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Exercise4-UAR

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					UAR1
UAR Identifier


HE1-Good Feature

Succinct description:


"OK", "Cancel", and "Apply" button labels follow Windows standards.

Evidence for the aspect:


Heuristic: Consistency and standards (in particular, the "standards" part of this heuristic)
Interface aspect:
The buttons at the bottom of the screen are labeled "OK", "Cancel", and "Apply"-as shown in the
picture below.
In the online MSDN Library Visual Studio 6.0 (see Books/The Windows Interface Guidelines for
Software Design/ Chapter 8 Secondary Windows/Property Sheets and Inspectors/Property Sheet
Commands), it lists the following standard ways to close the property sheet:




Command                 Action


OK                      Applies all pending changes and closes the property sheet window.
Apply                   Applies all pending changes but leaves the property sheet window open.
Cancel                  Discards any pending changes and closes the property sheet window. Does not
                        cancel or undo changes that have already been applied.




Explanation of the aspect:


All the standard ways to close the property sheet are present and work as described.

Benefit of the good feature:


Users will be able to use their prior knowledge of Microsoft products with this control panel.

Solution:


I cannot think of any drawbacks to using the standard button labels and actions at this time.

Relationship to other UARs:


UAR#HE3 "Cancel" button provides an "emergency exit."
UAR#HE5 Problem
Cancel doesn't give feedback when it doesn't cancel anything




UAR2
UAR Identifier
HE2 - Good Feature

Succinct description:


Buttons have keyboard shortcuts.

Evidence for the aspect:


Heuristic: Flexibility and efficiency of use: keyboard accelerators.
Interface aspect:
The buttons on the screen are all with a shortcuts,just like picture below:




                                  The result of completing Exercise 4.


Explanation of the aspect:
It can save time for the users to use this software,expecially for the skilled users.Using the
shortcut,you need not to move the mouse again and again,you just need press some keys instead,and it
saves lots of time

Benefit of the good feature:


Users who are skilled at using Windows will be able to operate these two commands without their
hands leaving the keyboard (which is faster than using the mouse - see "1.1.3 Basic Psychology
Needed for Interface Design"). Since the commands are indicated visually in standard ways, skilled
users will see these indications and know them for what they are - clues to the keyboard shortcuts.

Solution/Discussion:


I cannot think of any drawbacks to using the standard button labels and actions at this time.

Relationship to other UARs:


None when this UAR was originally written.




UAR3
UAR Identifier


HE3 - Good Feature

Succinct description:


"Cancel" button provides an "emergency exit."

Evidence for the aspect:


Heuristic: User control and freedom
Interface aspect:
There is a Cancel button at the bottom of the screen, as shown in the picture below:
In the online MSDN Library Visual Studio 6.0 (see section Books/The Windows Interface Guidelines
for Software Design/ Chapter 8 Secondary Windows/Property Sheets and Inspectors/Closing a
Property Sheet), it lists the following specification of the Cancel button's action:


Command             Action




Cancel              Discards any pending changes and closes the property sheet window. Does not
                    cancel or undo changes that have already been applied.




Explanation of the aspect:


If users setsthe time and then change their minds, they can cancel all the changes by clicking the
Cancel button. The button is prominent and is the standard way to undo a sequence of changes made
in a property box.

Benefit of the good feature:


Users will be able change their mind and undo a series of changes with just one button click.

Solution:


Although the Cancel button discards all the changes that have not been applied and closes the window,
if the Apply button was clicked prior to clicking the Cancel button, no changes will be undone, though
the window will be closed. See UAR #HE8 for more discussion of this control panel operation.

Relationship to other UARs:


UAR# HE1 "OK", "Cancel", and "Apply" button labels follow Windows standards.
UAR#HE5 Problem
Cancel doesn't give feedback when it doesn't cancel anything




UAR4
UAR Identifier


HE4-Problem

Succinct description:


The difference between "OK" and "Apply" is not obvious.

Evidence for the aspect:


Heuristic: Consistency and standards (in particular, the "consistency" part of this heuristic)
Interface aspect:
The button labels "OK" and "Apply" have very similar definitions in lay English.
Definition of "OK" in Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary: approve, authorize.
In the context of just making changes to something, the changes are the things that are approved or
authorized.
Definition of "apply" in Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary: To put into effect.
In the context of just making changes to something, these changes are the things that will be put into
effect.

Explanation of the aspect:


The difference between "OK" and "Apply" is not obvious to the user. From common definitions of the
words, it would seem that they do the same thing: make the changes that the user just indicated in the
control panel. Since the words are different, the actions should also be different according to the
consistency and standards heuristic, but the difference between the actions should be reflected in the
words used to label them.
According to the Design Guide passage quoted above, both buttons apply the changes the user made
to the property sheet. The only difference is that the Apply button leaves the property sheet open and
the OK button closes the property sheet. Unfortunately, this difference is not inherent in the meanings
of the labels.

