in Art Now – Vol.2, Fresh Cream, Performance Live Art Since 1960’s, The New York Times, Le Monde, The Village Voice, Artforum, Flash Art, Kunstforum, Performance Research, among others. She currently lives and works between Chicago and Havana. She is the founder/director of Arte de Conducta, the first performance studies program in Latin America, is a visiting faculty at the University IUAV in Venice, Italy and assistant professor at The University of Chicago, United States. Weber Gallery, New York (1995, 1997, 1999). Group shows include the 2nd Johannesburg Biennale, South Africa (1997), and ‘Greater New York’ at PS1, New York (2000). A large multi-media installation is currently at the 52nd Venice Biennale, in the first room of the Arsenale. His animated works have been shown at the Museum of Modern Art, New York (2004), the Lincoln Center (1998), the ICA in Boston (1997) and in London (1998) among other places. Articles on his works have appeared in The New York Times, Flash Art, Art on Paper, Art in America, ArtNews, and others. A Fulbright Fellow, he has received grants and awards from the New York State Council on the Arts, Creative Capital Foundation, Jerome Foundation, and Pollock-Krasner Foundation. Luca Buvoli’s sculptures are in the collections of the Museum of Modern Art, New York, and other museums and institutions around the world. Funny Side of a Moving Image’ (Moscow Central House of Artists, 2005). In 2000 she was the curator of Russian pavilion at the Venice Biennale. Her books, all published in Moscow, include Terroristic Naturalism (1998), on the contemporary Moscow art scene, Russian 20th Century Art (2000), the first comprehensive history of Russian modernism from first avantgarde to present movements, and Moscow Conceptualism (with Vadim Zakharov, 2005) on the most influential Russian contributions to international art. She has also written numerous essays in catalogues of international exhibitions of contemporary Russian art. She writes a column for Moscow’s Bolshoj Gorod (Big City) magazine, about the everyday objects of Post-Soviet neocapitalist life. She has been a guest professor in many American and European universities, and now teaches in Moscow School of Photography and New Media. Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, among other venues. In 2003, the Kunstverein in Hamburg organised the retrospective Andrea Fraser: Works 1984-2003. Her essays and performance scripts have appeared in Art in America, October, Texte zur Kunst, Social Text, Artforum and Grey Room. Museum Highlights: The Writings of Andrea Fraser, was released by MIT Press in 2005. Fraser was a founding member of the feminist performance group, The VGirls (1986-1996); the project-based artist initiative Parasite (1997-1998); and the cooperative art gallery Orchard (2005-present). She was also co-organizer of Services, a “workinggroup exhibition” that toured to seven venues in Europe and the United States between 1994 and 2001. Fraser is currently on the faculty of the Whitney Independent Study Program in New York and Visiting Associate Professor, Department of Art, University of California, Los Angeles. Oleg Kulik (1961, Kiev) belongs to the new generation of Russian artists. In his work, he denounces our current society, which, in his eyes, fails on both ethical and aesthetic levels. Central to his work is the concept of ‘zoophrenia’, or the relationship between man and animal, between culture and nature. According to Kulik, an anthropocentric society that has no understanding of biological species other than humans is not worthy of being called a democracy. On the other hand, he propagates the harmony that inter-specific relationships can create. The ‘family of the future’ does not rule out intermarriage between various biological species, quite the contrary. In Kulik’s own words, “always being together, having endless faith in one another, experiencing a love so strong that no human can be added to it - that is the moral centre of my new family” . In antiquity the philosopher Diogenes pondered these things, and considered