Analisis Perilaku Pembeli Konsumen dan Pembeli

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25 September 2012
The Psychological Importance of The Purchase
    Affects The Decision-Making Process

From an individual consumer’s point of view, some purchase
decisions are more important, and therefore more
psychologically involving, than others.

High-involvement purchases involve goods or services that are
psychologically important to the buyer because they address
social or ego needs and therefore carry social and psychological
risks. They may also involve a lot of money and therefore
financial risk.
    Steps In The High-Involvement :
   Complex Decision-Making Process

             Problem Identification

              Information Search

                                         Routine or habitual
            Evaluation of Alternatives       purchases
                                           (brand loyalty)


            Postpurchase evaluation
  Left brain       Right brain

    Product    Creative Design and Brand

Rp 100.000      Rp 500.000
    Marketing Decisions For High-Involvement vs Low-
Marketing Mix Involvement Products or Services where the
               Marketing decisions where the Marketing decisions
Element                  consumer exhibits high                        consumer exhibits low
                         involvement                                   involvement
Product decisions        For long-term success, one or more            For long-term success, one or more
                         compelling product benefits are               compelling product benefits are
                         necessary,.                                   necessary.
Pricing decisions        High price may suggest high quality or        Price offers can be effective in gaining
                         status, to the seller’s benefit.              trial.

Promotional              Promotional vehicles that communicate         Large advertising budgets and a clear
decisions                in greater detail (e.g., print advertising,   focus on a single demonstrable
                         internet, infomercials, personal selling)     consumer benefits are probably
                         are likely to be effective.                   necessary to get the message across.

Distribution decisions   Relatively less extensive distribution is     Consumers will be relatively more
                         necessary.                                    concerned with convenience in
                                                                       purchasing. Relatively more extensive
                                                                       distribution is necessary.
     Differences Between Organizational and Consumer
Demand characteristics
The demand for industrial goods and services :
1. Derived from the demand for consumer goods and services.
2. Relatively inelastic – price changes in the short run are not likely to affect demand
3. More erratic because small increases or decreases in consumer demand can, over time,
   strongly affect the demand for manufacturing plants and equipment.

Market demographics
Organizational buyers, when compared with buyers of consumer goods, are :
1. Fewer in number
2. Larger
3. Geographically concentrated

Buyer behavior and buyer-seller relationships
1.   Use of professional buying specialists
2.   Closer buyer-seller relationships
3.   Presence of multiple buying influences
4.   More apt to buy on specifications
The Organizational Decision-Making Process For
             New-Task Purchases

          Recognition of a problem or need
          • Derived demand
          • Requirements planning
          • Determining product specifications

         Search for information about products and suppliers
         • Value analysis
         • Make-or-buy decisions
         • Information about potential suppliers

          Evaluation and selection of suppliers
          • Vendor analysis

          Purchase decision
          • Purchasing contract

          Postpurchase evaluation and feedback
               Sourcing Is A Multi-Step Process Leading To Negotiated
                                 Supplier Contracts

                             Critical distinctive steps                              Standard steps
Best practice                                             Develop
strategic     Collect data    Complete        Develop     sourcing    Issue
                                                                                                      Negotiate                SUPPLIER
sourcing      & conduct       Industry        sourcing    document-   sourcing                        and select             RELATIONSHIP
                                                                                        responses                CONTRACTS   MANAGEMENT
process       analysis        analysis        strategy    ation &     notification                    supplier
Elements Of Clear Supplier Performance Expectation
                                                                     Internal use to
                                                                     rate vendors and
                                                                     solve problems

                              2-way feedback

Supplier                                                      Companies
• Quality                                                     • Quality
• Cost                                                        • Cost
• Delivery                                                    • Delivery
Customer                                                      Supplier
behavior impacts                                              relationship/
supplier           Provide specific fact-based relationship   performance
operation          • Enables faster problem detection         impacts quality,
                   • Supports problem solving                 cost, and delivery
                   • Evaluates suppliers
                   • Focuses resources where needed
                 Habit : Shopping is recreation
               The World’s Biggest Shopaholics ?
                 Surprise, it’s Not Americans
Asia-Pacific boats the world’s largest percentage of “Recreational Shoppers”
       74% of world’s consumer admit to shopping as entertainment
Offering Rational Benefits, Religious Benefit as

