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					           WOMEN IN WORLD HISTORY - AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT


I.INTRODUCTION TO THE ENLIGHTENMENT
      1.GENERAL REMARKS
            A.ENLIGHTENMENT EVENT IN 18TH C. EUROPE
                   a.WHERE TRADITIONAL SOCIETY & ITS INSTITUTIONS CAME
                         UNDER SCRUTINY & ATTACK
            B.ALSO NB STAGE IN DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN THOUGHT
            C.WOMEN WILL BE NB PART IN THIS MOVEMENT
                   a.HOSTING SALONS WHERE DEBATE TOOK PLACE
            D.WHILE 18TH C. FRANCE DID NOT PRODUCED MANY FEMALE
                   INTELLECTUALS OF FIRST RANK
            E.IT DID HAVE IMPRESSIVE NUMBER OF FAMOUS & ACCOMPLISHED
                   WOMEN
            F.WHO LEFT STRONG IMPRINT ON FRENCH CULTURE
            G.ELITE WOMEN, INCLUDING ROYAL MISTRESSES INFLUENCED
                   a.DRESS
                   b.HOUSE FURNISHINGS
                   c.DECORATIVE ARTS
            H.ONE OF PARADOXES OF ENLIGHTENMENT FOR WOMEN
                   a.PHILOSOPHES QUESTIONED ALL TRADITIONAL LIMITS ON MEN
                   b.THEY CHAMPIONED RIGHTS OF
                         (1)COMMONERS, CITIZENS, SLAVES, JEWS, INDIANS,
                               CHILDREN,
                   c.BUT NOT REALLY THOSE OF WOMEN
            I.BUT BY CHALLENGING AUTHORITY MALE THINKERS REOPENED
                   DEBATE ON NUMEROUS SUBJECTS
                   a.INCLUDING WOMAN'S WORTH
            J.WOMEN IN EUROPE BEFORE ADVENT OF SALONS
                   a.COMPLAINED THEY HAD NO PLACE TO DEVELOP THEIR
                         INTELLECTUAL OR ARTISTIC INTERESTS
            K.BUT ONCE ENLIGHTENMENT & SALONS BEGAN
                   a.WOMEN STARTED SETTING THEIR OWN AGENDA
                   b.RAISED WOMEN'S ISSUES OF
                         (1)POLITICAL POWER
                         (2)EDUCATION
                         (3)PROPERTY RIGHTS
                         (4)MARRIAGE & DIVORCE RIGHTS
      2.IMPORTANT PERSONS INVOLVED IN ENLIGHTENMENT
            A.ISAAC NEWTON
                   a.ONCE HE PULLED TOGETHER SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE IN HIS
                         PRINCIPIA
                         (1)WHERE NATURE COULD BE FIGURED OUT
                   b.THEN NEXT LOGICALLY STEP TO INVESTIGATE HOW MANKIND
                         STRUCTURED & WORKED
            B.JOHN LOCKE
                   a.ENGLISH PHILOSOPHER
                   b.HAD PROFOUND INFLUENCE ON ENLIGHTENMENT
                   c.HE SAID BABY WHEN BORN BRAIN IS TABULA RASA
                         (1)ALL KNOWLEDGE COMES FROM EXPERIENCE
                                                                    2
            d.ALSO HE SAID EVERY MAN HAS EQUAL RIGHT TO HIS NATURAL
                   FREEDOM
                   (1)WITHOUT BEING SUBJECTED TO WILL OR AUTHORITY OF
                         ANOTHER MAN
            e.BUT HE THOUGHT WOMEN EXCEPT FROM THIS NATURAL
                   FREEDOM
                   (1)& SHOULD BE SUBORDINATE TO MEN
      C.VOLTAIRE
            a.1 MAN ENLIGHTENMENT SHOW
            b.POET, PLAYWRIGHT, ESSAYIST, NOVELIST
            c.QUESTIONED & DEBATED EVERY ASPECT OF SOCIETY
3.SALONS
      A.CENTER OF CULTURAL LIFE OF ENLIGHTENMENT
      B.UNIQUE SOCIAL INSTITUTION
            a.WHERE WOMEN PLAYED NB ROLE
      C.ORIGINAL AIM OF THESE SALONS
            a.TO INSTILL MANNERS IN RUDE SOCIETY OF 16TH C.
