Miami Dade College PSY 2012 - Summer 2009 Exam _ 4 - Form 9 by wuzhenguang

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									                                    Miami Dade College
                                  PSY 2012 – Summer 2009
                                    Exam # 4 – Form 9
                                       Chapters 12-15
                                   Dr. Mayte Insua-Auais

Directions: Read each question carefully. Using a #2 pencil, select the best answer to each
question and then, transfer your answer onto your Scantron sheet. This exam is due on
Wednesday, July 29, 2009 at 10:25 AM. If you have any questions, you may contact me via e-
mail at minsuaau@mdc.edu. Good Luck!


    1. Before Jackie left for college, she told her friend Lisa that she thought sororities were
       filled with snobs and that she would never consider joining one. But during Jackie's first
       week on campus, she was approached by a sorority member who invited her to a social
       function and encouraged her to pledge. After Jackie attended the party, she told Lisa,
       “Sororities do a lot of good things for the community. They're really service
       organizations.” Jackie's change in attitude to match her behavior reflects which of the
       following concepts?
       A) cognitive dissonance
       B) self-serving bias
       C) out-group homogeneity effect
       D) diffusion of responsibility


    2. Conformity is defined as:
       A) the tendency to adjust one's behavior, attitudes, or beliefs to group norms in
          response to real or imagined group pressure.
       B) the performance of an action in response to the direct orders of an authority or
          person of higher status.
       C) any behavior that helps another, whether the underlying motive is self-serving or
          selfless.
       D) helping another person with no expectation of personal reward or benefit.


    3. Psychological research has shown that resisting the direct orders of an authority figure:
       A) is virtually impossible.
       B) is more likely if two or more people join in resisting or disagreeing with the
           authority's orders.
       C) is easier for people who are low in levels of ethnocentrism.
       D) is more likely to occur in individualistic cultures than in collectivistic cultures.




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4. The Stanford Prison Experiment was conducted by psychologist:
   A) Philip Zimbardo.
   B) Stanley Milgram.
   C) Solomon Asch.
   D) Muzafer Sherif.


5. A middle-aged woman is sitting on a bench in the busy shopping mall, holding her head
   in her hands, visibly upset and crying. Nobody stops to see if she needs assistance.
   Based on what you read in the text, the most likely explanation for why nobody helps in
   this situation is:
   A) the in-group homogeneity effect.
   B) diffusion of responsibility.
   C) the rule of reciprocity.
   D) the just-world hypothesis.


6. The Stanford Prison Experiment demonstrated the powerful influence of:
   A) explicit orders and direct pressure to obey by an authority figure.
   B) the bystander effect.
   C) the indirect pressure of situational roles and implied social rules.
   D) the just-world hypothesis.


7. When people experience an unpleasant state of psychological tension resulting from two
   inconsistent thoughts or perceptions, they are said to be experiencing:
   A) diffusion of responsibility.
   B) normative social influence.
   C) cognitive dissonance.
   D) the actor-observer discrepancy.


8. Milgram, along with other researchers, identified several aspects of his original
   obedience experiment that had a strong impact on the subjects' willingness to obey the
   experimenter. Which of the following is NOT a factor that increased the subjects'
   willingness to obey?
   A) the gradual, repetitive escalation of the task
   B) the physical and psychological separation from the learner
   C) the freedom of the teacher to choose the level of shock
   D) a previously well-established mental framework to obey




                                        Page 2
 9. Franz, who dislikes speaking in public because it makes him very nervous, was not well
    prepared for his presentation. In this situation, the presence of other people will:
    A) enhance Franz's performance.
    B) diminish Franz's performance.
    C) have no effect on Franz's performance.
    D) enhance deindividuation.


10. If Jerome takes part in a replication of Milgram's obedience experiments that involves
    observing two other “teachers” refusing to continue, it is very likely that Jerome:
    A) will also refuse to continue administering shock at the highest level.
    B) will give more shocks at the highest level to compensate for the two teachers who
         quit.
    C) will demand to be paid more money for continuing with the experiment.
    D) will report their noncompliance to the experimenter.


