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					720.51.report.finalreportv06




             CONTRACT NUMBER XVII/4.1031/Z/99-309

   BOILSIM AS A SUPPORTING TOOL FOR HELPING
     THE SET UP OF GUARANTEE OF RESULTS (FOR
                     BOILER ENERGY EFFICIENCY)




          Area: 1 Studies aimed at the implementation of Union measures


                               Final report
                               DGC July 2002
1.     INTRODUCTION


BOILSIM is an EU method for calculation of the seasonal (annual) efficiency of do-
mestic boilers. Up to now, BOILSIM’s main target was to allow a fair comparison of
boilers taking into account the installation and climate influence. So it was mostly
used as a labelling tool. In order to extend the application of BOILSIM and to convert
the software into a heating system diagnosis tool, it was necessary to perform further
work.
The objective of the project is the validation and extension of BOILSIM to take into
account the interactions between the different elements in a heating system. In other
words to transform BOILSIM into a diagnosis tool for installers, designers, and archi-
tects. In that way, BOILSIM might be used in order to offer a guarantee of results to
the consumer, when efficiency of the system is concerned. The objective of the project
also includes the modification of BOILSIM with the necessary functions in order to
facilitate the wide use of BOILSIM by as many types of users as possible. A sub-
objective of the project is to involve new EU countries in the development of
BOILSIM and implementation of the method.
For the first time BOILSIM was compared to real in situ test. The conclusion reached
is that BOILSIM model can calculate annual efficiency with a good accuracy so that
the system has now proved to be reliable.
There will always be a number of factors that are adding uncertainties (the main one
being human behaviour) that are making difficult the accurate prediction of the energy
consumption of a building. BOILSIM gives the guarantee of a reference value taking
into account the main technical factors identified as having an influence on an accu-
rate diagnosis of an installation.
The project concludes the development phase of BOILSIM. The project’s main result
is a software that has a complete range of functions that are needed for the accurate
diagnosis of an installation and that are able to satisfy the most demanding user. On
the other hand, not all users are interested in/or have the competence to use all func-
tions and, therefore, some might find the use of the software too difficult. The present
version is a reference that can be adapted for a more simple use. In the case of the
installers, the need is toward a simple and quick tool that need not be so accurate. For
the designers, the sophistication of the actual version of the software is adapted to the
need of a detailed information level.

Two workshops have been organised and have provided feedback to the software, as
well as education of a number of experts who are now able to carry on the education
actions in their own countries.
New countries (as Greece or Spain) have been joining and there are several plans for
practical use of the method. In Spain, they discuss how to use the method for the ap-
plication of the energy in building directive applications. In France, there are plans for
using the method for training of the installers.
There are numerous projects that are going to use BOILSIM as background. The mod-
els developed can for example be used to create labelling and information systems. So


                                                                                         2
far, the experience gained in BOILSIM has also been used in the framework of the
SAVE project on Directive 92/42 /1/.

Up to now, the following countries have been involved in BOILSIM as contractors or
associated active partners (at different degrees):

AFECI
ARGB (BE)
BRITISH GAS (now ADVANTICA) (UK)
BSRIA (UK)
CETIAT (FR)
Comité Scientifique et Technique des Industries Climatiques – COSTIC (FR)
CSTB (FR)
Danfoss (DK)
Danish Building Research Institute (DK)
DANISH GAS TECHNOLOGY CENTRE (DK)
DANISH TECHNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE (DK)
EMPA (CH)
GASTEC NV (NL)
GAZ DE FRANCE (FR)
IKE (GE)
ITALGAS (IT)
LUND INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (SW)
NEFIT FASTO (NL)
NTUA Athens, Laboratory of Steam Boilers (GR)
RUHRGAS (GE)
TNO (NL)
Université de Liège Laboratoire de Thermodynamique (BE)
VAILLANT (GE)
VITO (BE)
VTT Building Technology (FI)
The present project was organised in Working Packages (WPs). The technical part
(WP 1, 2, 3, and 4) aims at improving BOILSIM on the basis of three different, but
complementary methods: the comparison with models (WP 1), with on-site test results
(WP 2), and with emulators (WP 3).
A new version of the computer program was developed (WP 4). The task of The in-
formation part (WP 5) is to make sure that the tool developed is adapted to most of
the users in the EU and to make BOILSIM known to partners who do not know it yet
(installers etc.).
Therefore, the consortium of the project consisted of the partners who have built up
BOILSIM (for the development phase). New partners have helped to set up specifica-
tions of the new BOILSIM.
The dissemination of the results is an aspect that has been specially integrated in the
project. The dissemination strategy is based on the following points:
1) A specific task of the project dedicated to information (workshop)
2) The incorporation in the project of partners who are potential users, and who are in
   a position (at national or European level) to contribute to the dissemination.
3) The creation of a website: BOILSIM on the Internet.
                                                                                      3
BOILSIM in its actual version is operational and we have launched a number of appli-
cations and call for making the use of the software wider. This effort will still be
needed in the future and we have decided to create a BOILSIM group within the net-
work of LABNET1. The group shall in the future organise the upgrading and mainte-
nance of the software as well as organise the possible new developments on a com-
mercial basis.




1
 LABNET is a network of about 20 laboratories that have boiler-related activities (test, research).
LABNET is supported by GROWTH.

                                                                                                 4
2.       WORK PROGRAMME FOR THE ACTION (from the project proposal)

2.1      Objectives of the project
The main objective of the project is the validation and extension of BOILSIM so it
can be used as a tool able to take into account the interactions between the different
elements in a heating system.
In other words to transform BOILSIM into a design and diagnosis tool for installers,
designers, architects. The tool shall mainly be used to choose the most suitable boiler
for a given situation/installation.


2.2      How to reach the objectives?
The general idea is not to have a global validation of annual efficiency calculation,
which would be unnecessary, costly and difficult, but only to have a validation of the
operating condition calculation.
Doing this has the double advantage of:
     Not having validation based exclusively on in situ measurement of efficiency,
      which are known to be inaccurate, as well as time and money consuming.
     Restricting the validation to a smaller part of the model that has not yet been vali-
      dated.


However, for some aspects it will be necessary to make a revision of the boiler model
(start/stop frequency).


Different tools are used for the validation of BOILSIM:
(1) ‘Emulator’: Tests on emulators consist of measurements on a real boiler con-
    nected to an intelligent interface able to calculate and produce within a very short
    time a given flow and return temperature (see figure). These flows and tempera-
    tures are calculated from the building, installation and climate condition models.
    In that way the operation conditions for the boiler on a test rig are defined. The ef-
    ficiency is measured directly on the rig.
(2) Simulation with sophisticated computer models.
(3) On-site measurements, e.g. on advanced experimental buildings or in real installa-
    tions.


All of the tools above have advantages and disadvantages. As there are different
points to validate, we have chosen to use the most adapted tool for each given point
(see further in §5). This combination offers the best ratio accuracy/cost for this valida-
tion operation.




                                                                                              5
 COMMAND OF THE WATER TEMPERATURE AND FLOW
 Models:
  -Building
 - Control                                                COLD        HOT
 - Distribution                                           WATER       WATER
 - Climate                                                TANK        TANK



                                                                             MIXING
                                                                             VALVE

                                                                              PUMP
                   BOILER




                                                                    COOLING
                                                                    PLANT


                  EMULATOR: PRINCIPLE

It appears today that existing sophisticated numerical models (2) can be used with-
out further developments. Therefore, an important part of the validation (e.g. the in-
fluence of the heat demand pattern) can be carried out with the computer models al-
ready validated.
However, there will always be a question of how far the tools are validated and, there-
fore, in situ measurement (3) is necessary. The idea is not to have an extended vali-
dation here, but to check some of the calculation points.
Finally, emulators (1) offer a good opportunity to check the interaction
boiler/system extensively and especially the part of dynamic effects, which has not
been treated in the validation with models. The level of accuracy targeted for the emu-
lator shall be of the magnitude of the precision expected for BOILSIM (about ±2.5%).
Remark
The most important point in the BOILSIM validation might not be the building itself,
but the heating installation and the interaction building-heating installation. Therefore,
too many efforts shall not be put on the building model. The focus shall be put on the
heating installation and the way the building influences the heating installation.


2.3    Limits of the project
In order to make clear what the results of the project will be, it is necessary to make a
certain number of definitions.
The boiler environment consists of:

                                                                                            6
   the building
   the heating installation
   the control system of the installation/boiler
   the outdoor climate
   the user

However, in BOILSIM we have made the simplification that the boiler environment
is:
 the heating installation
 the control system of the installation/boiler and to a certain extent
 the outdoor climate

The user and the building are simply represented by the heat demand.
(The user is also somehow represented in the radiator power/night set back used.)
The boiler environment is resulting in the boiler operating conditions:
   degree of utilisation (Pout)
   water return temperature
   boiler water flow
   start/stop frequency
   boiler ambient temperature

The questions that the present project shall answer are:
   How are the real operating conditions compared to the ones calculated in
    BOILSIM?
   How to improve BOILSIM in order to have the calculated results as close as
    possible to those resulting from real operating conditions? This includes the
    possible effect of fluctuations (around a mean value) in return temperature
    and water flow.


In order to a clearly limit the work to be done in the project it is useful to keep in mind
that, until now, the calculation of the heat demand has NOT been a part of the
BOILSIM method and it should still not be in the future.
Therefore, a number of influences linked to the climate (e.g. solar gains, wind etc.),
ventilation rate and user behaviour, which need to be treated for the calculation of the
heat demand, do not need to be treated directly. They are treated by other calculation
methods (which are dealt with in the committee CEN 228 “Heating systems in build-
ings”), to which we can connect BOILSIM later on if necessary.
What we use as input for BOILSIM is a heat demand and a heat demand profile pat-
tern. How this heat demand is calculated (and influenced by solar gains, ventilation
rate, etc.) is not part of this project.
However, what is relevant for the project is to study how the heat demand distri-
bution can affect the annual efficiency.


                                                                                         7
Therefore, the model needed for the building can be a rather simple one, but it shall
take into account a number of points identified in the analysis (see below). The model
chosen shall be able to cope with the questions and weak points identified and to be
identified.



                     CLIMATE
                     DATA BASE                                  The degree of sophistication of the
                                                                models to be used shall be chosen
                   Tout                  OPERATING CONDITIONS
                                                                with consideration of the project ob-
                                           Pout      Tret       jective.
Heat                 BOILER
                  ENVIRONMENT              Qwat Tamb
demand               MODEL
                                                n Start-stop

                                                                On the figure, the box “detailed heat
                                                                demand model” is not part of
Detailed           INSTALLATION
                   DESCRIPTION :
                                                                BOILSIM
heat
                   * Heat distribution system
demand             * Control system
model              * Building




2.4        What are BOILSIM’s actual weak points?
The most important uncertainties of the BOILSIM method are:
     The influence of the control system
     The influence of the night set back
     The boiler start/stop frequency
     The effect of dynamic variations of water temperature and flow. BOILSIM treats
      the situation as static, what is the real effect?
     The possible effect of the heat demand profile.