Severity of the problem:


The users will probably learn the difference between these buttons pretty quickly, especially if they
use other Windows products.

Solution:


Change the labels to reflect the real difference in the actions. Perhaps use "Apply" and "Apply &
Close".
However, following this solution will violate the Windows Design Guide conventions and, therefore,
will violate the standards part of the same heuristic. The buttons "OK" and "Cancel" were
standardized long before dialog boxes that needed "Apply" were in use. Therefore, the terms have
been "inherited" with a lot of users knowing what they mean. It will not be easy to change away from
the "OK" label.

Relationship to other UARs:
 UAR# HE5 – Good Feature:
"OK", "Cancel," and "Apply" button labels follow Windows standards.
This heuristic seems to give conflicting advice. Perhaps we'll have to do user testing-or at least
conduct a survey or some interviews-to see if our users will really have problems with "Apply" and
"OK".
Having identified a relationship to UAR# HE5 we would go back to that UAR and write the
relationship to this UAR in its Relationship to other UARs slot. In addition, since HE6 is a direct
contradiction of HE5, this needs to be recorded in the Solution slot of HE5 as well as the
Relationship to other UARs slot.




UAR5
UAR Identifier


HE8 - Problem

Succinct description:


Cancel doesn't give feedback when it doesn't cancel anything

Evidence for the aspect:


Heuristic: Visibility of system status
Interface aspect:
There is a Cancel button at the bottom of the screen, as shown in the picture below:
In the online MSDN Library Visual Studio 6.0 (see section Books/The Windows Interface Guidelines
for Software Design/ Chapter 8 Secondary Windows/Property Sheets and Inspectors/Closing a
Property Sheet), it lists the following specification of the Cancel button's action:


Command                             Action

Cancel                              Discards any pending changes and closes the property sheet
                                    window. Does not cancel or undo changes that have already been
                                    applied.




As specified in the Design Guide, if changes are made in the property box and then the Apply button
is pressed, those changes are made permanent and cannot be discarded by clicking the Cancel button.
However, there is no visual indication that these changes are not available to be canceled; the Cancel
button still looks active. In effect, if the Cancel button is clicked right after the Apply button is clicked,
the Cancel button will behave exactly like the OK button: it will simply close the window (because the
changes have already been applied).

Explanation of the aspect:


The Windows Design Guide does not seem to give advice about whether the standard buttons should
be available (black) or unavailable (gray) at any particular time. However, this Date/Time control
panel tab (labeled "Date & Time") makes the Apply button unavailable (gray) when there are no
changes to be applied, and it will have no effect. The Cancel button is not grayed out when there are
no changes to cancel, presumably because it will still have an effect (i.e., closing the window), but it
will NOT have the effect it was labeled for (i.e., canceling something) if the changes have been
applied.

Severity of the problem:


This can be a rather severe problem if there is no way the user can check the status of the property box
once it is closed - or even if the information is on the screen but difficult to see. In this case, many
users will have the clock in very small font down in the bottom right corner where they may never
have occasion to look. This is severe because users may think they've canceled changes when they
haven't: in reality, the changes have been applied to the system clock. This change will affect the
dating of files and e-mail messages and, therefore, can have wide-reaching consequences.

Solution:


Make the Cancel button unavailable (gray) when there are no changes to cancel. Thus, the Apply and
Cancel buttons will either be available (black) or unavailable (gray) at the same time - depending on
whether or not there are changes to apply or cancel.
When there are no unapplied changes, only the OK button will be available (black), and it will close
the window.
Note that this train of thought could continue to the point of reconsidering if the OK button should
also be gray when there are no unapplied changes made. The window could always be closed with the
Close button (labeled with an "x") in the top right corner of the window. A complete analysis of this
issue would generate at least one more UAR to discuss the OK button, links between all these UARs,
and a group UAR to discuss them all as a group (to be discussed in a later section of the course).The
Windows Design Guide seems to be silent on the issue of active/inactive Property Sheet command
buttons, so graying the Cancel button would not violate an explicit platform standard. However, we
might want to look at several other applications with property boxes to see if there is a de facto
standard, or see if people in user tests are confused by the Cancel button becoming unavailable (gray).

Relationship to other UARs:
 UAR# HE3 - Good Feature:
"Cancel" button provides an "emergency exit."
UAR#HE1-Good Feature
"OK", "Cancel", and "Apply" button labels follow Windows standards.

				
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posted:10/31/2012
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