11. Natalie suggests that the aggressiveness of her brother's new friend is the result of his
    friend's low self-esteem. Natalie's inference about the cause of the behavior of her
    brother's friend is an example of:
    A) the bystander effect.
    B) cognitive dissonance.
    C) an attribution.
    D) altruism.


12. Muzafer Sherif helped clarify the conditions that produce intergroup _____ and _____.
    A) bystander apathy; diffusion of responsibility
    B) social facilitation; social loafing
    C) conflict; harmony
    D) obedience; conformity


13. When their community was threatened with flooding, two rival groups ended up
    working together to try to save the town from the overflowing river. Based on Muzafer
    Sherif's findings, it is probable that the joint effort of the two groups to achieve a
    common goal may lead to:
    A) diffusion of responsibility and the bystander effect.
    B) increased conflict over which group should get the most credit for achieving the
        goal.
    C) reduced conflict and increased harmony between the two groups.
    D) increased antagonism and hostility once the danger has passed.




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14. While eating at a restaurant, you see a waiter's serving tray tilt and an avalanche of food
    and beverages splatters on four people. “What a careless, clumsy idiot,” you mumble to
    yourself as you resume eating. You have just committed an attributional bias called:
    A) diffusion of responsibility.
    B) the bystander effect.
    C) the self-effacing bias.
    D) the fundamental attribution error.


15. The _____ effect refers to the fact that when people feel good, successful, happy, or
    fortunate, they are more likely to help others.
    A) diffusion of responsibility
    B) bystander
    C) “feel-good, do-good”
    D) out-group homogeneity


16. The tendency for the presence of other people to enhance individual performance is
    called:
    A) social facilitation.
    B) social loafing.
    C) the self-serving effect.
    D) the bystander effect.


17. Dylan is working with six other employees to produce a joint report. If he is typical of
    most people in individualistic cultures who are involved in a collective task, he is likely
    to:
    A) credit external, situational factors if the project is a success, and blame himself if
        the project fails.
    B) work much harder than if he were working on the project alone.
    C) experience an increase in ethnocentrism.
    D) expend less effort than if he were working on the task alone.


18. The Focus on Neuroscience box described an fMRI study. The results showed that when
    we make direct eye contact with a physically attractive person, a brain area called the
    ventral striatum is activated. When the attractive person's eye gaze is shifted away from
    the viewer, activity in the ventral striatum decreases. The ventral striatum is the brain
    area that:
    A) processes information about moving objects.
    B) suppresses the instinctual fight-or-flight response.
    C) triggers the instinctual fight-or-flight response.
    D) predicts reward.




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19. Psychologist Cheryl Kaiser and her colleagues looked at how people with a strong belief
    in a just world psychologically resolved the fact that thousands of innocent people died
    in the terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001. Kaiser found
    that people with a strong belief in a just world advocated _____ those who committed
    the injustices because doing so would _____.
    A) forgiveness of; restore trust and faith in human nature
    B) revenge against; ensure that they got what they deserved and restore justice
    C) understanding of; minimize ethnocentrism and promote a global worldview
    D) recognizing; acknowledge diverse worldviews and restore fairness


20. Which of the following is a basic principle involved in person perception?
    A) Your reactions to others are determined by your perception of them, not by who or
       what they “really” are.
    B) In every situation, you evaluate people partly in terms of how you expect them to
       react in that situation.
    C) Your self-perception influences how you perceive others and how you act on your
       perceptions.
    D) All of these are involved in person perception.


21. During Nick's first trip abroad he was surprised to find that people in other cultures ate
    such foods as snails, squid, insects, lizards, earthworms, seaweed, and rotten-looking
    cheeses. “One day they will become civilized like us and eat normal foods like Krispy
    Kreme donuts, pizza, hot dogs, and hamburgers and cheese fries,” he wrote to his
    parents. Nick's remarks illustrate a form of in-group bias called:
    A) the actor-observer discrepancy.
    B) ethnocentrism.
    C) the bystander effect.
    D) informational social influence.