Moreover, a number of situations, for which BOILSIM was not designed, have already
been identified /4/. They are grouped in this preliminary list of improvements
needed:
     The floor heating system and hybrid system (e.g. combination of floor heating and
      radiators)
     The modification of the heat demand in case of modification of night set back
     The calculation of the annual electric consumption
     The calculation of the annual cost (all energies)
     The start/stop frequency calculation method
     The notion of heated/unheated rooms, knowing that in heated rooms the heat given
      by the boiler is not always useful (in case the boiler is installed in heated space, a
      part of the losses can be useful for space heating)
                                                                                                    8
     The hydraulic balance in the heating system
     A few other points (see report of /4/).


2.5      Organisation of the work
The project is divided into a technical part and an information part.


The technical part (WP 1, 2, 3, 4)
In order to find an answer to the weak points identified, the following work is pro-
posed and organised in different work packages (WP). The work is organised in sev-
eral parts or work packages.
There are three packages dedicated to the investigations of BOILSIM via three differ-
ent, but complementary methods:
     The comparison with models (WP 1)
     The comparison with on-site test results (WP 2)
     The comparison with emulators (WP 3)

WP 1 to 3 will clarify the impact of the different aspects of the boiler environment on
the boiler operating conditions. Depending on the points considered the validation will
be based on WP 1, 2 or 3 or a combination of those.

The developments and improvements of BOILSIM are done in WP 4. The technical
part of the project will start and end with this last WP, which will have direct links
with all first three WP’s.

WP 1, WP 2 and WP 3 all have the objective to provide WP 4 with data so that the
new BOILSIM can be created and validated.
More specifically, WP 2 will provide WP 1 and 3 with data requested for the devel-
opment, adjustment and verification of the software used for the validation.

ASPECTS OF VALIDATION                           WP 1 WP 2 WP 3

Effect of heat demand and pattern
Radiator power
Heating system type
Control system
Boiler frequency
Night set back
Floor heating system and hybrid system
Annual electric consumption
Heated/unheated room
Hydraulic balance in the heating system



The philosophy is that since in situ tests are expensive we use validated models in WP
1 and 3, which are adjusted with WP 2 to carry out the global validation.


                                                                                         9
                            Data                                            Data
                                        IN SITU (WP2)

                                         Definition of the tests
   MODELS (WP1)                                                               EMULATORS
                                     NEW BOILSIM                              (WP3)
  Effects > 1h time step:            DEVELOP. (WP4)                          Effects < 1h time step:



                        * Influence of the distribut. system (type& size)
                        * Influence of the heat demand & pattern
                        * Influence of the night set back
                        * etc

                        * Influence of the control system
                        * Influence of the dynamic effect (Twater, Flow)
                        * Influence of the start stop
                        * Interaction hot water
                        * etc



The information part (WP 5)
The objective of this last WP is to collect the input and criticism of the different part-
ners so that the new BOILSIM developed will be of use in the majority of situations
known in the EU. It is often said that the best tool is of no help if it is not used. The
task is to make a tool that is used. For that purpose, it needs to be adapted to the user.
Another important part of the work is to make BOILSIM known to partners who do
not yet know it (installers, etc).




                                                                                                       10
3.      THE RESULTS OBTAINED for WP1: Evaluation of BOILSIM operat-
        ing conditions model using existing models

Introduction
In the light of the first results it was decided not to start expensive and long simula-
tions, but instead to check some specific problems already identified or to be identi-
fied during the phase of test on the experimental buildings. One of the tasks is to esti-
mate the influence of the heat demand pattern on the annual efficiency. It is suggested
to figure out some extreme cases in order to check the amplitude of the influence for
different boilers.
The first workshop highlighted some developments and correction needed for
BOILSIM software and models. It was decided that they should be carried out under
WP1.
One of the important outcomes is also the development of the models to be im-
plemented on emulators.

The influence of the details (on operation conditions) of the climate data, the influence
of the solar gains and wind as well as user behaviour (ventilation etc.) are not be stud-
ied as such in WP 1.
The interesting issue here is the influence on the operation condition of the heat de-
mand and the influence of details of climate data on operation conditions (combined
with the heat demand pattern).
The influence of the type of building shall, in principle, not be treated in detail, but
there are some obvious aspects such as the inertia that shall be taken into account.
In BOILSIM, the installation is modelled as one big heat emitter (radiator/convector).
How will a more detailed installation, consisting of more and maybe different heat
emitters and including dynamic effects, influence the annual results?
A lot of these influences are supposed to be taken into account either in the calculation
of degree-days or the annual heat demand. The questions here are:
1. Are these global installation parameter descriptions in BOILSIM sufficient, or are
   more details necessary?
2. Are these global descriptions clear enough or should they be more specified, al-
   though leading to more questions?


Original programme
The objective of this work package is the evaluation of the BOILSIM operating condi-
tions model. The work will focus on the influence of the heat demand pattern and sys-
tem temperatures as a function of building structure and physics, occupant behaviour,
installation, controls and climate. The following effects will be studied:
    Two or three typical buildings (with good and bad insulation; large and small heat
     capacity)
    Two types of occupant behaviour (low and high heat demand)
    Different types of installation (design temperatures; radiators and floor heating
     system)

                                                                                           11
   Different types of control (room thermostat, heating curve)
   Different climates (for instance Nordic, Dutch, Greek)


This will be done using an existing, validated model with a typical time step of one
hour. This reference model has to be able to simulate the heat demand of a dwelling,
divided into several rooms, with different building configurations, insulation charac-
teristics, internal load, thermostat settings, ventilation rates, outdoor climates etc. Ob-
taining the corresponding water temperatures requires either an integral or post simu-
lation of the heat emitter (radiator).
The following points will be investigated:
   Operating conditions on an hourly basis as input for BOILSIM
   Determination of one (no night set back) or three (with night set back) operating
    conditions per day, to be compared with the resulting BOILSIM conditions using
    degree-days per day
   Idem per month
   Idem per group of days with equal number of degree-days


The following actions will be carried out:
   Investigation of typical data for the building, outdoor climate, occupant behaviour,
    installation designs and control for different countries. This serves two purposes:
    the definition of a limited number of simulation input sets for the validation and
    the definition of the specs for the model to be used in the validation.
   Development of the validation procedure.
   Selection of an existing, validated model. If required, slight adaptations of the
    model or its file output formats will be made.
   Preparation of the input for the models (both reference model and BOILSIM).
   Simulation with both models.
   Comparison and analysis of the results of the simulations. Conclusions and pro-
    posals for adaptation of the BOILSIM operating condition model.
   Reporting.


Adapted workplan
After the project start, it became clear that the most interesting part of the validation
of the operation conditions model focuses on the heat demand distribution over a day.
In BOILSIM we assume either a constant heat demand over a day (and month) or a
three-stage pattern (full load during heating up, low load over the day and no load dur-
ing the night). In reality, heat demand goes up and down, due to the influence of the
climate, thermostat settings, internal load etc.
To simulate this effect in a more simple way, we might use different artificial heat
demand patterns at constant heat demand (only the distribution of heat demand
                                                                                         12
through the year is different) and study the effect on (annual) efficiency. This can be
done for different design temperatures, control systems, etc.
Thus after the first analysis it was concluded that the original programme was not
needed in its full extension and that the time was better spent to focus on the main is-
sue: the influence of the heat demand pattern on the annual efficiency (see intermedi-
ate report). A number of answers to the questions of WP1 were treated in the other
WPs and through a number of notes that are listed at the end of the report. The time
(resulting from this organisation) of the WP main contributor (TNO) was used for fur-
ther development of the BOILSIM interface and upgradings of the hot water module
of BOILSIM.


Boiler efficiency sensitivity analysis
Five different heat demand patterns, with an equal total heat demand per day, are ap-
plied. During the whole period a constant outdoor temperature is applied.
Different settings for installation design are used to calculate the effect of different
heat demand patterns in combination with other operating conditions (design water
temperatures, control system).
The detailed data and results are given in the ANNEX (see vd_tno09).
All heat demand patterns last 24 hours and have one or more hours with constant heat
demand and the rest of the hours zero demand. The characteristics of the five heat de-
mand patterns are:
Heat demand type           Heat demand [W]             Duration [h]
A                          19200                       1
B                          6400                        3
C                          3200                        6
D                          1600                        12
E                          800                         24


Outdoor temperature is -5C.




                                                                                           13
Installation design and operation parameters are:
Design radiator power                             20 kW
Used radiator power                               100%
Heating system                                    Radiators
Design radiator temperature                       80/60 & 55/45
Nominal indoor temperature                        20C
Control system                                    Heating curve & room thermostat
Flow control                                      Constant flow
Boiler cycle frequency                            Proper implementation
Boiler room temperature                           Heated attic


The boiler used is boiler no. 12 of the SAVE Hot Water project /2/. The basic charac-
teristics are:


Nom. Load                               20620 W
Boiler type                             Condensing
Burner type                             Modulating, min. load 6700 W
Pump power                              115 W,
Pump after-run time                     15 min.


Results


                               Average boiler efficiency with heating curve, 5 types of heat
                                        demand and two design temperatures
  Avg. efficiency [%]




                        90.0
                        85.0
                        80.0
                        75.0                                                        Efficiency [%]
                        70.0                                                        Efficiency pump-corrected [%]
                        65.0
                        60.0
                         t1 _lt

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                           a_

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                           e_
                          a_
                        t1




                                  Heat demand & design temperature type.




                                                                                                           14
                                Average boiler efficiency with room thermostat, 5 types of heat
                                           demand and two design temperatures
  Avg. efficiency [%]
                        115.0
                        110.0
                        105.0
                                                                                   Efficiency [%]
                        100.0                                                      Efficiency pump-corrected [%]
                         95.0
                         90.0




                                 lt

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                        t1

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                                    Heat demand & design temperature type.



The differences between the efficiency due to E- and A-type heat demand pattern are
listed below.
 Heat   Design                              Control system Efficiency dif- Efficiency
 Demand radiator                                           ference         pump-
 type   temperature                                        [%]             corrected
                                                                           [%]
 E-A                        80/60           Heating curve   3,8            0,1
 E-A                        80/60           Room thermostat 9,4            5,7
 E-A                        55/45           Heating curve   4,5            -0,5
 E-A                        55/45           Room thermostat 7,3            3,7


From these results we learn that:
For heating curve controlled situations, the pump-corrected efficiency is hardly af-
fected by the heat demand pattern. This is obvious since heat losses are determined by
boiler temperature and that temperature is 'fixed' by the heating curve. For room ther-
mostat controlled systems, the efficiency is higher for more moderate operating condi-
tions.
For heat demand type A in the hour with high heat demand, the higher water tempera-
tures cause the lower efficiencies. During the rest of the hours, water temperature is
down and the boiler only suffers little additional losses. For type E, the lower heat
demand causes lower water temperatures and higher efficiencies.
The pump heat contribution and the long after-run time of the pump sharpen this ef-
fect. For type E, the boiler is cycling on/off at low load and the pump is running con-
tinuously. For type A, the pump is off without heat demand, so overall contribution is
lower.
We also see that the main distinction in efficiency values occurs between type A and
B. This efficiency difference between type B and E diminishes to 5 % or less. The
highest (pump-corrected) efficiency is not reached at continuous load.