the life of a dog to be the ultimate model for humans and therefore decided to live as a dog himself. Kulik puts on renowned performances in which he builds a kennel in a gallery and lives in it naked, acting like a dog. The artist insists “nothing inhuman is alien to me” . Kulik is convinced that a world in which the biological species stand on equal ground heralds a new Renaissance, an aesthetic 'boom' which, until today, has hardly been imaginable. If man is the manager of this future world and the animals are the creators, then the artist is its designer, according to Oleg Kulik. Luca Buvoli, (born in Italy, 1963, lives in New York) is an artist working with animated film and video, installation, sculpture, drawing, and artist’s books. Luca Buvoli’s solo shows include the ICA in Philadelphia (2007), the MIT List Visual Arts Center, Cambridge 2000, the Philadelphia Museum of Art 2001), the Cleveland Museum of Contemporary Art (part of ‘Mythopoeia: projects by Matthew Barney, Luca Buvoli, and Matthew Ritchie’) (1999), the Santa Monica Museum of Art, CA (1996), the Queens Museum of Art, NY (2001), the Weatherspoon Art Museum, Greensboro, NC (2003), the Glassell School of Art of the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston (2003), and the John Tania Bruguera is a political and interdisciplinary artist who focuses on social behavior, constructions of utopia and creating social spaces as the principal resources of her work. She sees art as an experience (both physical and psychological), as a space where things are possible even if only in a specific timeframe, place or for a particular group of people. Her work is often of an ephemeral nature because of the use of live actions, but also because of the ephemeral condition of any political ‘truth’. Ekaterina Degot, PhD, is an art historian, art critic and curator based in Moscow. Formerly a curator at the State Tretyakov gallery, Moscow, and a culture columnist at the most important national newspaper Kommersant Daily, Moscow, she concentrates now on independent curating and writing. She is particularly interested in the specific character of Russian modernism, including Soviet realism, and unofficial conceptualism of the 1970s and 1980s. Curator and co-curator of shows ‘Body Memory: Underwear of the Soviet Era’ (City History museum, Petersburg, a.o., 2000-5), ‘MoscowBerlin 1950-2000’ (Martin-Gropius Bau, Berlin, 2003 – 04), ‘Soviet Idealism’ (Museum of Wallon Art, Liege, 2005 – 06), ‘The Comedy: the Andrea Fraser’s work has been identified with performance, video, context art and institutional critique. Major projects include installations for the Berkeley Art Museum (1992); the Kunstverein Munich (1993); the Venice Biennale (Austrian Pavilion, 1993); the Whitney Biennial (1993); the Generali Foundation, Vienna (1995); the Kunsthalle Bern (1998); the Sprengel Museum Hannover, (1998); and the Bienal de São Paulo (1998). She has created performances for the New Museum of Contemporary Art, New York (1986); the Philadelphia Museum of Art (1989); the Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford (1991); inSITE, San Diego/Tijuana (1997); and the MICA Foundation, New York (2001). She has also performed solo work at the Whitechapel, London; the Dia Art Foundation, New York; the Museum of Modern Art, Vienna; and the Kendell Geers, Born in MAY 1968. Italian-born, New York based artist. Maurizio Cattelan has been exhibiting his sculptures and installations internationally for nearly two decades. The subject of numerous exhibitions, including solo shows at the Museum of Contemporary Art in Chicago and at the Ludwig Museum in Köln, Germany, he is currently presenting Ave Maria at the Tate Modern in London and a solo show at the MMK in Frankfurt, Germany. He was, with Massimiliano Gioni and Ali Subotnick, part of the 4th Berlin Biennial curatorial team and together they are responsible for The Wrong Gallery. Kim Levin is an independent art critic and curator. Until 2006, she was a regular contributor to The Village Voice. From 1996 to 2002, she was International President