Five Largest island in Indonesia Sumatra (Indonesian: Sumatera) is an island in western Indonesia, westernmost of the Sunda Islands. It is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are shared between Indonesia and other countries) and the sixth largest island in the world at 473,481 km2 with a population of 50,365,538. Its biggest city is Medan with a population of 2,109,330. Sumatra forms an elongated landmass spanned diagonal northwest — southeast axis. The Indian Ocean borders the west, northwest and southwest sides of Sumatra with the island chain of Simeulue, Nias and Mentawai bordering along the southwestern coast. On the northeast side the narrow Strait of Malacca separates the island from the Malay Peninsula, an extension of Eurasian continent. On the southeast the narrow Sunda Strait separates Sumatra from Java. The northern tip of Sumatra borders the Andaman islands, while on the lower eastern side are the islands of Bangka and Belitung, Karimata Strait and the Java Sea. The Bukit Barisan mountains, which contain several active volcanoes, form the backbone of the island, while the northeast sides are outlying lowlands with swamps, mangrove and complex river systems. The equator crosses the island at its center on West Sumatra and Riau provinces. The climate of the island is tropical, hot and humid with lush tropical rain forest originally dominating the landscape. 87% of Sumatrans are thought to be Muslim. The island is home to 22% of Indonesia's population Java (Indonesian: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia. With a population of 135 million (excluding the 3.6 million on the island of Madura which is administered as part of the provinces of Java), Java is the world's most populous island, and one of the most densely-populated places on the globe. Java is the home of 60 percent of the Indonesian population. The Indonesian capital city, Jakarta, is located on western Java. Much of Indonesian history took place on Java. It was the center of powerful Hindu- Buddhist empires, the Islamic sultanates, and the core of the colonial Dutch East Indies. Java was also the center of the Indonesian struggle for independence during the 1930s and 40s. Java dominates Indonesia politically, economically and culturally. Kalimantan, In English, the term Kalimantan refers to the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo, while in Indonesian, the term "Kalimantan" refers to the whole island of Borneo. The Indonesian territory makes up 73% of the island by area, and 69.5% (13,772,543 at the 2010 Census of Indonesia) by population. The non-Indonesian parts of Borneo are of Brunei (400,000) and East Malaysia (5,625,000), the latter comprising the states of Sabah and Sarawak. The region within Indonesia is also known as Indonesian Borneo. Kalimantan's total area is 544,150 square kilometres (210,097 sq mi) Sulawesi (formerly known as Celebes is one of the four larger Sunda Islands of Indonesia and the world's eleventh-largest island. It is situated between Borneo and the Maluku Islands. In Indonesia, only Sumatra, Borneo, and Papua are larger in territory, and only Java and Sumatra have larger Indonesian populations. Sulawesi has a distinctive shape, dominated by four large narrow peninsulas: the north Semenanjung Minahassa; the East Peninsula; the South Peninsula; and the South-east Peninsula. Three gulfs separate these peninsulas: Gulf of Tomini between northern Minahassa peninsula and East Peninsula; Tolo Gulf between East and Southeast Peninsula; and Bone Gulf between while South and Southeast Peninsula. The Strait of Makassar runs along the western side of the island and separates the island from Borneo. Papua Island (63°7′ S 55°57′ WCoordinates: 63°7′ S 55°57′ W) is a small circular island lying 4 nautical miles (7 km) west of Boreal Point, off the north coast of Joinville Island. The name was applied by the Argentine Antarctic Expedition (1953–54) because large numbers of gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) were sighted on this island.
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