                                                                                                          15
Conclusions
The main conclusions are:
For heating curve controlled systems in the most extreme situations, the influence of
the heat demand pattern on efficiency is limited to 5%. This is due to the effect of
pump control. For real situations, this effect will be smaller.
For room thermostat controlled systems in the most extreme situations, the influence
of the heat demand pattern on efficiency is up to 10%.
This means that for the example chosen, the heat demand profile can have an influ-
ence of up to 10% in the case of the thermostat controlled system. Note, that in most
cases the influence will be much lower, but the calculation shows the importance of
having the climate description as detailed as possible in order to take the load
distribution influence correctly into account. Therefore, a climate model, such as
the external temperature frequency curve/table or equivalent is recommended for us-
ing BOILSIM. Other parameters that might affect the heat demand distribution shall
be taken care of especially when dealing with thermostat controlled systems.
Not all the planned work was needed. TNO put more efforts into further developments
of the hot water model of BOILSIM (that was causing problems) and into the devel-
opment of new “Windows” interfacing of BOILSIM. These developments are imple-
mented in the software resulting from this project.
Moreover, the partners have been requested to provide help for analysis of the WP2
results, which turned out to be much longer than anticipated.


Main references/relevant WP

Vd_sbi01 Note on night set back. 2002                                      1,4

Vd_sbi02 The thermal capacity of buildings. June 2002                      1,4

vd tno09 WP 1. Evaluation of BoilSim operating conditions model. Draft 1    1




                                                                                     16
4.     THE RESULTS OBTAINED for WP2: Supplying with experimental data
WP2 is a central task in the project, as it is the first time that BOILSIM is compared to
experimental test. Before defining the testing conditions and programme to be done on
the experimental building made available by GdF for the project, we have tried to look
for existing data in order to try to save expensive testing time. But the existing data on
in situ test have proven to be too poor and not really of use (too many important data
missing, uncertainty of the measurement not known, etc.) and it was decided that all
efforts should be made to get new and extensive data. These are to be measured on the
experimental building of GdF. The building consists of several apartments, all being
equipped with measurement instruments connected to an acquisition system able to
measure the performances and comfort of a heating system to be tested. The boiler,
control system, heat distribution system, heat demand, etc. can be changed and modi-
fied.




The experimental building where the two identical boilers are installed

General organisation, testing configuration
The test facilities are described in detail in (vd_gdf01).
The measurements were done in two identical apartments in the GdF experimental
building. The same boiler (see vd_dgc23 & 24) model was installed in both apart-
ments. However, as the measurement campaign has lasted for much more than the
original plan (only six weeks were allocated for tests, and the real test lasted for sev-
eral months), the tests were conducted in a single apartment at the end of the period.
A meeting was organised at GdF, where the installation was inspected and where the
test configuration and first results were discussed in detail. This meting was limited to
a small committee (GdF, GASTEC, TNO, DGC, TI); only a Bosch-Junker representa-
tive was invited to help with the practical settings of the boiler.

                                                                                        17
GdF chose the installation-detailed characteristics with consideration to real typical
installations and availability.
The following is measured/calculated:
   BOILSIM parameters of the boiler
   The characteristics of the building: heat losses, capacity, etc.
   The characteristics of the distribution system & control system
The following is measured every 5 s (sampling time).
   The heat demand (we expect the characteristics of the building known: heat
    losses, capacity, time constant)
   The external temperature (so that we can calculate the heat demand).
   The indoor temperature
   The solar gains (= 0 if possible at a first stage) (This was achieved by placing cur-
    tains on the windows)
   The water temperature (in & out) and flow (at the boiler)
   The on-off time of the boiler and the gas flow
   The calorific value of the gas (if it is not constant)
   The gas temperature & pressure
   The atmospheric pressure
   The electric consumption of the boiler (will give on/off times of the pump & fan)
   The flue gas temperature, the CO2 or O2
   Surface temperature of the boiler (to measure the case losses)




The photos show the experimental installation: 1. Measurement of the resultant tem-
perature in the middle of the room (the black sphere contains a temperature probe
that measures the temperature resulting from the air temperature and the radiation
from the wall. This temperature is supposed to reflect the actual temperature like a
human body will do). 2. Instrumentation of the radiator system 3: Instrumentation on
the boiler (surface temperature on the case and flue gas temperature).




                                                                                         18
1: Flow measurement on a radiator. 2: View of the boiler in one of the apartments.

The "perturbation" factors have been eliminated as far as possible (no human presence
simulation, solar gains to be reduced as much as possible).
BOILSIM parameters of the boiler are known/measured at the DGC laboratory. The
SAME boiler will be used for the emulator.


Test programme
In the following Apt = Apartment (Apt1 in the highest); RT = Room Thermostat; NSB
= Night set back; HC = Heating Curve
The following test programme was discussed and agreed upon:
Test A is to determine how well the results can be reproduced from Apt1 to Apt2. It is
essential for the interpretation of the results.
TEST               Apt1                                    Apt2
A                  Original RT.                            Original RT.

B                  Original RT.                            Original RT with NSB.

Ba                 Original RT.                            Original RT with NSB. Influence of
                                                           NSB parameters. E.g. dT = 2K (only if
                                                           external temperature allows a possible
                                                           influence).

C                  Original RT.                            RT from Bosch (modulation possible).

D                  Original RT.                            HC from Bosch, Thermostat on radiator
                                                           = 22°C.

E                  HC from Bosch. Thermostat on radiator   HC from Bosch, Thermostat on radiator
                   = 22°C only in the main room. The ra-   = 22°C.
                   diators in the other rooms shall be
                   closed.

F                  HC from Bosch, Thermostat on radiator   HC from Bosch. Thermostat on radiator
                   = 22 C (all rooms).                     = 22°C (all rooms) + NSB.

G                  HC from Bosch. Thermostat on radiator   HC from Bosch. Thermostat on radiator
                   = 22°C (all rooms).                     = 22°C (all rooms) + Auxiliary heat
                                                           (pattern to be decided by GdF).



                                                                                             19
In practice, the number of tests have been reduced due to time constraints (not all tests
could be done within the six weeks allocated). Also, the first results showed that the
results from one apartment could not compare well enough with the other one, even if
the setting were the same. As a result, the test aiming at comparing control systems
etc. had no meaning anymore, and, therefore, we concentrated on the validation of the
operating conditions.


1       original room thermostat

        standard settings in both apartments

2       original room thermostats

        standard settings at 5th floor

        night setback at 6th floor

3       Bosch room thermostat

        standard settings in both apartments

4       Bosch room thermostat

        standard settings at 5th floor

        night setback at 6th floor

5       Bosch room thermostat; 5th floor only

        standard settings

6       Bosch room thermostat; 5th floor only

        night setback, various settings

7       heating curve; 5th floor only

        standard settings


Duration of the test. Analysis
The duration of the test depends on the stability of external temperature during the
test. Therefore, it was not possible to determine a fixed standard duration. The original
duration foreseen was three to four days per test. In practice, the test duration was
longer and tests have been repeated.
DGC carried out the analyses.




                                                                                      20
              The rough data from GdF files were used for calculation and smaller files of data and
              graphs were created to allow the interpretation of the results.


                         External temperature
                                                        1(.1)     Data measured the 23 .01.2002
           11,4
                                                                                       (beginning : 17h48 - end : 21h55)
                                                                    DATA EXPERIMENTAL TEST BUILDING
           11,2
                                                                                                5
             11                                                     Tin       C             22,83
           10,8
[deg. C]




                                                                    Tin       C             22,06
           10,6                                                     Tin       C                23
           10,4                                                     Tin avg   C              22,6
           10,2                                                     Tout      C             10,58
             10                                                     Pin       kWh            7,46
                                                                    Pout      kWh            7,88
            9,8
                                                                    el        kWh            0,21
                                                        Here are theTin boil
                                                                     values   C             45,55
              :0 0
              :2 0
              :3 0
              :5 0
              :0 0
              :2 0
              :4 0
              :5 0
              :1 0
              :2 0
              :4 0
              :0 0
              :1 0
              :3 0
              :4 0
                   00
           1 8 8 :0
           1 8 4 :0
           1 8 0 :0
           1 8 6 :0
           1 9 2 :0
           1 9 8 :0
           1 9 4 :0
           1 9 0 :0
           2 0 6 :0
           2 0 2 :0
           2 0 8 :0
           2 1 4 :0
           2 1 0 :0
           2 1 6 :0
           2 1 2 :0
                8:
                                                                    Tout compared with
                                                        BOILSIM shall be boil C             55,89
              :4
 17




                                                                    Flow boil l           519,77
                                                                    Flow boil l/h             102
                                                                    Time      h              5,12
           Example of data for in-situ test                         SS burner                   5

           interpretation
                                                                  Heat demand            7,876555 kWh
                                                                  for DT=                    12,1 K
                                                                  Over                       5,12 h

                                                                  Average pout                1,54 kW
                                                                  Avg ss                      0,98 ss/h

                                                                  Heat demand
                                                                  average                   0,128 kWh/K.h      0,127749
                                                                  Annual                     7582 kWh/year
                                                                                            27296 MJ/year




              Results obtained
              See vd_DGC18, vd_DGC20, vd_DGC25 for the details.
              The first measurement showed that despite having exactly the same set up, the same
              boiler, the same apartment, the same climate and the same operation condition, the
              result could be different.
              The fact is that it is impossible to have exactly the same conditions and even under
              testing conditions in a controlled environment, differences may come out of control.
              This is an important point as it reinforces the idea that the prediction of the absolute
              value of the energy consumption of a boiler is a very difficult - if not impossible -
              exercise. Therefore, the side-idea to compare two different systems (the two identical
              apartments with different test configuration) was abandoned and we have concentrated
              on the main purpose, namely the measurement of the operating conditions and the
              comparison with those calculated from BOILSIM.




                                                                                                                       21
                                                                Test 6


          60,00




          50,00




          40,00
[deg C]




          30,00




          20,00




          10,00




           0,00
                  0                   500              1000   Pout [W]           1500                2000                       2500
                                                               Pout [103 kW]
                      Exp Flow temp         Exp Return temp                    Boilsim return temp          Boilsim flow temp




An extended comparison of the operating conditions was performed with different
configuration settings (both control systems (room thermostat and heating curves)
have been tested). The tests highlighted a number of definition problems in BOILSIM
(constant flow, variable flow, etc.). But once those were solved, the results showed
that in the vast majority of the case the correspondence between the operating condi-
tion calculated and measured was quite satisfactory (few degrees) when the installa-
tion nominal power and flow was correctly estimated.
Therefore, we can conclude that apart from a number of specific points (see below)
BOILSIM has proven to calculate correctly the operating condition. For example, the
differences seen on water temperature are as an average always below 10°C and for
this extreme case we know that the effect on efficiency is generally always below 1%.
So, we can conclude that, in general, the accuracy of the environmental model of
BOILSIM will not give more than 1% deviation from the real value.
This said, we shall also emphasise the difficulty to evaluate some of the BOILSIM
parameters that are important for the operation condition:
The nominal water flow in the installation is one of them, but also the radiator size
and building heat demand are data that need to be accurate if the results of BOILSIM
calculation are to be used.
The user’s qualifications will play a great role for the accuracy of the results. But for
those who are using BOILSIM to compare boilers, there is a good chance that the
model is not too sensible to errors on some input data when the results are used com-
paratively.
Some specific model parts were also investigated. The night set back model of
BOILSIM was compared to test results and we have concluded that the original model
was not satisfactory for all situations.