of the International Association of Art Critics (AICA) based in Paris. She is the author of Beyond Modernism: essays on Art from the ‘70’s and ‘80s (Harper Collins 1988; Tokyo Shoseki 1991); and editor of Beyond Walls and Wars: Art, Politics and Multiculturalism (Midmarch Press 1992). She conceived and co-edited Art Planet: A Global View of Criticism (The AICA Press, Volume 1 1999) and is coauthor of Transplant: Living Vegetation in Contemporary Art (Hatje Cantz, Germany, 2000). Her essays on art have appeared in magazines and journals in the United States and other countries, including Kunstforum, World Art, Artscribe, New Art International, Iskusstvo, Obeig, Neue Bildinde Kunst, Art in America, Arts Magazine, Art Journal, Sculpture, and The American Journal of Archaeology. She has been Contributing Editor of Arts Magazine, and New York correspondent for Flash Art and Opus International. Ms. Levin has also written catalogue texts for many museum exhibitions, among them Centre Georges Pompidou, capc Bordeaux, Kunstmuseum Basel, Welsh Arts Council, Yokohama Museum and Moderna Museet Stockholm, as well as the Walker Art Center, and the Centre for African Art. Educated at Vassar College, Columbia University, and NYU’s Institute of Fine Art, she has taught at Philadelphia College of Art, Parsons School of Design, School of Visual Arts, and Claremont Graduate School, and has lectured at museums and universities. In 1986, she received the Art/World Award for Distinguished Newspaper Criticism, and in 1993, she received the SECA Fellowship for Criticism by the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. In 2004 she was a Fellow for the Annenberg/Getty Arts Journalism Program. She was advisor to the 1995 Kwangju Biennial and has been curator of exhibitions at Ho-Am Gallery, Sonje Museum and the National Museum of Contemporary Art (Korea); Museum of Modern Art Seibu Takanawa (Japan); Centre of Contemporary Art Ujazdowski Castle (Poland); Hene-Onstad Kunstsenter (Norway); KunstWerke Berlin; and the Phoenix Museum of Art. In 1995 she was Co-curator of Configura II in Erfurt, Germany. She was Curator of the Nordic biennial, ‘Borealis 8: The Scream’, which took place at the ARKEN Museum of Modern Art in Copenhagen in 1996-97. In 2002 she served as a commissioner of the Busan Biennale in Busan Korea. concentrated on local community development. The work is documented through public manifestations, communications, monitoring reports, minutes of meetings and personal accounts by participants. Artworks are no longer produced by the artist as a result of the work of the artist. Maurice continues to grow a broader range of artist activity. The inclusive nature of his work is centred around actual contact between the artist and others. There is little or no ‘artistry’ developed within the work. Conversation is the central frame with which all the processes are carried out. Maurice keeps records of the activity, but makes no public presentation reflecting the work – unless is it part of the process. These representations are not determined by the artist. All this work is allied to a notion of critical discourse within the idea of a people-based community. originating from various countries of the African continent, board small boats in order to cross the Strait of Gibraltar toward Europe in search of work and better living conditions, running the risk of death. Often, the corpses are expelled by the sea on the Southern coasts of Spain. In Exchange in the positions of two volumes of land of 30 cubic meters each one (2005), carried out in the demilitarized zone between North and South Korea, Sierra exchanged the earth of two holes excavated by machine under military supervision. The measurements of the holes corresponded to the dimensions of a commodity container. In the end, the land remained practically the same except for the traces in the soil left by the work and the pulled out bushes. The action referred to the aggressive division of a territory by political reasons, recalling that, in any dividing line, there are two parts involved. For Arrangement of 12 prefabricated fortifications, carried out in Herzliya, Israel (2004) Sierra employed the concrete structures used by the Israeli army. The fortifications were placed in the city’s museum of contemporary art in the 12 possible forms without repetition and equidistant from one another. 