22. In Milgram's original obedience study, what was the voltage level at which some
    participants first refused to continue shocking the learner?
    A) At the 45-volt level, the level at which the “sample” shock was given to the teacher.
    B) At the 150-volt level, which was labeled “Moderate Shock.”
    C) At the 315-volt level, which was labeled “Extreme Intensity Shock.”
    D) At the 420-volt level, which was labeled “Danger: Severe Shock.”




                                           Page 5
23. Behavior that is motivated by the desire to gain social acceptance and approval is
    referred to as:
    A) obedience.
    B) normative social influence.
    C) social facilitation.
    D) informational social influence.


24. The Focus on Neuroscience box described an fMRI study in which participants were
    scanned while looking at photographs of different faces. What were the results of the
    study?
    A) Limbic system brain structures associated with emotion were activated when
        participants viewed faces of people who were of a different race than themselves.
    B) Faces of attractive, happy children evoked greater activation in the right hemisphere
        in female participants than in male participants.
    C) Faces of attractive people looking directly at the viewer activated the ventral
        striatum, a brain area associated with the expectation of rewards.
    D) The hypothalamus, a brain area associated with sexuality, was activated when
        participants viewed the face of an attractive person of the opposite sex.


25. Several of the people ahead of Kyle in the checkout line at the cafeteria put loose
    change in a charitable donation box. According to your textbook:
    A) it is very unlikely that Kyle will make a donation too.
    B) the helping behavior of others has no influence on personal helping behavior.
    C) it is quite probable that Kyle will make a donation too.
    D) Kyle will only make a donation in this situation if he is in a bad mood.


26. Nikki, an air traffic controller, experiences prolonged and chronic stress. According to
    Hans Selye, Nikki is probably experiencing high levels of:
    A) androgens.
    B) lymphocytes.
    C) catecholamines.
    D) corticosteroids.


27. According to Martin Seligman, a person who reacts to negative events with an
    optimistic explanatory style uses:
    A) internal, stable, and global explanations for negative events.
    B) excuses for not getting things accomplished and is a chronic procrastinator.
    C) external, unstable, and specific explanations for negative events.
    D) an escape-avoidance coping style.




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28. Studies investigating close relationships and physical health have repeatedly found that:
    A) close relationships cause more stress and anxiety than does social isolation.
    B) poor physical health is unrelated to social isolation.
    C) the lack of social relationships is related to an increased risk of health problems.
    D) there is no correlation between social support and physical and emotional well-
        being.


29. When Nishio emigrated to Australia he heartily embraced the new culture, adopting the
    dress and social values of his new home, and soon gave up his old traditions, customs,
    and language. Nishio chose:
    A) integration.
    B) assimilation.
    C) separation.
    D) marginalization.


30. Which of the following behaviors would be an example of the “tend-and-befriend”
    response as described by health psychologist Shelley Taylor?
    A) Mike froze in his tracks when he heard the gunshots, and then took off running in
        the opposite direction.
    B) Lacey grabbed her young daughter and hid under a desk when she heard a gunshot,
        shouts, and screams in the hallway of the courthouse building.
    C) Erik pulled his service revolver out of his holster and moved quickly towards the
        sound of the fighting.
    D) When Lindsay heard the commotion, she quickly ran to the exit door and escaped
        down the back fire escape.


31. In obsessive-compulsive disorder, common compulsions include:
    A) suicide attempts.
    B) eating and gambling.
    C) washing and counting.
    D) fighting and other forms of aggressive behavior.




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32. Which of the following examples reflects a symptom of an anxiety disorder rather than
    normal anxiety?
    A) The night before his final exam, Bill is unable to sleep because he is worried about
        doing well on the test.
    B) For the past several weeks, Mavis has been unable to concentrate at work because
        she keeps thinking that something terrible might happen to her son at school, even
        though she knows that he's safe.
    C) Seth is upset because his girlfriend told him she wants to start dating other guys,
        and he is afraid that she will break up with him.
    D) Barbara has just found out that her company has been sold, and she is very worried
        that she might lose her job.


33. False or distorted perceptions that seem vividly real are called:
    A) secondary symptoms of schizophrenia.
    B) avolitions.
    C) delusions.
    D) hallucinations.