   Indonesians look at instant noodle for taste. The halal   Halal
   issue becomes a support rather than reason to buy.
Widening the Target Market by Using Rational

       Though showing a talent with a veil, the product is not
       exclusively for Muslims.
           Issues For Class Discussion Next Week

1. Why is Ontela even doing the research ? Isn’t it the wireless carriers who
   make decisions about which customers to target, which prices to charge, etc ?

2. What criteria should companies use to decide which segments to target ?
  Sourcing Is A Multi-Step Process Leading To Negotiated
                     Supplier Contracts

                              Critical distinctive steps                                 Standard steps
Best                                                            Develop
practice       Collect
                                  Complete       Develop        sourcing       Issue                          Negotiate
sourcing       data &                                                                         Evaluate                           Complete
                                  Industry       sourcing       document       sourcing                       and select
process        conduct                                                                        responses                          contracts
                                  analysis       strategy       -ation &       notification                   supplier

Key tools      • Spend            • SCP        • Negotiating • Develop       • Release
and required     prioritization   • Porter’s     strategy        RFP/RFQ       tender
capabilities     analysis           industry   • Bidder list   • Develop       document-
                                    analysis   • Sourcing        sourcing      ation
                                  • Industry     process         document-
                                    expert       selected        ation (eg
                                    leverage                     specs, T&C’s)
Typical time
required for
        1 week                     8 – 10 weeks                                                 2-3 weeks

           • Many companies do not focus on the first 4 steps, leading to disadvantaged positions during contract negotiations

                                     Sourcing Business Process
                  • Proses pengadaan terlaksana
                  • Kontrak Pengadaan
                  • Penghematan biaya

                                       • Mengumpulkan data & melakukan analisa

                                       • Membuat analisa industri

     7                                 • Mengembangkan strategi sourcing

                                       • Menyiapkan dokumen sourcing
                                       • Menerbitkan pengumuman sourcing

                                       • Mengevaluasi respon / penawaran

                                       • Negosiasi & memilih supplier / vendor
    • Permintaan dari user
    • Penugasan oleh Manajemen
    • Inisiatif Strategic Sourcing
Categories, Characteristics, and Marketing Implications of
     Goods and Services Bought By Organizations
Category              Description                                 Characteristics and marketing implications

Raw material          Relatively unprocessed goods that           Distribution is a key function, price is a critical
                      become a portion of a final product         competitive variable.
                      (farm products, lumber, etc)
Components parts      Processed goods that become a portion       High-volume purchases, long-term contracts; requires
and materials         of a final product (engines, microchips,    good service and nurturing of relationships with
                      etc.)                                       buyers,; Web auctions also important for standard
Installations         Major capital goods used to produce         Long-lasting, involve large dollar outlays; capital
                      final product, but not part of the final    budgeting committee involved in purchase decision;
                      product (plant installations, production    sold directly from manufacturer; personal selling and
                      machinery, etc.)                            system design services are crucial.
Accessory equipment   Finished goods that facilitate production   More standardized, more frequently purchased, and
                      of a final product (hand tools, etc)        less costly than capital equipment; less complex buying.
Operating supplies    Finished goods that facilitate repair,      Frequently purchased and consumed in a short time,
                      maintenance, and ongoing operations         standardized ; broad market ; heavy use of channel
                      (office supplies, repair parts, etc)        intermediaries, Web-based wholesalers and catalog
                                                                  sites becoming important
Business services     Provide special expertise to facilitate     Long-term relationships with customers; suppliers
                      ongoing operations (law firms,              qualifications, experience, and reputation critical to
                      advertising agencies, etc)                  success, purchase decision often made by top