                                                                                                                                       22
The start/stop frequency is another issue that was on the priority list. The experimen-
tal tests have proven that the original philosophy (wrong/correct installation) might
after all be suitable. The GdF tests have shown that a frequency of up to five to six
start/stop an hour is rather well reflecting the reality of the two dwelling tests (that we
can consider as "correct installation"). It has also confirmed the difficulty to really set
up a model for the estimation of the start/stop frequency (see also the note vd_dti01).
Such a model would require a number of data that the BOILSIM user will only with
great difficulty be able to estimate (such as heat capacity/time constant of the boiler,
radiator system, building, boiler control hysteresis, safety water temperature thermo-
stat). As a result, the existing approach is still the most suitable one for the targeted
BOILSIM user. Even if we had such a sophisticated model for the start/stop frequency
estimation, it should not be implemented, as the user would reject the whole method
when asked for parameters that would be impossible to determine without a specific
expertise.

Conclusion
The in situ tests have been long and difficult, and the amount of work needed to
achieve the results obtained was much underestimated at the proposal phase. How-
ever, the work done has proven to be absolutely useful and has led to the following
two main conclusions:


1.     The BOILSIM model is perfectly able to produce the operating condition with
       a sufficient accuracy for annual efficiency calculations. (This is often the modi-
       fication requested.)
2.     The absolute prediction of the energy consumption of a building is very diffi-
       cult and therefore there will always be a quite large uncertainty, even with so-
       phisticated tools. However, relative values (comparing several boilers or sys-
       tems) of efficiency or energy consumption are accurately calculated with
       BOILSIM.

Main references

                                                                                        23
Vd_dgc 18 Heating-up after night set-back. Comparison of boilsim with GdF data. June 2002

Vd_dgc20. Short note on a comparison BOILSIM with experimental results. FWU DGC 17 May 2002

Vd_dgc20b. Short note on a comparison BOILSIM with experimental results. FWU DGC final version
July 2002

Vd_dgc23 Junkers Cerapur ZSBR 3-12A DGC test report (partly confidential)

Vd_dgc24 (pdf) Junkers Cerapur ZSBR 3-12A technical information (Junker document)

Vd_dgc25 Research of the optimal radiator power and design temperature. F. Wurth. June 2002

vd_gdf01; October-00; TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR TESTS FROM BOILSIM PROJECT




                                                                                              24
5.     THE RESULTS OBTAINED FOR WP3: VALIDATION ON
       EMULATORS

5.1 Introduction
Emulators are one way to carry out tests that are similar to in situ tests, but emulators
have the benefit of having a much better accuracy as they are performed in laboratory.
Another advantage is the flexibility of the test as the conditions (e.g. climate) are de-
cided by the operator. This will save time. However, emulators need to have some
calibration and, therefore, the in situ tests are complementary to emulation-tests, and
gives info on the practical conditions from real situations.
In an emulator test of a boiler, a real boiler is connected to a test rig that simulates a
heating installation. Such a test combines the advantages of laboratory tests and in situ
tests: As the test is done at the laboratory, it is possible to control the test conditions
and to perform measurements in the same way as during standard tests. On the other
hand, by controlling the test rig using models that describe a building (room), a radia-
tor, a hydraulic system and optionally a room sensor, the boiler is tested under dy-
namic conditions, similar to practical operating conditions.


5.2 Models
Emulators are using models that simulate the building’s climatic and heating system.
The models that have been developed (implemented in Labview) are made available
to the partners involved in tests (DGC/GASTEC), but also to any partner interested.
The idea is that the models shall be considered as standard for emulation tests.
The building model is based on analogy with electrical components. TI has extended
the model so it can also include building walls not in contact with outdoor, but in con-
tact with indoor heated rooms.
The detailed model specifications are given in Vd_dti04 and 06.
The program also includes a simple boiler model that can be used to make pre-test on
emulators before a real test and so allow to adjust some parameters for the test to save
time.

5.3 General description

Thermal performance
The most common test rig for boilers today is of the direct type. The cooling water
flows in a closed circuit. The flow meter is placed in the boiler return, and the ther-
mometers are placed in flow and return, respectively, as close to the boiler as possible.
The results then are not corrected for test rig heat loss. There are control systems for
flow and for return temperature.
The emulator here is based on the same principle, but the measured water flow and the
flow temperature from the boiler are used as input in a real time dynamic model for
the heating system and building. The model then calculates the return temperature and
the hydraulic resistance or the water flow in the heating system. Those calculated data


                                                                                        25
are then used as setpoint for the controls. Either the hydraulic resistance or the flow is
used to emulate the hydraulics.
In the present system the model includes one room and one radiator, but may, of
course, be extended to multi-room models. Room temperature is calculated and out-
door temperature is used as input. If the boiler control is based on those figures it is
further necessary to emulate a room thermostat or room sensor. This may cause practi-
cal problems. In the present version, only a simple on/off value is generated and the
room temperature is available.


Hydraulic performance
The hydraulic behaviour can be simulated in three different ways, in both cases as-
suming that the boiler is equipped with its own pump. The mechanism in real houses
is that the radiator system gives a hydraulic resistance, and the pump heat then feeds a
flow into this resistance.
The figure below shows the simplest system. The cooling system is equipped with a
bypass, so the heat coming from the pump in the test rig is minimised. The calculated
kv- value is used to control a valve position. This system needs a good programmable
valve with a well-known relation between control signal and kv-value.

Run of tests
To run a test, parameters for the radiator, building, thermostatic sensors, valves, room
thermostats are loaded.
It is recommended only to do periodical stationary experiments.
Then schemes for outdoor temperature and auxiliary heat supply are put into a table.
Depending on the boiler control type, room temperature and outdoor temperature are
converted to electrical signals that can be understood the boiler control.
If the boiler only has its boiler thermostat, this thermostat is adjusted to a proper tem-
perature corresponding to mean outdoor temperature and radiator design temperature.
In case of mixing valves the same is done here. The settings shall reflect what the
house owner normally does.
If a room thermostat is included, the simple model can be used, if the data equipment
includes an output switch.
If more refined room thermostats are included, some laboratories have chosen to
mount the thermostat and/or the outdoor temperature sensor in small temperature-
controlled boxes. The box temperatures are then controlled according to the simulated
temperatures.
When a sufficient testing time is reached, the experiment stops and the logged data-
files can be studied just in the same way as a real field study.




                                                                                        26
 LOAD EMULATOR FOR BOILER TEST                                                                                                                   Boilsim Validation Project

                                                                                                Test rig
                           Boiler
                          Control                                              Flow                                                                                          Cooling water

                                                    Boiler                                                              Auxiliary heat

                                                                                        Flow                   ) p=0
                                                                       Return
                                                                                        meter

Emulation of
outdoor - and                                                                                          Programable
roomtempe-                                                                                                                         PID
                                                                                                       valve position
rature, and
on/off signal
                                                                                                                                         Set temperature
                 Tro om                                                                               Set kv -value                      signal                           Physical system
                                                             Tre tu rn, m ix
                                    Water flow
                                                                                                                                                                          Models
                                                                                                                    Tflow
                                                             Q ou t                                        Tro om        Sen-                                                        INPUT
                                         Radiator                                         Room                            sor        Tro om sensor                                    Tou td oor
                                                                           Tou td oor                                    bulb                        kv,total
                                         system                                           model                                                                                        Q au x
                Flow temperature          model
                                                                           Q au x                                                    Hydraulic             kv,b y pa ss
                                          (ODE)                                           (ODE)                      Tset, valve      model


           Room temperature

                                                                                                                                     Tro om sensor
                                                                                                                            Room
  2001.02.20                                                                                                                sensor       Tset        Relay                 on/off
  q:\Varm etek\sp\pr30\otp048.wpg



The emulator principle. The radiator and the room are described as ordinary differential equations
(the thermostatic valve and a room thermostat can also be described with ODE´s as an option in the
system model). This scheme corresponds to hydraulic control 1). The room temperature is represented
by three temperatures: the air, the wall and the average temperatures. The on/off signal is available
also in cases, where it is not used.



5.4 Detailed description
Radiator model
The model is a 10-node model, giving a good approximation to a continuous model
for large flow. The detailed description is given in Vd_dti04 and 06.
The radiator output can be divided into a convective part and a radiative part, given by
the user. The radiative part is 20-50%. The radiative part can be approximately calcu-
lated by looking at the outside shape of the radiator (the surface of the box that fits the
radiator).
The room model




                                                                                                                                                                                    27
                          Pconv.
             Tair + eq.                         Rinfilt.
                                                                                                Toutdoor


                                                             Prad.
                                                 Twall

                                   Rair + eq.                        Rtrans.
Cair + eq.                                                 Cwall

                                                                       q:\varmetek\sp\pr30\otp047.wpg




The room model is based on electrical analogy and the detailed description is given in
Vd_dti04 and 06.
The two node model is commonly used as room model, even though there can be
some differences in the details.
One problem in the model is how to find the resistance Rair+eq. and the Cair+eq..
Both the time constant and the heat capacity or the resistance have to be specified.
The small time constant for the air + equipment is in the range of 5 to 25 minutes,
while the total time constant can be several days for a building with heavy brick walls.
For a room with no furniture, the time constant for the air will be in the range of 5
minutes. The mass of air will be 3 kg per m2 floor.
So, intuitively a choice of a small time constants at 10 minutes and a mass of equip-
ment at 10 kg/m2 could be a good choice.
In practical use in an emulator, only a single room and a single radiator is considered.


Validation
Validation can be found in the literature (TRNSYS internet page, DOE page, Blast
etc, http://www.esru.strath.ac.uk/publications/syssim_for_bpe.htm)
Most validation is based on hourly simulation, so the small time constant is in fact
more difficult to find. Modern advanced building model programs can be used to find
a good value for the time constant and in fact the small time constant can be found by
a simple experiment in a practical room, using a controlled electrical heater.


A simple hydraulic model of a heating system
See the detailed description is given in Vd_dti04 and 06.
The system can be a one-pipe or a two-pipe system and the radiators can be equipped
with radiator thermostats.




                                                                                                           28
Model for the thermostat valves and the room thermostat
The real radiator thermostat is very complicated, because hysteresis occurs. For the
emulator purpose a very simple model is proposed. See the detailed description is in
Vd_dti04 and 06.