34. The viral infection theory of schizophrenia suggests that:
    A) adolescents or young adults who are exposed to an unknown virus that attacks the
        outer covering of the brain are most at risk for developing schizophrenia.
    B) schizophrenia is caused by the same strain of virus that causes hepatitis.
    C) exposure to an influenza virus during prenatal development or early infancy leaves
        the individual more vulnerable to developing schizophrenia later in life.
    D) schizophrenia is caused by a virus that is transmitted by ticks and rodents.


35. Although she cannot remember ever being harmed by a cockroach, Kate has an extreme
    fear of cockroaches. Which of the following ideas might be used to help explain her
    specific phobia of cockroaches?
    A) Kate watched a horror movie that involved large insects eating people.
    B) Kate is Japanese and her irrational fear of cockroaches is one of the symptoms of a
         culturally-specific disorder called taijin kyofusho.
    C) Kate is biologically prepared to develop phobias toward creatures that arouse
         disgust and are associated with disease, filth, and contamination.
    D) Kate's symptoms are associated with a drug-related hallucination that is commonly
         called “cocaine bugs.”




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36. In the disorder called dissociative identity disorder, the “alters,” or distinct personalities:
    A) can be of different ages and gender.
    B) are typically all the same age.
    C) are typically all the same gender.
    D) may all be present simultaneously.


37. About four months ago, 16-year-old Amanda went on a drastic diet that caused her to
    drop from her normal weight of 120 pounds to less than 90 pounds. Although her weight
    is dangerously low, she continues to undereat because she thinks she looks fat. Amanda
    suffers from:
    A) binge-eating disorder.
    B) hypochondriasis.
    C) bulimia nervosa.
    D) anorexia nervosa.


38. Which of the following is NOT a symptom of panic disorder?
    A) Panic attacks are sudden and unpredictable.
    B) A panic attack may occur during or after a stressful period of life.
    C) A panic attack occurs at least twice every week for a period of three months or
       longer.
    D) Panic attacks occur when there is no reasonable or realistic threat.


39. Paul's girlfriend is very concerned about him because his thinking seems to have
    become increasingly confused. Today, Paul said that he was really the reincarnation of
    John Lennon, the former member of the Beatles who was shot and killed in 1980. Paul
    also told her that he had special musical powers and that he needed to start his own rock
    group so that he could deliver his message to the masses. Paul seems to be experiencing:
    A) auditory hallucinations.
    B) delusions of persecution.
    C) negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
    D) delusions of grandeur.


40. According to the information presented in the Critical Thinking box on smoking and
    psychological disorders, people with a psychological disorder:
    A) are much less likely to become addicted to nicotine than people who do not have a
        psychological disorder.
    B) are half as likely to smoke cigarettes as people who do not have a psychological
        disorder.
    C) are nearly twice as likely to smoke cigarettes as people who do not have a
        psychological disorder.
    D) Both answers a and b are correct.




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41. What do the famous writers Mark Twain, Ernest Hemingway, and Sylvia Plath share in
    common?
    A) They all suffered from delusions and were hospitalized for episodes of
       schizophrenia.
    B) They all committed suicide.
    C) They all suffered from dissociative identity disorder.
    D) They all suffered from episodes of major depression.


42. _____ is/are to positive symptoms of schizophrenia as _____ is/are to negative
    symptoms of schizophrenia.
    A) Reduced emotional expressiveness; hallucinations
    B) Hallucinations; reduced speech
    C) Reduced motivation; delusions
    D) Delusions; hallucinations


43. The onset of bipolar disorder is most likely to occur:
    A) during the winter months.
    B) when the person is in his or her early twenties.
    C) very gradually over the course of several years.
    D) in females who are forty-five to fifty years old.


44. Approximately _____ percent of people with anorexia nervosa die from starvation,
    suicide, or physical complications arising from the extreme weight loss.
    A) 2
    B) 10
    C) 25
    D) 50


45. In dissociative identity disorder, it is generally believed that the “alters”:
    A) represent different aspects of the individual's personality that cannot be integrated
         into the primary personality.
    B) represent the individual's ego, superego, and id.
    C) are the source of the voices commonly heard in schizophrenia.
    D) are the result of the hallucinations common in cases of “split personality.”