200 litres of water from the Dead Sea (2004) and Jerusalem stones in a meter cube box (2004) are cubes containing organic material that have become ideologically charged symbols. Santiago Sierra’s work has been produced and exhibited individually and collectively in the Museo Rufino Tamayo and X-Teresa, Mexico City; Lisson Gallery, London; Galerie Peter Kilchmann, Zurich; Galer’a Helga de Alvear, Madrid; Kunsthaus Bregenz and Kunsthalle Wien, Austria; Deitch Projects, New York and the Herzeliya Museum in Tel-Aviv. He has participated in the Venice Biennale three times, in 2003 representing the Spanish Pavilion. Since 1992 Dublin born artist Maurice O’ Connell has developed strategies with which to explore the place of the artist and the artist’s work within society. His projects are based around discourse and discussion, testing routes in which to engage the individual in meaningful work. These discussions inhabit local and national initiatives which mobilise actions and activity to bring about change. The artist (as worker) implements processes which activate change. This discourse and its activity has taken many forms – from traditional exhibitions, performances and commissions to long-term participation in social policy, strategy planning, managerial positions, consultancy and community mobilisation. Maurice is currently based in Cornwall in the UK, where his work is Santiago Sierra , born in Madrid, 1966. Lives and works in Mexico City. Sierra’s work deals with labour and the verticality of power structures in our capitalist society. Employing workers from different countries and contexts – workers meaning any person who executes an activity in exchange for remuneration – Sierra carries out actions marked linguistically by conceptual and minimalist art, uncovering the conditions of marginality promoted by an exploitative system of which everyone is part – including the artist. In Cadiz, Sierra hired illegal workers to dig 3,000 holes in the soil (3,000 holes of 180 x 50 x 50 cms each, 2002). They worked with shovels for a month receiving a salary equivalent to the one stipulated by the Spanish administration for workers: 54 Euro for eight hours. The workers, Since the beginning of the 1990s, Nedko Solakov (born 1957, Tcherven Briag, Bulgaria; lives in Sofia) has exhibited extensively in Europe and the United States. His work was featured in Aperto ‘93 (Venice Biennial); the 48th, 49th, 50th and 52nd Venice Biennial; the 3rd, 4th and 9th Istanbul Biennial; São Paulo ‘94; Manifesta 1, Rotterdam; the 2nd and 4th Gwangju Biennial; the 5th Lyon Biennial, Sonsbeek 9, Arnhem, the 4th and 5th Cetinje Biennial, the 1st Lodz Biennial; the 7th Sharjah Biennial, United Arab Emirates; the 3rd Tirana Biennial; the 2nd Seville Biennial, the 2nd Moscow Biennial and Documenta 12. Recently he had solo shows at Museu do Chiado, Lisbon; Stichting De Appel, Amsterdam; CCA Kitakyushu, Japan; Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, Madrid, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem; Centre d’Art Santa Monica, Barcelona and Kunsthaus Zurich. In 2003-2005 an extensive mid-career ‘A 12 1/3 (and even more) Year Survey’ was presented at Casino Luxembourg, Rooseum Malmoe and O.K Centrum Linz. Among his upcoming projects are solo exhibitions at the Museum of Contemporary Art in Bucharest, Kunstverein Hannover and the Museum of Contemporary Art in Belgrade. Maker (Cloud Chamber), 2006; Strachan recreated a natural phenomenon – cloud formation, within a fabricated environment using computer operated switches, pressure, water, and silicon powder. In Homeostatic Feedback Loop #1 (Natural body water), 2003 – 2006 the artist collected all of his own urine, distilled it, purified it, and bottled it for consumption. Strachan worked with the