Validation
The node model is validated. The simple system modelling is not validated, and a
validation is very complicated as the occupants do the thermostat setting in a real
house and this setting (especially the balance between the different radiators) will sig-
nificantly influence the thermal performance. Some research is still needed here. On
the other hand: the equipment that shall act together with the heating system must not
be very dependent on system performance and even the simple system has many pa-
rameters to adjust, so many different ways of acting can be investigated.




1: Overview of the emulator connected to a boiler. 2: View of the hot and cold storage
tank for the regulation of the return temperature 3: Data acquisition on the emulator.

5.5 Preparation of the tests
The measurement of the BOILSIM characteristics of the boiler was done in the labora-
tory. The boiler for the test was the same model as the two boilers used for WP2.
The calculation of the uncertainty of the efficiency measured on an emulator was de-
veloped according to a guideline resulting from a SAVE project - CREATION OF A
HARMONISED and DETAILED CALCULATION METHOD FOR THE
EVALUATION OF THE UNCERTAINTY OF EFFICIENCY MEASUREMENT.
(Contract SAVE 4.1031/Z/99-306).
The uncertainty mainly depends on the boiler load and flow. The flow has a great in-
fluence as the value of the boiler water temperature difference will be proportional to
the inverse of the flow and at low loads, it will a main factor of influence.




                                                                                       29
                                         Uncertainty of part load test on emulators

    Relative uncertainty (%)   6.0
                               5.0
                               4.0                                                    730 l/h
                               3.0                                                    300 l/h
                               2.0                                                    200 l/h

                               1.0
                               0.0
                                     0       20      40      60      80      100
                                                      Load (%)



It is not possible to give a global uncertainty for efficiency obtained on an emulator as
the result will very much depend on the conditions (mainly, load and water flow). As
those conditions might vary, the uncertainty in practice is obtained by integration of
the individual uncertainties calculated with the curves above.


Definition of the tests necessary on emulators
The WP3 main tasks show the influences of having dynamic operating conditions in-
stead of having several successive static conditions AND the influence of interaction
installation - boiler on start/stop frequency.
The main aims of the tests done during this study were:

     To compare the operating conditions obtained during the dynamic testing with the
      conditions calculated by BOILSIM.
     To compare the efficiency obtained at dynamic conditions with the efficiency cal-
      culated by BOILSIM. The latter is derived from a series of tests at static condi-
      tions.
In order to make the emulator tests (partly) comparable with the in situ tests per-
formed by Gaz de France, the same type of boiler was used (Bosch Cerapur ZSBR3-
12 kW). Furthermore, the focus of the tests has been on small radiator systems, similar
to the installations in the apartments at GdF.
This paper describes the results of tests for 3.2 and 10 kW radiator systems, which
clearly demonstrate BOILSIM’s performance with respect to the calculation of operat-
ing conditions and efficiencies under dynamic conditions. Model calculations with the
emulator in combination with a simplified boiler model are used to explain some of
the obtained results.


5.6 Tests results
The measurement of the BOILSIM characteristics of the boiler was done in the labora-
tory.


                                                                                                30
TI produced a note on the start/stop problem (vd_DTI01.doc).
The figure below shows an example of an emulator test. The example given is for a 10
kW radiator (90/70C design temperature) and the boiler controlled by a room ther-
mostat. The graph contains the water temperature measured at the boiler inlet and out-
let and the room temperature calculated by the emulator. The test starts with the simu-
lated room at a temperature of 18C. After a heating-up phase, a stable heat demand of
3.1 kW is reached after approximately 3 hours. The heat demand is increased four
times by simulating a lower outdoor temperature. The efficiency is measured in each
of the boiler cycles.




Example of an emulator test
The next figure shows more detail of the test at a heat demand of 4.7 kW, but with the
measured boiler power instead of the calculated room temperature. When the boiler
starts, the flow temperature initially increases rapidly, but then decreases again. This is
due to the fact that the boiler always starts at 70% power and modulates down to
minimum power after 15 seconds. A second increase in flow temperature indicates
that the boiler can modulate freely between minimum (3.7 kW) and maximum power
(approximately 11 kW). The return temperature decreases rapidly when the pump
starts, and increases when the water flow reaches the return of the radiator system.
This is a typical profile for the boiler in combination with a 10 kW radiator.




                                                                                        31
Typical profile of the water temperatures. Boiler + 10 kW radiator


As is shown in the first of these figures, both the flow temperature and the return tem-
perature increase at increasing heat demand. The average values are shown in the fig-
ure below together with the operating conditions that are calculated by BOILSIM for a
10 kW radiator system (90/70C), for the case of variable flow. The latter are also
listed in the table below.




Comparison of the operating conditions measured dynamically and the operating
conditions calculated by BOILSIM. Boiler + 10 kW radiator


As appears from the figure above, the agreement between measurement and calcula-
tion is very good: temperatures are calculated within 3-4C. Furthermore, the com-
parison shows that, although the pump is running at constant flow when it is running,


                                                                                     32
the “variable flow” option gives the correct result in this case. This is due to the fact
that the pump is not running continuously (pump after-run time = 3 minutes).


BOILSIM calculation for the boiler with 10 kW radiator (90/70). Annual heat demand
40000 MJ




Comparison of the efficiency measured under dynamic conditions and the operating
conditions calculated by BOILSIM. Boiler + 10 kW radiator


The part load efficiency calculated by BOILSIM is decreasing at higher load, up to
around 4 kW where a sudden increase occurs. This increase is due to the fact that at a
heat demand above the minimum boiler power, the boiler and pump are assumed to be
running continuously. The “free” energy supplied by the pump is included in the part
load efficiency. The pump-corrected efficiency (see the table) does not show this sud-
den increase.




                                                                                            33
Pump on-time measured and calculated by BOILSIM. Boiler + 10 kW radiator. Due
to the reduced on-time, the measured efficiency is up to 1.2% lower than calculated.


The measured efficiency also includes the energy contribution by the pump, but this
efficiency does not increase at heat demands above 4 kW. This is because the boiler is
controlled by a simple on/off room thermostat and, contrary to what is assumed in
BOILSIM, continues to run on/off also at loads above the minimum boiler power.
The agreement between the measured efficiency and the value calculated by BOILSIM
for a 10 kW 90/70C radiator system is good (see figure above). When corrected for
small differences in operating conditions, the agreement gets even better (see table
below). This shows that it is possible to calculate the efficiency under dynamic condi-
tions from BOILSIM parameters that were obtained from tests under static conditions.
The table contains data from the test described above, tests with a 10 kW radiator at
higher flow, and tests with a 3.2 kW radiator. All tests are consistent with the above
conclusion. The data from the table is also shown graphically in the figure below the
table.


Comparison of measured and calculated efficiencies
           Heat demand   Treturn   Tflow   Measured efficiency   BOILSIM efficiency #

10 kW          1.8         34.7     43.4           102.6                102.4
radiator       2.3         37.1     46.2           102.8                102.4
               2.8         39.6     49.0           102.2                102.4
               3.2         39.2     57.8           102.7                101.9
               3.3         41.6     51.3           101.1                101.4
               3.6         40.2     58.8           102.2                101.8
               3.7         41.4     60.1           101.9                101.6
               4.7         46.1     65.2           100.4                101.3 *
               5.6         50.3     69.5           99.0                 99.9 *

                                                                                        34
            Heat demand     Treturn   Tflow   Measured efficiency   BOILSIM efficiency #

3.2 kW            1.5         39.9     75.1           94.5                  94.2
radiator          2.0         48.8     79.5           92.8                  93.0
                  2.5         57.1     79.6           92.2                  91.9
                  3.2         61.7     80.6           92.3                  93.2
# calculated at same conditions
* pump assumed to be continuously on




Comparison of measured and calculated efficiencies


As shown above, the efficiency calculated by BOILSIM is correct also for the boiler
with 3.2 kW radiator. The operating conditions, however, are not correct for this sys-
tem. BOILSIM assumes that the flow and return temperature are equal to the design
temperatures (90/70) at the design radiator power, and decrease at lower heat demand
(see figure and table below).




                                                                                           35
Comparison of the operating conditions measured dynamically and the operating
conditions calculated by BOILSIM. Boiler + 3.2 kW radiator.
The measured return temperature follows the calculated curve, but the flow tempera-
ture is around 80C at all conditions. The reasons for this are that (1) the radiator
power and flow are small, even for this relatively small boiler, (2) the applied boiler
settings do not limit the difference between flow and return temperatures, and (3) the
maximum flow temperature is 85C (see figure below). As the efficiency for condens-
ing boilers is mainly determined by the return temperature, the calculated efficiency is
correct (see the next figure below).




Boiler + 3.2 kW radiator: Water temperatures and boiler power


BOILSIM calculation for the boiler with 3.2 kW radiator (90/70)


                                                                                     36
Comparison of the efficiency measured under dynamic conditions and the operating
conditions calculated by BOILSIM. Boiler + 3.2 kW radiator.


Model calculations
In order to study some of the effects described above, model calculations were done
with the emulator in combination with a simplified boiler model. This model assumes
that the boiler has no heat capacity. Therefore, the temperatures calculated by this
model are a “worst case”. The model further assumes that the boiler modulates be-
tween 4 and 10 kW. Calculations were done for radiator sizes 4, 6, 8 and 10 kW and
heat demand 1.1, 2.6 and 4.7 kW. The calculation for a heat demand of 1.1 kW was
also done for the case where the boiler power was limited to the radiator power, i.e. 4,
6 or 8 kW.
The figure below shows an example of a calculation for 4 and 10 kW radiators at 1.1
kW output.
The below figure and table compare the operating conditions as determined by the
model calculations with BOILSIM. At a heat demand of 1.1 kW (Fig. 13A) there is a
relatively large difference between the flow temperatures determined by the two
methods, up to a radiator power of 6 kW. As could be expected, the difference de-
creases when the maximum boiler output power is limited to the design radiator
power (Figure D).

                                                                                      37
Example of model calculation. Heat demand 1.1 kW.


In the worst case, the difference between the return temperature determined by
BOILSIM and the emulator results is 10C. This difference may be considered accept-
able.