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46. Which of the following statements about the prevalence and course of major depression
    is FALSE?
    A) When major depression recurs, the symptoms tend to increase in severity.
    B) Most people who experience major depression seek professional help to deal with
        the symptoms.
    C) If left untreated, the symptoms of major depression can persist for six months or
        longer.
    D) More than half of all people who have had one episode of major depression will
        experience another episode of major depression, usually within two years.


47. Research has shown that both major depression and bipolar disorder:
    A) tend to run in families.
    B) are caused by repeated traumatic events.
    C) are less common among creative writers and artists than among the general
        population.
    D) are due to elevated brain levels of lithium.


48. For the third time in two months, Erica's husband rushed her to the hospital emergency
    room because Erica thought she was having a heart attack. Her symptoms included a
    racing, pounding heart, weakness, feeling faint, and feeling as if she were unable to
    breathe. Although her doctor says she is physically healthy, Erica lives in fear of another
    attack. Erica is most likely suffering from which psychological disorder?
    A) specific phobia
    B) panic disorder
    C) generalized anxiety disorder
    D) obsessive-compulsive disorder


49. The _____ type of schizophrenia is characterized by bizarre postures or grimacing,
    extremely agitated behavior, complete immobility, or echoing the words spoken by
    another person.
    A) catatonic
    B) paranoid
    C) undifferentiated
    D) disorganized




                                          Page 11
50. Which of the following statements about phobias is FALSE?
    A) About 10 percent of the general population will experience a specific phobia at
       some point in their lives.
    B) There are no gender differences in the prevalence of specific phobias.
    C) In the general population, mild phobias of certain animals, such as dogs or snakes,
       or certain situations, such as flying or being in enclosed places, are very common.
    D) Even though the person consciously knows that their fear is irrational, encountering
       the feared object can produce incapacitating terror and anxiety.


51. People who have anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have _____ brain activity of the
    neurotransmitter _____.
    A) increased; dopamine
    B) decreased; dopamine
    C) increased; serotonin
    D) decreased; serotonin


52. Martin is a clinical psychologist who works for a welfare agency. Twice a week, Martin
    makes his rounds throughout the city. Under one of the city bridges lives Kirby, whose
    symptoms include flat affect, peculiar behaviors, and giggling for no apparent reason.
    Kirby's symptoms reflect the _____ type of schizophrenia.
    A) paranoid
    B) undifferentiated
    C) catatonic
    D) disorganized


53. A(n) _____ is an intense, irrational fear that is triggered by a particular object or
    situation.
    A) panic attack
    B) ataque de nervios
    C) phobia
    D) delusion of reference


54. A long-lasting anxiety disorder that develops in response to being exposed to a severe
    and often life-threatening trauma is called:
    A) generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).
    B) obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).
    C) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
    D) dysthymic disorder (DD).




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55. Jeffrey is so preoccupied by his fear of germs that he always keeps his car and
    apartment windows sealed tightly, and refuses to allow anyone into his apartment. He
    carries his own silverware which he uses when he eats away from home, and washes his
    hands every time he touches anything that has been touched by someone else. Jeffrey
    would most likely be diagnosed with:
    A) dissociative identity disorder.
    B) paranoid schizophrenia.
    C) obsessive-compulsive disorder.
    D) cyclothymic disorder.


56. The notion that there is a significant increase in the number of suicides in the United
    States during the winter holidays:
    A) has been repeatedly demonstrated by psychological studies.
    B) is true for older adults but not for younger adults and adolescents.
    C) applies only to years in which unemployment rates are higher than normal.
    D) is a myth.


57. Which of the following statements about anxiety is TRUE?
    A) Anxiety is always abnormal.
    B) Anxiety is a symptom that occurs only in the anxiety disorders but not in other
       psychological disorders.
    C) Anxiety can be adaptive, helpful, and beneficial when it alerts people to a realistic
       threat.
    D) Anxiety is an unpleasant emotional state, but it has no physical effects.