city of New Haven, CT to get permission to remove a section of a public sidewalk with a parking meter. The section of sidewalk was shipped to San Francisco for exhibition at the Luggage Store and shown as Where We Are Is Always Miles Away (Crown Street Dig), 2005 – 2006 Education: 2004-06 MFA Yale University; 2003 Rhode Island School of Design, Bachelor of Fine Arts, Glass; 2002 Brown University, Liberal Arts Studies; 1999 College of the Bahamas, Associates of Fine Arts, Painting. Solo Exhibitions have included ‘Where We Are Is Always Miles Away’ (2006) The Luggage Store, San Francisco, CA; Pierogi Brooklyn, New York; Ronald Feldman Fine Arts, New York, NY; ‘The Distance Between What We Have and What We Want,’ Nassau Bahamas, Albury Sayle Primary School (Installation of the Arctic Ice Project), which travelled to Miami, FL in expanded form, including a separate film element and the artists’ flag as planted in Alaska and the Bahamas; MFA Thesis Exhibition, Yale University; ‘Synergism’, Pro Gallery, Nassau Bahamas (2001); ‘Reactions’, Central Bank Gallery, Nassau Bahamas (1999). Tavares Strachan, (born 16 December , 1979, Nassau, Bahamas) is an artist “attracted to how physical space displacement completely changes our reality” Key works . include The Difference Between What We Have and What We Want (Arctic Ice Project), 2005 – 2006; with the help of a skilled team, Strachan cut into frozen Arctic water to extract a 4.5 ton portion which was stored in Alaska, then shipped to Nassau, Bahamas to be displayed in July–August 2006, an extremely hot summer month. For Glo–Our Rain NCAD offers advanced study, practice and research across art, design, education, history, theory and criticism. Artists, designers, theorists, critics, historians, educators and other cultural workers pursue postgraduate studies at the College, attracted by the strength of existing programmes and the constant innovation which create programmes attuned to the latest developments in art, design, visual culture, criticism and theory. The Fold Issue 2 : Clouds National College of Art & Design A recognised college of the National University of Ireland 100 Thomas Street, Dublin 8, Ireland 353 1 6364200 firstname.lastname@example.org www.ncad.ie A Workroom Elsewhere* Project by Cora Cummins & Alison Pilkington. Published by Workroom Press Summer 2007. email@example.com photo: Deidre Houlihan Stephen Lougman A Beginning, oil on canvas, 170 x 120 cm, 2007. www.kevinkavanaghgallery.ie Richard Gorman New Works 16 May –13 July 2007 Fernanda Chieco ‘RELISUC – Red Light Suction device’. 2005. Installation. Richard Gorman Slide Flyer 2007 June Sat 16 12h30 19h30–21h Thurs 21 19h30 Wed 27 19h30 Bloomsday Brunch The All Weather Project Rex Levitates Dance Company Fête de la Musique Dervish Celtic Ballads Irish Chamber Choir of Paris July Wed 4 14h–19h James Hanley (artist-in-residence) Open Studio + Talk Eithne Jordan Sernam Depot III 2006 Oil on Linen 114 x 146 cm Hugo Canoilas in collaboration with Joao Ferro Martins ‘Green monochrome’, 2007. Video. Emulsion paint on walls and drummer, Jam session. MORE HEAT THAN LIGHT Curated by Jonathan Carroll Marcus Coates, Hugo Canoilas, Fernanda Chieco, Teresa Gillespie, John O’Connell. Thursday 24 May – Friday 29 June CARRICK-ON-SHANNON St. George’s Terrace, Carrick on Shannon, Co. Leitrim T: 071 9650 828 : firstname.lastname@example.org www.thedock.ie August Thurs 30 19h30 Joseph O’Connor reading from Redemption Falls. Centre Culturel Irlandais 5, rue des Irlandais, 75005 Paris T 0033 (0)1 58 52 10 30 F 0033 (0)1 58 52 10 99 information: www.centreculturelirlandais.com reservation: email@example.com 13 April - 19 May CONVERGENCE Padraig Cunningham: Bill Viola John Albert Duigenan: Caroline Patten Laura Gallagher: Stephen Kelly Linda Shevlin: Hughie O'Donoghue IMAGINED - VISIONS OF ARCHITECTURE Eithne Jordan, Paul O'Connor LANDSCAPES Peter Brooke, Gareth Kennedy, Cora Cummins DREAM DIARY Robin Whitmore 25 May - 7 July 13 July - 1 Sept THE BASEMENT GALLERY Town Hall, Crowe St., Dundalk, Co.Louth Mon- Fri 10-4.30/Sat 10-12.45 042 