Comparison of model calculations and BOILSIM results
 Heat      Radiator power                         Emulator                     BOILSIM
 demand

                                          Flow    Tflow      Treturn   Flow     Tflow    Treturn

 (A)       4 kW                            21.5    77.9        34.6     46.1    50.9       30.9
 1.1 kW    6                               31.5    62.0        32.5     46.1    45.1       25.1
           8                               42.6    53.2        31.5     46.1    42.0       22.0
           10                              54.0    47.9        30.8     46.1    40.1       20.1


 (B)       4                               99.4    80.9        58.1    113.1    72.9       52.9
 2.6 kW    6                               76.7    73.9        44.4    113.1    61.0       41.0
           8                              102.8    62.7        40.7    113.1    54.7       34.7
           10                             130.2    55.6        38.3    113.1    50.6       30.6


 (C)       4                                 --       --          --      --       --         --
 4.7 kW    6                              193.9    84.3        63.4    201.0    79.2       59.2
           8                              179.6    75.5        53.0    201.0    69.1       49.1
           10                             225.6    66.4        48.5    201.0    62.7       42.7


 (D)       4    Pmax,boiler = Pradiator    48.0    58.4        39.3     46.1    50.9       30.9

                                                                                                   38
Heat     Radiator power          Emulator                 BOILSIM
demand
1.1 kW   6                49.9    52.7      34.3   46.1    45.1     25.1
         8                51.9    49.7      32.0   46.1    42.0     22.0
         10               54.0    47.9      30.8   46.1    40.1     20.1




                                                                           39
              A




              B




              C




              D
Comparison of model calculations and BOILSIM results
(A-D: see Table)

                                                       40
Conclusions
The validation on emulators has shown that:
    The efficiency calculated by BOILSIM is in good agreement with the efficiency
     measured under dynamic conditions.
    BOILSIM calculates the correct return temperature, but the flow temperature may
     be too low, in particular in case of small radiator systems. This means that also the
     calculated flow may be incorrect.
    The assumption that the boiler is running continuously when the heat demand is
     higher that the minimum boiler power, is not necessarily correct. However, this
     has no influence on the calculated efficiency, as long as the pump-corrected value
     is used.


The remarks above need to be taken into account when using BOILSIM and for fur-
ther future development.


Main references
Vd_dgc26 Emulator tests, first results. F. Wurth. June 2002

vd_dti02; 01-March-01; Load Emulator for boiler test. Figure

Vd_dti04 An emulator for test of boilers under realistic load conditions. Otto Paulsen & Hossein Gohari. Danish
Technological Institute. May 2001

Vd_dti06 emulators




                                                                                                           41
6.       THE RESULTS OBTAINED for WP4: Adaptation of BOILSIM


WP        Name
4.1       Detailed working plan
4.2       Analysis of current installation model
4.3       Modelling and implementation first improvements
4.4       Defining requirements on validation
4.5       Analysis of results of WP 1, 2 and 3
4.6       Modelling and implementing of second improvements
4.7       Final validation
4.8       Reporting


At the first workshop, a long list of improvements was established, and at the first
meeting a number of weak points of the model were discussed. Some of the points
identified have now been improved; others will be during one of the next updates of
the software (see ANNEX2).
Comments have been submitted by Martin Koot (Gastec), Johann Zirngibl (CSTB),
Krzysztof Klobut (VTT), D.Giannakopoulos, Nourreddine Mostefaoui (Cetiat),
Frédéric Milcent (GdF), Leo van Gruijthuijsen (DGC), Philippe Ngendakumana
(UdL), Kirsten Englund (SBI). TNO already had a short list of proposals for interface
adaptation and some post processing of data.


At the time of writing this report, the work has been performed and imple-
mented in BOILSIM. However we have not yet received the report from
GASTEC that describes the details of the actions carried out. Furthermore, TNO
has yet not sent us the final version of the software. The latest version was sent in
June, but we agree that a number of changes needed to be implemented.

Main references
Vd_cost01 COSTIC, 31/05/2002 The hydraulic balancing problem

vd_dgc11; 01-Febr-01; BOILSIM: STATE OF THE ART IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE METHOD January 2001

Vd_dgc15. Comments on Boilsim 2001/02, test version of 21-12-2001

vd_dti01; 15-May-00; Short note on determination of start stops frequencies

vd_dti02; 01-March-01; Load Emulator for boiler test. Figure

Vd_dti05 Short note on effective radiator size (the gamma factor) Otto Paulsen. September 2001

vd_gst02; 2001Note on heating system – Combined systems of radiators / convectors / floor heating. Flow control.
Night set back.

vd_gst03; 2001. Note of Gastec, floorheating


                                                                                                            42
vd_gst04; 2001. Note of Gastec, variable flow

vd_gst05. 2001. Note of Gastec, WP4 Night set back

Vd_gst06. 2001. Note of Gastec, Type of distribution system.

Vd_sbi01 Note on night set back. 2002

Vd_sbi02 The thermal capacity of buildings. June 2002

vd_tno02 03-Mar-00 SAVE Validation, WP4, validation topics

vd_tno05 Control options overview. 2002

vd_tno08 SAVE Validation - WP4 - Hydraulic system and boiler control, January 2002.

vd tno10 SAVE Validation - heating up after night set back




                                                                                      43
7.     THE RESULTS OBTAINED for WP5: Workshop and information
Information is an important part of the project. The main objective is to have the
method used as much as possible for achieving energy savings. Therefore, it was a
first task through a workshop to determine the requirements of the potential users. The
requirements have been implemented during the project in order to make BOILSIM
the tool that the potential users were looking for. Also contact was established with
the standardisation committees relevant for BOILSIM activities.

Contact with CEN 228
The CSTB member of the consortium has the chairmanship of the CEN WG in charge
of preparing the method for calculation of the heat demand of buildings. Therefore,
from the beginning we decided that BOILSIM is a software for calculation of the an-
nual efficiency of the boilers and not for the heat demand. Although integrating a
number of aspects from the installation and building, BOILSIM is still focusing on the
boiler. The contact with CEN 228 was useful to set up this limit definition even if
there could be some disagreement if BOILSIM should treat some aspects of the instal-
lation that are covered in the CEN 228. It is discussed a possible presentation of
BOILSIM to CEN 228 at the end of the year.


First Workshop on BOILSIM
A first workshop was held on 7 & 8 September 2000 in Denmark.
The objective of this first plenary meeting/workshop was to involve all the partners in
the discussion of the technical programme of the project and to give them the possibil-
ity of setting up requirements for the future BOILSIM. It included a detailed discus-
sion of the project when still in a definition phase in order that the input of every par-
ticipant could be taken into account.
The participants had been proposed to test the new version of BOILSIM in the final
phase of the project. The workshop was primarily dedicated to giving those partners
the information and instructions needed to run the programme.
The first plenary meeting was followed by a workshop aiming at making the partici-
pants operational in using the programme.
A second objective was to get feedback on how BOILSIM should be designed so to be
useful for the different potential users.
This workshop, therefore, included a detailed description of BOILSIM as well as
demonstration of BOILSIM functions. A session was organised for teaching partici-
pants how to use BOILSIM.


The agenda of the workshop was the following:


       Introduction-History (30 minutes)
       History (the projects related to BOILSIM development) (DGC) (10 min)
       Concept & Organisation (GASTEC) (10 min)
       Some examples to show how BOILSIM has already be used (DGC) (10 min)

                                                                                       44
Part 1 BOILSIM Heating function and application to replacement of boilers
(BOILSIM theory & practise)

A) Preliminary explanations (1h30)
 Operating condition models (GASTEC) (20 min.)
 Boiler Models (DTI) (20 min.)
 Boiler input data / EN test / test protocol (DGC/Gastec) (30 min.)
 Validation (DGC / TNO) (20 min.)
B) Demonstration and exercise (2h)
 Make a project / Make Installation design and operation / Specify and run
    calculations / First interpretation of the results / Boiler data, climate data
    (TNO) (60 min)
 Exercises (TNO, GASTEC) (60 min)
C) The replacement module (1h30)
 The replacement module Additional boiler data / Annual heat demand cal-
    culation options. (TNO) (15 min)
 BOILSIM theory - pt 3: Field tested boilers (replacement) (DTI?) (15 min)
 Exercise (TNO, GASTEC) (60 min)

Part 2 BOILSIM hot water function (2h)

 Distribution system model (Gastec) (10 min.)
 Hot water boiler model (DTI) (10 min.)
 Hot water boiler input data (Gastec) (10 min.)
 Validation (TNO) (10 min.)
 Practical use. Tapping pattern and distribution system data /
Additional boiler data / Run specification and interpretation of the results
(TNO) (1h)

Part 3 BOILSIM for installers (50 min)

   Input data collection for the replacement module (VITO) (10 min.)
   Annual heat demand calculation for the replacement module (DTI) (10
    min)
   Validation for the replacement module (Cetiat / TNO) (10 min)
   The education of installers with BOILSIM (PowerPoint) (DTI/VITO) (20
    min)

Conclusion (2h)

   BOILSIM Homepage and future projects (DGC) (10 min)
   The complementarity of BOILSIM with other existing tools/methods
    (CSTB) (10 min.)
   Boiler database (DGC / Gastec / ...) (10 min)
   Additional BOILSIM options and ideas for interface improvement, new
    functions (TNO) (10 min)
   Discussion / Conclusion: The functions needed for having a tool useful to
    all (1h 20) / BOILSIM dissemination. How to adapt BOILSIM to the need
    of the installers and other potential users (discussion)
                                                                            45
The participants in the workshop:
   Danish Gas Technology Centre a/s DGC
   VITO Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek
   TNO Institute of Environmental Sciences, Energy Research and Process Innova-
    tion
   GASTEC NV
   DTI Danish Technological Institute
   Gaz de France
   Université de Liège Laboratoire de Thermodynamique
   CSTB
   Comité Scientifique et Technique des Industries Climatiques – COSTIC
   Danish Building Research Institute
   ARGB – Association Royale des Gaziers Belges
   National Technical University of Athens, Laboratory of Steam Boilers
   VTT Building Technology
   CETIAT

Second Workshop BOILSIM - 14 June 2002, DGC, Denmark
The second workshop at the end of the project was aiming at giving to the participants
enough information to use the new and improved BOILSIM without problems and
possibly teach other interested parts in the use of BOILSIM.
Another target was to identify a number of partners that could be a BOILSIM national
contact for further dissemination of the software.
For that purpose, a note was sent a few weeks before the workshop to a wide audience
(see Vd_Dgc16 " BOILSIM: PARTNERS FOR THE SOFTWARE DISTRIBUTION
Jsc, April 2002")


Below is the full text of the mail sent:
       BOILSIM is a tool that can be used to calculate the energy performances of
       buildings. If focuses particularly on the boiler but it takes into account the in-
       stallation for the calculation of the energy consumption of the energy con-
       sumption. It covers space heating, but also hot water production. BOILSIM is
       a perfect tool to calculate the energy savings in case of boiler replacement.
       Details can be read on http://www.boilsim.com/
       BOILSIM has been developed through the years by a consortium of European
       organisations including research laboratories, but also manufacturers. Now
       the software is becoming fully operational and the consortium looks for col-
       laboration with organisations that could distribute the tool nationally.
                                                                                      46
      With the introduction of the new "Energy in buildings" directive there will be
      an increasing need for energy consultant able to advise properly the consum-
      ers. BOILSIM is not bringing a full answer to all questions, but to an impor-
      tant number that those people will have to solve.
      TODAY WE NEED TO SELECT THOSE FUTURE PARTNERS IN CHARGE
      WITH BOILSIM DISTRIBUTION.
      We are looking for partners with the following profile:
      -   Partner motivated and having the infrastructure needed for educating en-
          ergy consultants in using BOILSIM.
      -   The partner need to have understanding in the central heating issues and
          be able to use window based computer software.
      -   The partner shall have a very good knowledge of the energy consultant or-
          ganisations in his own country.
      -   The partners shall be identified in the next weeks (and latest in May 2002)


      The PLAN is the following:
      1) We will organise a workshop for national BOILSIM representative with
         the aim to TEACH them to use the software so that they can further edu-
         cate energy consultants in their own countries.
      2) The national representatives will be selected. They have to demonstrate
         their close connection with the energy consultants in their own country
         and have the profile indicated above.
      3) The workshop will be organised in the beginning of June in DK. It will last
         for a full day at least (to be defined).
      4) The representative will be allowed to distribute BOILSIM in his own coun-
         try for a period of two years (to be discussed). The software shall be sold
         for more than 50 EURO (to be discussed), but the fee for the education is
         to be decided by the national representative (we will not be too restrictive,
         the point is to have BOILSIM used as much as possible.
      5) The representative shall commit himself to organise at least one informa-
         tion/education workshop in his own country and shall inform us about the
         number of participants.
      6) For a given country, two or more contact representatives could be associ-
         ated, but one needs to take the responsibility.