58. Although he has only been caught one time, Devin has repeatedly shoplifted small items
    that he could easily pay for or doesn't need. Which of the following psychological
    disorders is Devin most likely to have?
    A) pyromania
    B) kleptomania
    C) fetishism
    D) borderline personality disorder


59. Which of the following is a positive symptom of schizophrenia?
    A) greatly reduced motivation
    B) reduced emotional expressiveness
    C) reduced speech
    D) delusions




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60. Chloe is 19 years old, weighs 86 pounds, has a BMI of 13.9, and has been hospitalized
    with a diagnosis of severe anorexia nervosa. Because of her anorexia, Chloe is likely to:
    A) develop a soft, fine body hair called lanugo.
    B) have abnormally high blood levels of leptin.
    C) have increased brain activity of serotonin.
    D) experience weight cycling.


61. Virtual reality (VR) therapy consists of:
    A) hallucinated images that are often experienced during an episode of schizophrenia.
    B) vividly realistic images that can be created through hypnosis.
    C) computer-generated scenes that a person views using goggles and a special motion
        sensitive headset.
    D) unconscious fantasies and wishes, which seem authentic when they surface during
        psychoanalytic treatment.


62. Who is most likely to have said: “The resistance accompanies the treatment step by step.
    Every single association, every act of the person under treatment must reckon with the
    resistance and represents a compromise between the forces that are striving towards
    recovery and opposing ones.”?
    A) Carl Rogers
    B) Mary Cover Jones
    C) Sigmund Freud
    D) Albert Ellis


63. Naikan therapy is a type of:
    A) therapy that involves as many members of the client's community as possible.
    B) therapy that involves including members of the client's immediate and extended
        family.
    C) Japanese psychotherapy that involves self-criticism for failing other people and
        meditation upon one's obligations to others.
    D) Japanese psychotherapy that involves group therapy with the client's coworkers.


64. “It is a dire necessity for you to be loved or approved of by virtually everyone in your
    community.” “It is easier to avoid than to face life's difficulties and problems.”
    According to _____, these statements reflect common _____.
    A) Sigmund Freud; examples of resistance
    B) Carl Rogers; examples of unconditional positive regard
    C) Aaron Beck; cognitive biases
    D) Albert Ellis; irrational beliefs




                                          Page 14
65. Theresa is a psychotherapist who is working with a client named Ross. Currently, Ross
    is agonizing over whether he should stay married or file for divorce, but he can't seem to
    make up his mind. According to the guidelines in the textbook, Ross should expect
    Theresa to:
    A) tell him what to do.
    B) recommend a good divorce lawyer.
    C) help him explore and better understand his own feelings about his marriage, so that
         he can make a responsible decision.
    D) call Ross's wife and tell her how Ross feels.


66. For the last several weeks, Cheryl has been responding to her therapist with hostility
    during her sessions of psychoanalysis. Cheryl often responds similarly to her parents,
    especially her mother. Cheryl is probably unconsciously experiencing:
    A) resistance.
    B) transference.
    C) overgeneralization.
    D) personalization.


67. To deal with 4-year-old Anne's temper tantrums at home and preschool, the behavior
    therapist trained Anne's parents and her preschool teachers to modify the problem
    behavior by using _____ and _____, which are two techniques based on operant
    conditioning.
    A) aversive conditioning; unconditional positive regard
    B) magnification; minimization
    C) extinction; positive reinforcement
    D) counterconditioning; systematic desensitization


68. According to Carl Rogers, the client-centered therapist ideally should demonstrate:
    A) modeling, adaptive thinking patterns, and collaboration.
    B) challenge, confrontation, and resolution.
    C) therapeutic neutrality, interpretations, and transference capacity.
    D) genuineness, unconditional positive regard, and empathic understanding.




                                          Page 15
69. Which of the following statements about psychoanalysis is FALSE?
    A) Traditional psychoanalysis is a slow therapeutic process that may last for years.
    B) It is a myth that Sigmund Freud's patients lay on a couch during psychoanalytical
       sessions.
    C) The traditional form of psychoanalysis that lasts for years is still used today.
    D) As part of the therapeutic process in traditional psychoanalysis, the therapist
       purposely remains as neutral as possible to produce “optimal frustration” in the
       patient so that the patient transfers and projects unresolved conflicts onto the
       psychoanalyst.