firstname.lastname@example.org The Basement Gallery is programmed and managed by the Arts Office of Dundalk Town Council Ongoing Catalyst Arts presents Jason Oddy Turning Things Round Opening reception 27th June 7-9pm Continues to July 21st 2007 5 College Court, Belfast BT1 6BS, t: 00 44 0 28 90 31 33 03 f: 00 44 0 28 90 31 27 37 e: email@example.com w: www.catalystarts.org.uk Maggie Madden, Building Castles in the Air, 2006, mixed packaging, dimensions variable. Utopias Tina Meehan 11 Jun – 25 Aug Synergies Maureen Meehan & Juliette de la Mer 11 Jun – 25 Aug Draíocht Blanchardstown Centre, Blanchardstown, Dublin 15, Ireland T: +353 1 885 2610 F: +353 1 8243434 W: www.draiocht.ie Building Castles in the Air Maggie Madden 11 June – 25 August Artist in Residence Maggie Madden June – December 2007 Shipping Address Name: Address: SUBSCRIBE TO PRINTED PROJECT You can subscribe to Printed Project by completing and returning this form along with a cheque for the appropriate fee to Visual Artists Ireland. Alternatively you can also pay by Credit Card – just complete the details below. Price for 4 issues of Printed Project USA Ireland/N.Ireland Britain Europe $70 €30/ £20 £36 €45 (Cheques payable to Visual Artists Ireland) With which issue would you like to commence your subscription? q Current issue q Next Issue Printed Project, Visual Artists Ireland, 37 North Great Georges Street, Dublin 1, Ireland. 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April 2005 ‘The New PhD in Studio Art’ Curator / Editor: James Elkins This edition of Printed Project contains essays on the philosophic forms of the PhD along current debates, along with excerpts from recent PhD theses. Next Issue Autumn 2007 Issue : 08 Curator / Editor Munira Mirza Issue 3. October 2004 ‘The Self Express’ Curator / Editor: Les Levine This issue of Printed Project is an extension of Levine’s 2003 DVD The Self Express – and comprises of interviews with the artist conducted by the individuals who had been the subjects of this work. Issue 2. May 2004 ‘Letters from Five Continents’ Curator / Editor: Saskia Bos Saskia Bos invited the former students of De Appel’s curatorial programme, now working across the globe from Auckland to Ljubljana, to write a letter about art, living conditions and other issues relevant to their locales. Issue 1. September 2003 ‘there once was a west’ Curator / Editor: Sarah Pierce The issue’s title is a reference to the ‘correct’ translation of the name of Sergio Leone's famous Western C'era una Volta il West. Welcome to Printed Project the journal published by Visual Artists Ireland. Printed Project is an ongoing collaboration amongst artists, critics and curators, writers and readers devoted to making sense of contemporary art and culture. Printed Project is published up to three times a year and is edited on a rotating basis by invited curatorial editors. It gathers and presents thought and opinion on issues and arguments that enliven dialogue and debate on art and the wider culture of our present day. With Printed Project Visual Artists Ireland sets out to meet the need felt within an expanding art industry for a not-for-entertainment art publication. Simple and modest in design and production the journal brings the best of comprehensive thought to bear on present art practices and on the shared consequences artists and audiences face as our culture backs into the future. Printed Project is published in Dublin by Visual Artists Ireland. Issue 7 published June 2007 Curator/Editor: Administrative Editor: Proof Readers: Editorial Panel: Kim Levin Jason Oakley Niamh NicGhabhann Toby Dennett (Director VAI) Therry Rudin Kerry McCall Siun Hanrahan (Chairperson) Paul O'Reilly Finola Jones Anya von Gosseln Sarah Pierce Declan Long Jason Oakley Valerie Earley Bennis Design, Dublin Graham & Heslip, Belfast The views expressed in Printed Project are not necessarily those of Visual Artists Ireland, the Curator / Editor or the Editorial Panel. ©2007 Visual Artists Ireland, the authors and artists. All rights reserved. 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