The present situation: BOILSIM representatives
 BELGIUM              Vito
 GREECE               Cres


                                                                                   47
    FRANCE             CETIAT-GdF
    DENMARK            TI-DGC

    NETHERLANDS        TNO-GASTEC
    SPAIN              REPSOL



The participants in the second workshop were the following:
    Marianne Ricci, Gaz de France, FR
    Krzysztof Klobut, VTT Building and Transport, FI
    Konstantinos Lytras, Centre for Renewable Energy Sources, GR
    Peder Kokborg Pedersen, DONG Energi Service (NVE), DK
    Kirsten Engelund Thomsen, Danish Building and Urban Research, DK
    Jörg Endisch, DVGW-Karlsruhe, GE
    Paula Tartari, University of Liege, BE
    Marcello Borsani, Swiss Gas and Water Industri Association, CH
    Youmna Wehbe, CETIAT, FR
    Rudi Thijs, Technigas, BE
    Hans van Wolferen, TNO-MEP, NL
    Rofaida Lahrech, CSTB, FR
    Miguel Munecas, Repsol, SP
    Marie-Josephe Lagogue, COSTIC, FR
    Aline Marsaa, Gaz de France, FR
    Karsten V. Frederiksen, DGC, DK
    Florence Wurth, DGC, DK
    Jean Schweitzer, DGC, DK
    Harry Hondeman, GASTEC, NL Excused
    Leo van Gruijthuijsen, DGC, DK

Agenda of the second workshop
Introduction-History BOILSIM theory & practice - Preliminary explanations
(DGC)
 History (the projects related to BOILSIM development)
 Operating condition models, Boiler models. Boiler input data / EN test / Test Pro-
   tocol Validation
 The replacement module: Additional boiler data. BOILSIM theory / Field tested
   boilers (replacement)
 Results of the validations

B) Demonstration (TNO)
 Make a project / Make installation design and operation / Specify and run calcula-
   tions / First interpretation of the results / Boiler data, climate data

C) BOILSIM existing and future utilisations
 BOILSIM Homepage and future projects. Boiler database (DGC)
 BOISIM in Spain (REPSOL)
                                                                                  48
   BOILSIM a tool for energy consultants. Examples of use. BOILSIM models are
    saving testing time. DGC example. The complementarity of BOILSIM with other
    existing tools/methods.
   The future maintenance of the software and BOILSIM dissemination.

Main conclusions of the second workshop
The participants have been interviewed and from the discussion, it appears that they
had different motivations to use the software:
 Using the boiler models (CSTB, GdF, DGC)
 Using it as consultancy tool in relation with the new "energy in buildings" direc-
   tive (CRES, SBI)
 Using it as consultancy tool for own industry use (ARGB, DGC, SVGW)
 Support or/and training to installers (CRES, COSTIC)
 Support for energy auditors in general (CRES)
 As a tool to study the effect of various parameters on the annual efficiency
   (CETIAT)
 For the application of the national regulations (CETIAT, REPSOL, SBI)
 Because the French manufacturers have shown an interest in the software
   (CETIAT)
 As a calculation tool also including the emission (Liege University)
 For the scientific aspects of modelling etc (Liege University, VTT)
 For the promotion of boiler replacement (VTT, REPSOL, DGC)
 For larger boiler installations (DONG)
 For labelling (SBI)

Some participants were present on behalf of the boiler manufacturers (DVGW).

There have been some requests for additional features for the BOILSIM software:
   Should be in French (COSTIC) or other national languages
   Should include "Typical" boilers, for when the database is empty
   Should include data for the national market (VTT)
   Should only included "accredited" data (DVGW)
   The method should be harmonised (DVGW)

So far, the data for the BOILSIM boiler database are measured in DENMARK and
SPAIN for gas boilers.
The future development of BOILSIM will be under LABNET activities
http://www.dgc.dk/LABNET/
The database of BOILSIM might very well be connected to the new boiler information
web: http://www.boilerinfo.org/index.htm
In future, LABNET will try to work closer with the other "building" networks; there-
fore, we might join a larger consortium of networks:
http://forum.e-core.org/categories.cfm?catid=29

Conclusion and main decisions

                                                                                       49
The version of BOILSIM that was handed out at the meeting was still a demo version
and there are still a few bugs due to recent modifications. These are being corrected
and in August a new version will be sent to the participants in the workshop.
The original boiler database will be removed and replaced by a few "typical boilers"
that can be used to illustrate boilers that are on the market.
The possible agreements that need to be made for any updates or modifications will be
handled in LABNET where a specific steering group will be established. TNO will
perform the work under conditions to be agreed upon for having the cost of develop-
ment/updates refunded.
The existence of a database is essential for the future use of BOILSIM. Therefore,
there might be some interest to couple BOILSIM with a database that was recently set
up during another a SAVE project /1/. However, this is not necessarily straightfor-
ward. The parameters to run BOILSIM are not necessarily known and described in the
above-mentioned database.


Furthermore, the reliability of data in large databases is questionable. Therefore, the
idea of having data checked by accredited bodies is probably the only solution for a
fair use of the method.




                                                                                          50
8.      WP6 Co-ordination - BOILSIM web
There is a number of aspects from co-ordination that are relevant for the present re-
port. A number of co-ordination tasks have been organised under an Internet
BOILSIM dedicated site. As a part of the project, we also have developed the
BOILSIM website that will integrate the main results and reports from the project.




From the main address http://www.boilsim.com, a link was made to the project with
access for "partners only". Note that this part will be deleted soon and the material for
the project will be made available from the main page.
The specific part of the Internet page was used for the project administration:




Partnership and contributions to the project
                                                                                        51
The following partners have been members of the consortium. Note that the partners
16-17-18 (minor contributors) have neither participated actively in the activities or in
the meetings of the project. Partner 16 had no budget allocated. We agreed with part-
ner 17 to withdraw their participation due to personnel changes at the very beginning
of the project. Partner 18 did not reply to our enquiries (and formal letter) about their
involvement/participation in the project tasks, nor did they contribute with the input
planned. DGC (Partner 1) replaced those partners and performed the work expected
from them.

1                                                 4

Danish Gas Technology Centre a/s DGC              GASTEC NV

Dr. Neergaardsvej 5A                              P.O. Box 137

Denmark, 2970, Hørsholm                           The Netherlands NL-7300 AC Apeldoorn

+45 45 16 96 00                                   +31 555 393 393

+45 45 16 96 01                                   +31 555 393 223

Mr Jean Schweitzer                                Mr Martin Koot

jsc@dgc.dk                                        mk@gastec.nl



2                                                 5

VITO Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch On-    DTI Danish Technological Institute
derzoek
                                                  P.O. Box 141
Boeretang 200
                                                  Denmark DK-2630 Taastrup
Belgium, B-2400, Mol
                                                  +45 43 50 43 50
+32 14.335840
                                                  +45 43 50 72 22
+32 14.321185
                                                  Mr Otto Paulsen
Ms Eef Peeters
                                                  otto.paulsen@dti.dk
PeetersE@vito.be


                                                  6
3
                                                  Gaz de France
TNO Institute of Environmental Sciences, Energy   361 avenue du Président Wilson P.O. Box 33
Research and Process Innovation                   F-93211 Saint Denis La Plaine Cdx

                                                  +33 149 22 51 92
Laan van Westenenk 501 P.O. Box 342
                                                  +33 149 22 57 30
The Netherlands 7300 AH Apeldoorn
                                                  + 33 149225439
+31 55 549 3767
                                                  Mr Frederic Milcent
+31 55 549 3740
                                                  Ms Marianne RICCI
Mr Hans van Wolferen
                                                  frederic.milcent@gazdefrance.com
Hans.vanWolferen@mep.tno.nl
                                                  marianne.ricci@gazdefrance.com



                                                                                               52
7                                                  Ms Kirsten Engelund Thomsen

Université de Liège Laboratoire de Thermodynami-   ket@sbi.dk
que

Campus du Sart-Tilman, Bâtiment B49, Chemin des
Chevreuils                                         11

Belgium B-4000 Liège                               Danfoss

+32 43 66 48 03                                    E17-B101 Department: BC-HE

+32 43 66 48 1                                     Denmark, 6430 Nordborg

Mr Philippe Ngendakumana                           +45 74 88 25 27

pngendakumana@ulg.ac.be                            +45 74 49 09 50

                                                   Mr Niels Andersen

8                                                  qnj@danfoss.com

CSTB

BP 02                                              12

F 77421 Marne la vallée cedex 2                    ARGB – Association Royale des Gaziers Belges

+ 33 1 64 68 83 12                                 Rue de Rhode 125

+ 33 1 64 68 83 50                                 Belgium B 1630 Linkebeek

Mr J. Zirngibl                                     + 32 2 383 02 00

zirngibl@cstb.fr                                   + 32 2 380 87 04

                                                   Mr J.C. Becquart

9                                                  jeanclaude.becquart@argb.be

Comité Scientifique et Technique des Industries
Climatiques – COSTIC
                                                   13
Domaine de Saint-Paul B. P. 66
                                                   National Technical University of
France, F-78470, Saint-Rémy-Lès-Chevreuse
                                                   Athens, Laboratory of Steam Boilers
+33 1 30 85 20 21
                                                   Herron Polytecniou 9 str.
+33 1 30 85 20 38
                                                   15780 GR Athens, Greece
Mr Christian Feldmann
                                                   +30-1-7723662
c.feldmann@costic.asso.fr
                                                   +30-1-7723663

                                                   Dr. E. Kakaras
10                                                 ekak@central.ntua.gr
Danish Building Research I nstitute

Dr. Neergaardsvej 15
                                                   14
DK, 2970 Hørsholm
                                                   VTT Building Technology
+45 45 86 55 33
                                                   P.O. Box 1804
+ 45 45 86 75 35
                                                   Finland, FIN-02044 VTT