70. In her landmark study of a 3-year-old child named Peter, Mary Cover Jones
    demonstrated that:
    A) classical conditioning techniques could be used to remove fears.
    B) parents could benefit as much from a self-help group as they could from family
        therapy.
    C) aversive conditioning is highly effective in controlling disobedient behavior.
    D) bedwetting can be greatly reduced or eliminated by using the bell and pad
        treatment.


71. Candace overhears a classmate complaining that some students have such huge egos
    that they completely dominate class discussions and make it impossible for other
    students to voice their opinions or even ask a question. Candace walks away in tears,
    convinced that the classmate is talking about her. According to Beck's cognitive therapy
    (CT), Candace is demonstrating a(n) _____ called _____.
    A) ego defense mechanism; transference
    B) irrational belief; overgeneralization
    C) negative cognitive bias; personalization
    D) free association; interpretation


72. The Prologue to Chapter 15 described a woman named Marcia who is in psychotherapy.
    According to Marcia, one benefit of her therapy sessions is that she invariably feels
    great emotional relief just from talking with her therapist. The reduction of emotional
    and physical tension that can occur simply as the result of talking about psychological
    problems is called:
    A) spontaneous remission.
    B) catharsis.
    C) systematic desensitization.
    D) extinction.




                                         Page 16
73. Mary Cover Jones is regarded by many psychologists as the:
    A) first female psychoanalyst who was trained by Sigmund Freud.
    B) first psychologist to develop and use family therapy.
    C) founder of Alcoholics Anonymous and the self-help movement.
    D) first behavior therapist.


74. Carl Rogers believed that several qualities of the therapist are critical in producing
    beneficial changes in client-centered therapy. Which of the following is NOT one of
    those qualities?
    A) The therapist should display genuineness by openly and honestly sharing his or her
        thoughts with the client.
    B) The therapist should strive to create an atmosphere of conditional acceptance so that
        the client is motivated to change his or her behavior to gain the therapist's approval.
    C) The therapist should communicate empathic understanding by reflecting back both
        the content and personal meaning of what the client is saying.
    D) The therapist should be nondirective to allow the client to direct the focus of
        therapy.


75. Nine-year-old Sean is afraid to go to summer camp because he still regularly wets his
    bed at night. Sean's pediatrician referred him to a very successful program for treating
    bedwetting at a local mental health clinic. Which of the following techniques did the
    clinic probably use to achieve their high rate of success in reducing bedwetting?
    A) aversive conditioning involving mild electric shocks
    B) the bell and pad treatment
    C) catharsis
    D) systematic desensitization


76. Unresolved grief, role disputes, role transitions, and interpersonal deficits are:
    A) best treated with behavioral therapy.
    B) examples of unconscious conflicts in traditional psychoanalysis.
    C) key categories of personal problems in interpersonal therapy (IPT).
    D) most frequently treated with family or couples therapy.


77. One important goal of the therapist in client-centered therapy is to:
    A) create conditions that allow the client to direct the focus of therapy.
    B) actively guide and make decisions for the client.
    C) uncover the client's unconscious conflicts.
    D) challenge the client's irrational beliefs and values.




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78. As part of the treatment strategy that Mary Cover Jones used, she had 3-year-old Peter:
    A) sit in on therapy sessions with his parents.
    B) clean up the mess he made before he was allowed to play with the other children.
    C) help remove the soiled sheets and put fresh sheets on the bed before going back to
        sleep.
    D) observe other children holding and petting a tame rabbit.


79. Which of the following is NOT a category of interpersonal problems in interpersonal
    therapy?
    A) unresolved grief
    B) role transitions and role disputes
    C) unrealistic beliefs
    D) interpersonal deficits


80. In comparison to the first generation of antidepressants, the second generation of
    antidepressants:
    A) was much more effective than the first generation drugs and had virtually no side
         effects.
    B) was much less effective than the first generation drugs but had virtually no side
         effects.
    C) was generally no more effective than the first generation drugs and had many of the
         same side effects.
    D) helped reduce the physical symptoms of depression but had no effect on the
         cognitive and emotional symptoms of depression.




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