ANALISIS PERILAKU PEMBELI KONSUMEN DAN PEMBELI PASAR ORGANISASI MMUI 25 September 2012 The Psychological Importance of The Purchase Affects The Decision-Making Process From an individual consumer’s point of view, some purchase decisions are more important, and therefore more psychologically involving, than others. High-involvement purchases involve goods or services that are psychologically important to the buyer because they address social or ego needs and therefore carry social and psychological risks. They may also involve a lot of money and therefore financial risk. Steps In The High-Involvement : Complex Decision-Making Process Problem Identification Information Search Routine or habitual Evaluation of Alternatives purchases (brand loyalty) Feedback Purchase Postpurchase evaluation Growing margin Left brain Right brain Product Creative Design and Brand Rp 100.000 Rp 500.000 Marketing Decisions For High-Involvement vs Low- Marketing Mix Involvement Products or Services where the Marketing decisions where the Marketing decisions Element consumer exhibits high consumer exhibits low involvement involvement Product decisions For long-term success, one or more For long-term success, one or more compelling product benefits are compelling product benefits are necessary,. necessary. Pricing decisions High price may suggest high quality or Price offers can be effective in gaining status, to the seller’s benefit. trial. Promotional Promotional vehicles that communicate Large advertising budgets and a clear decisions in greater detail (e.g., print advertising, focus on a single demonstrable internet, infomercials, personal selling) consumer benefits are probably are likely to be effective. necessary to get the message across. Distribution decisions Relatively less extensive distribution is Consumers will be relatively more necessary. concerned with convenience in purchasing. Relatively more extensive distribution is necessary. Differences Between Organizational and Consumer Markets Demand characteristics The demand for industrial goods and services : 1. Derived from the demand for consumer goods and services. 2. Relatively inelastic – price changes in the short run are not likely to affect demand drastically 3. More erratic because small increases or decreases in consumer demand can, over time, strongly affect the demand for manufacturing plants and equipment. Market demographics Organizational buyers, when compared with buyers of consumer goods, are : 1. Fewer in number 2. Larger 3. Geographically concentrated Buyer behavior and buyer-seller relationships 1. Use of professional buying specialists 2. Closer buyer-seller relationships 3. Presence of multiple buying influences 4. More apt to buy on specifications The Organizational Decision-Making Process For New-Task Purchases Recognition of a problem or need • Derived demand • Requirements planning • Determining product specifications Search for information about products and suppliers • Value analysis • Make-or-buy decisions • Information about potential suppliers Evaluation and selection of suppliers • Vendor analysis Purchase decision • Purchasing contract Postpurchase evaluation and feedback Sourcing Is A Multi-Step Process Leading To Negotiated Supplier Contracts Critical distinctive steps Standard steps Best practice Develop strategic Collect data Complete Develop sourcing Issue Evaluate Negotiate SUPPLIER sourcing & conduct Industry sourcing document- sourcing and select RELATIONSHIP responses CONTRACTS MANAGEMENT process analysis analysis strategy ation & notification supplier process Elements Of Clear Supplier Performance Expectation Internal use to rate vendors and solve problems 2-way feedback Supplier Companies • Quality • Quality • Cost • Cost • Delivery • Delivery Customer Supplier behavior impacts relationship/ supplier Provide specific fact-based relationship performance operation • Enables faster problem detection impacts quality, • Supports problem solving cost, and delivery • Evaluates suppliers • Focuses resources where needed CASE STUDY Habit : Shopping is recreation The World’s Biggest Shopaholics ? Surprise, it’s Not Americans Asia-Pacific boats the world’s largest percentage of “Recreational Shoppers” 74% of world’s consumer admit to shopping as entertainment Offering Rational Benefits, Religious Benefit as Support Indonesians look at instant noodle for taste. The halal Halal issue becomes a support rather than reason to buy. Widening the Target Market by Using Rational Benefit Though showing a talent with a veil, the product is not exclusively for Muslims. Issues For Class Discussion Next Week 1. Why is Ontela even doing the research ? Isn’t it the wireless carriers who make decisions about which customers to target, which prices to charge, etc ? 2. What criteria should companies use to decide which segments to target ? THANK YOU BACK UP SLIDES Sourcing Is A Multi-Step Process Leading To Negotiated Supplier Contracts Critical distinctive steps Standard steps Best Develop practice Collect Complete Develop sourcing Issue Negotiate sourcing data & Evaluate Complete Industry sourcing document sourcing and select process conduct responses contracts analysis strategy -ation & notification supplier analysis process Key tools • Spend • SCP • Negotiating • Develop • Release and required prioritization • Porter’s strategy RFP/RFQ tender capabilities analysis industry • Bidder list • Develop document- analysis • Sourcing sourcing ation • Industry process document- expert selected ation (eg leverage specs, T&C’s) Typical time required for activities 1 week 8 – 10 weeks 2-3 weeks • Many companies do not focus on the first 4 steps, leading to disadvantaged positions during contract negotiations 18 OUTPUT Sourcing Business Process • Proses pengadaan terlaksana • Kontrak Pengadaan • Penghematan biaya • Mengumpulkan data & melakukan analisa • Membuat analisa industri 7 • Mengembangkan strategi sourcing • Menyiapkan dokumen sourcing LANGKAH PROSES • Menerbitkan pengumuman sourcing • Mengevaluasi respon / penawaran • Negosiasi & memilih supplier / vendor INPUT • Permintaan dari user • Penugasan oleh Manajemen • Inisiatif Strategic Sourcing Categories, Characteristics, and Marketing Implications of Goods and Services Bought By Organizations Category Description Characteristics and marketing implications Raw material Relatively unprocessed goods that Distribution is a key function, price is a critical become a portion of a final product competitive variable. (farm products, lumber, etc) Components parts Processed goods that become a portion High-volume purchases, long-term contracts; requires and materials of a final product (engines, microchips, good service and nurturing of relationships with etc.) buyers,; Web auctions also important for standard components Installations Major capital goods used to produce Long-lasting, involve large dollar outlays; capital final product, but not part of the final budgeting committee involved in purchase decision; product (plant installations, production sold directly from manufacturer; personal selling and machinery, etc.) system design services are crucial. Accessory equipment Finished goods that facilitate production More standardized, more frequently purchased, and of a final product (hand tools, etc) less costly than capital equipment; less complex buying. Operating supplies Finished goods that facilitate repair, Frequently purchased and consumed in a short time, maintenance, and ongoing operations standardized ; broad market ; heavy use of channel (office supplies, repair parts, etc) intermediaries, Web-based wholesalers and catalog sites becoming important Business services Provide special expertise to facilitate Long-term relationships with customers; suppliers ongoing operations (law firms, qualifications, experience, and reputation critical to advertising agencies, etc) success, purchase decision often made by top executives.