                                                                                                  53
+358 9 456 4647                                    18

+358 9 455 2408                                    Bundesindustrievereband Heizungs-,Klima-,
                                                   Sanitärtechnik/Technische Gebäudesysteme e.V.
Mr Krzysztof Klobut                                (BHKS)
krzysztof.klobut@vtt.fi                            Weberstrasse 33

                                                   Germany, D 53313 Bonn

15                                                 +49 / 228 94917-0

CETIAT                                             +49 / 228 94917-17

27-29 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, BP 2042       Mr Boris Kruppa

France, 69603, Villeurbanne Cedex                  Kruppa.BHKS@T-Online.de

+33 4 72 44 49 00

+33 4 72 44 49 49

Mr Nourredine Mostefaoui

nourreddine.mostefaoui@cetiat.fr



16

AFECI FABRIMETAL

c/o Diamant Building, Reyerslaan 80

Belgium, B-1030, Brussels

+ 32 2 706 79 62

+ 32 2 706 79 66

Mr. Felix Van Eyken

felix.vaneyken@fabrimetal.be



17

IKE-LHR, Institut f. Kernenergetik & Energiesys-
teme Lehrstuhl fuer Heiz- und Raumlufttechnik
University of Stuttgart

Pfaffenwaldring 35

Germany, D 70550 Stuttgart

+49 711 / 685-2082

+49 711 / 685-2096

Mr F. Rosenkamp

frank.rosenkamp@po.uni-stuttgart.de




                                                                                                   54
9.     CONCLUSION
The objective of the project was the validation and extension of BOILSIM so it can be
used as a tool that is able to take into account the interactions between the different
elements in a heating system. Today, we know that BOILSIM takes the important pa-
rameters into account for an accurate diagnosis of an installation. Furthermore,
BOILSIM software is operational has a smart interface and includes even some typical
boilers for those users who have no database.
BOILSIM does not fully replace the expertise of the installers for the practical instal-
lation a boiler and practical design of a central heating system, but BOILSIM offers
great help to make the right choices and calculate the impact of various technical op-
tions on energy saving. Therefore, it is a tool that will have a positive impact on en-
ergy savings in the EU. The introduction of BOILSIM for installers, designers, archi-
tects etc. might follow different paths, as the technical qualifications and motivation
are different.
The project concludes the development phase of BOILSIM.
The project’s main result is a software that has a complete range of functions that are
needed for the accurate diagnosis of an installation and that are able to satisfy the most
demanding user. On the other hand, not all users are interested in/or have the compe-
tence to use all functions and, therefore, some might find the use of the software too
difficult. The present version is a reference that can be adapted for a more simple
use. In the case of the installers, the need is toward a simple and quick tool that need
not be so accurate. For the designers, the sophistication of the actual version of the
software is adapted to the need of a detailed information level
There are already some actions for a more wide use of BOILSIM and future activities
related to BOILSIM will be carried out under LABNET, a network of laboratories that
will co-ordinate the user needs and future maintenance and developments. In the fu-
ture, the group is going to organise the upgrading and maintenance of the software.
They are also going to organise the possible new developments on a commercial basis.
After each phase of the development, there is a number of minor bugs and errors that
need to be corrected. This shall be organised urgently so that BOILSIM users can have
corrected versions of the software as soon a such problems are encountered.
BOILSIM does not need to be widely used in its present version. But it is a reference
method that can be used for different application including labelling, and the devel-
opment of alternative simplified tools for the Internet.




                                                                                       55
LIST OF DOCUMENTS THAT HAVE BEEN ESTABLISHED DURING THE
PROJECT

All the listed documents can be obtained on request or can be downloaded directly
from the Internet site: http://www.boilsim.com (note that a password is requested for
entering the project page). The most relevant documents are enclosed as annex to this
report.

                                                                            Relevant WP           In Annex




COSTIC

Vd_cost01 COSTIC, 31/05/2002 The hydraulic balancing problem                                 4               yes


CSTB

vd_cst01; 03-Mar-00; TC 228/WG4 Boiler performance calculation method                        1

vd_cst02; 03-Mar-00; English version with small differences to the latest                    1               yes
French version

vd_cst03;06-Jul-00; Minutes of meeting CSTB/GASTEC/VITO. 4th of July                      Coord


DGC

vd_dgc01; 08-Mar-00; Minutes meeting 01;                                                  Coord

vd_dgc02; 16-Mar-00; Minutes meeting 01 (revised)                                         Coord

vd_dgc03; 10-Apr-00; Agreement between partners 01                                        Coord

vd_dgc04; 5-May-00; Action Status 01                                                      Coord

vd_dgc05; 16-May-00; Action Status 02                                                     Coord

vd_dgc06; 10-May-00; Workshop2000: programme revised (version03)                             5               yes

vd_dgc07; 30-May-00; Action Status 03                                                     Coord

vd_dgc08; 30-May-00; Agreement 02between partners (final)                                 Coord

vd_dgc09; 12-Sept-00; Minutes meeting 02                                                  Coord

vd_dgc10; 12-Sept-00; Action 02                                                           Coord

vd_dgc11;    01-Febr-01;   BOILSIM:    STATE   OF   THE   ART   IN   THE                     5               yes
DEVELOPMENT OF THE METHOD January 2001

vd_dgc12; 01-March-01; 26&27.02.01: Meeting BOILSIM VALIDATION.                           Coord
Minutes draft

vd_dgc13; 6 and 7 September 2001: Meeting BOILSIM VALIDATION Min-                         Coord
utes draft




                                                                                                              56
                                                                                 Relevant WP           In Annex




Vd_dgc14. Agenda for the meeting at TNO DGC, 23 and 24 January 2002                            Coord

Vd_dgc14b. Short note on the first comparison BOILSIM with experimental                           2               yes
results. JSC DGC 20 January 2002

Vd_dgc15. Comments on Boilsim 2001/02, test version of 21-12-2001                                 5               yes

Vd_Dgc16 BOILSIM: PARTNERS FOR THE SOFTWARE DISTRIBUTION                                          5
Jsc, april 2002

Vd_dgc17. BOILSIM future, TELEPHONE MEETING Short note Jsc, dgc                                Coord
11.04.2002.

Vd_dgc 18 Heating-up after night set-back. Comparison of boilsim with GdF                         2               yes
data. June 2002

Vd_dgc19 Minutes - Final meeting (13 June 2002 at DGC) Draft v01                               Coord

Vd_dgc20. Short note on a comparison BOILSIM with experimental results.                           2
FWU DGC 17 May 2002

Vd_dgc20b. Short note on a comparison BOILSIM with experimental results.                          2               yes
FWU DGC final version July 2002

Vd_dgc21. Workshop BOILSIM - 14 June 2002 DGC Denmark. Minutes                                 Coord

Vd_dgc22. Project Intermediate report. DGC April 2001. V01                                     Coord

Vd_dgc23 Junkers Cerapur ZSBR 3-12A DGC test report (partly confidential)                        2,3

Vd_dgc24 (pdf) Junkers Cerapur ZSBR 3-12A technical information (Junker                          2,3              yes
document)

Vd_dgc25 Research of the optimal radiator power and design temperature.                           2
F. Wurth. June 2002

Vd_dgc26 Emulator tests, first results. F. Wurth. June 2002                                       3

Vd_dgc27 Tests on experimental building. Test data. May 2002                                      2


DTI

vd_dti01; 15-May-00; Short note on determination of start stops frequencies                       4               yes

vd_dti02; 01-March-01; Load Emulator for boiler test. Figure                                      4               yes

vd_dti03; 01-March-01; HEAT LOSSES FROM THE BOILERS. When are                                     3               yes
those considered as useful energy?

Vd_dti04 An emulator for test of boilers under realistic load conditions. Otto                    3               yes
Paulsen & Hossein Gohari. Danish Technological Institute. May 2001

Vd_dti05 Short note on effective radiator size (the gamma factor) Otto                            4               yes
Paulsen. September 2001



                                                                                                                   57
                                                                           Relevant WP         In Annex




Vd_dti06 emulator models…to be sent….                                                     4               yes


GASTEC

vd_gst01 ; 16-Mar-00; Identification of documents                                     Coord.

vd_gst02; 2001Note on heating system – Combined systems of radiators /                    4               yes
convectors / floor heating. Flow control. Night set back.

vd_gst03; 2001. Note of Gastec, floorheating                                              4               yes

vd_gst04; 2001. Note of Gastec, variable flow                                             4               yes

vd_gst05. 2001. Note of Gastec, WP4 Night set back.                                       4               yes

Vd_gst06. 2001. Note of Gastec, Type of distribution system.                              4               yes

Vd gst07 BOILSIM, General presentation of BOILSIM. Text to slideshow.                 Coord.
2002.


GDF

vd_gdf01; October-00; TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR TESTS FROM                             2               yes
BOILSIM PROJECT


SBI

Vd_sbi01 Note on night set back. 2002                                                    1,4              yes

Vd_sbi02 The thermal capacity of buildings. June 2002                                    1,4              yes


TNO

vd_tno01; 24-Feb-00 SAVE Validation, WP1, work plan                                  1/Coord

vd_tno02 03-Mar-00 SAVE Validation, WP4, validation topics                                4               yes

vd_tno03 03-Mar-00 SAVE Validation, WP1, work plan, 2nd version                      1/Coord

vd_tno04 19-Oct-00 Improvement of BoilSim version 2000/03 SAVE Valida-                    5               yes
tion - Comments from the first workshop.

vd_tno05 Control options overview. 2002                                                   4               yes

vd_tno06b Improvement of BoilSim version 2000/03. progress survey (ver-                  4/5              yes
sion 2002/01)

vd_tno07. Not identified document. TNO

vd_tno08 SAVE Validation - WP4 - Hydraulic system and boiler control,                     4               yes
January 2002.

vd tno09 WP 1. Evaluation of BoilSim operating conditions model. Draft 1                  1               yes

vd tno10 SAVE Validation - heating up after night set back                                4               yes


                                                                                                           58
                                                                        Relevant WP       In Annex




vd_tno11. BOILSIM text files July 2002-07-30                                          5              yes

vd_tno12. BOILSIM manual                                                              5              yes

vd_   hw


OTHER

vd_oth01. Comments on the BoilSim Program Gordon Taylor 12 June 2000.                 5




                                                                                                      59
Reference list
1.     Project MEEPH - Monitoring of the Energy Efficiency Progress after the
       implementation of the Hot-Water Boilers Directive (Contract no. 4.1031/C/00-
       031/2000),
2.     Energy Consumption Calculation Method for Domestic Hot Water and
       Combined Systems. Contract No. XVII/4.1031/Z/97-048.
3.     Annual Efficiency Calculation Method for Domestic Boilers. SAVE Contract
       XVII/4.1031/93-008.
4.     Annual Efficiency: Pilot Operation for the Use of the Harmonised Method
       BOILSIM. SAVE Contract XVII/4.1031/Z/9674.
5.     Estimation of Energy Savings by Replacement of Fuel Oil and Gas Boilers.
       Contract XVII/4-1031/D/97-072.




                                                                                  60

				
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