      D.BY EARLY 17TH C. FIRST OF FAMOUS FRENCH SALONS ESTABLISHED
      E.BY TIME OF GREAT SALONS OF 18TH C. MORE THAN 100 WOMEN'S
            NAMES ASSOCIATED WITH LEADERSHIP OF SALONS
      F.IN THEIR DAY SALONS PLAYED ESSENTIALLY SOCIAL FUNCTION OF
            PRESS
      G.SALON HOSTESSES HAD TO BE EDUCATED TO GUIDE
            CONVERSATIONS ON EVERYTHING FROM
            a.POLITICS
            b.LITERATURE
            c.SCIENCE
            d.CULTURAL ARTS
            e.LATEST PLAY IN PARIS
            f.GERMAN PHILOSOPHY
            g.ISAAC NEWTON'S IDEALS
            h.POLITICAL REFORM
            i.FINANCIAL REMEDIES FOR FRANCE
      H.FRENCH KINGS' CHOICES OF MINISTERS STRONGLY INFLUENCED BY
            BACKING OF POWERFUL SALONIERS
            a.AS SALONS ATTRACTED STATESMEN & AMBASSADORS TOO
      I.SALONIERS COULD MAKE OR BREAK CAREERS
      J.SALON LIFE SEPARATE FROM COURT OF MONARCHY
      K.WHILE IN BEGINNING SALONS FREE OF SEXUAL INTRIGUE
            a.EVENTUALLY WOMEN & MEN'S SEXUALITY UTILIZED TO ITS
                   FULLEST
      L.SALONIERES NEVER ACHIEVED SAME PRESTIGE & INFLUENCE IN
            OTHER EUROPEAN CAPITALS AS IN PARIS
      M.BUT LONDON, VIENNA, ROME, COPENHAGEN, BERLIN, ETC. DID HAVE
            SALONS
      N.IN LONDON SALONIERES TENDED TO BE MIDDLE CLASS
            a.ORIGINALLY WOMEN CALLED BLUESTOCKINGS
                   (1)WHO ATTENDED OR RAN SALONS
            b.BUT IN END TERM CAM TO BE DEROGATIVE FOR WOMEN
                   ASPIRING TO BE EDUCATED
      O.IN GERMANIC CAPITALS WOMEN OFTEN JEWISH
                                                                      3
           P.AFTER FEW DECADES SALONS NOT ONLY FOR UPPER CLASSES BUT
                 OPEN TO WOMEN BELOW ARISTOCRACY
           Q.SALONS ALLOWED WOMEN TO MEET & MARRY MEN OF SUPERIOR
                 SOCIAL RANK OR WEALTH
           R.MOST HOSTESSES IN SALONS HAS SOME THINGS IN COMMON
                 a.TENDED TO BE WELL OFF & MANY WEALTHY
                 b.WOMEN INVARIABLY OF MIDDLE AGE
                        (1)AT LEAST 40 YEARS OLD & EVEN OLDER
                 c.WOMEN USUALLY SINGLE, SEPARATED OR WIDOWED RATHER
                        THAN MARRIED
                 d.MOST IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTICS NEEDED FOR
                        (1)CLEVER, TACTFUL, CHARMING
                        (2)BEAUTIFUL & WELL EDUCATED NOT NECESSARY
           S.WOMEN'S MAIN FUNCTION TO DRAW OUT HER GUESTS & TO MAKE
                 THEM SPARKLE
           T.AS JEAN JACQUE ROUSSEAU SAID
                 a.WOMEN EXISTED MERELY TO NURTURE AND TO COMFORT MEN
           U.POET LE BRUN'S ADVICE TO WOMEN
                 a.INSPIRE BUT DO NOT WRITE
           V.DISTINGUISHED MEN OF PERIOD WANDERED FROM 1 SALON TO
                 ANOTHER
           W.IN END THESE EXCHANGE OF IDEAS PERCOLATED DOWN
                 THROUGHOUT SOCIETY
           X.& FRANCE WILL HAVE ITS REVOLUTION
II.FAMOUS SALONIERS
      1.CATHERINE DE VIVONNE RAMBOUILLET - 1588-1665
           A.FRENCH NOBLEWOMAN, BORN IN ROME ITALY
           B.DAUGHTER OF JEAN DE VIVONNE, MARQUIS DE PISANI
           C.AT 12 MARRIED TO SON OF MARQUIS DE RAMBOUILLET
                 a.HE SUCCEEDED TO TITLE IN 1611
           D.FROM BEGINNING SHE DISLIKED COARSENESS OF FRENCH COURT
                 a.SHE HERSELF CONSIDERED VIRTUOUS & PIOUS
           E.FOR 50 YEARS SHE GATHERED TOGETHER TALENTED & WITTY OF
                 FRANCE
                 a.IN HER FAMOUS TOWNHOUSE
                        (1)HOTEL DE RAMBOUILLET
           F.HERS A SALON DEVOTED TO LITERATURE & CULTURED
                 CONVERSATION WHERE NOBLES & MEN OF LETTERS COULD
                 MINGLE ON EQUAL FOOTING
           G.HER SALON SETTING FOR DEVELOPMENT OF FRENCH CLASSICAL
                 LITERATURE
                 a.FROM NOBILITY & LITERARY WORLD
           H.AFTER BIRTH OF HER 7TH CHILD AT AGE 35
           I.SHE DEVELOPED MYSTERIOUS ILLNESS
           J.& SHE COULD NOT BEAR DIRECT HEAT FROM FIREPLACE
           K.SO SHE DIRECTED CONVERSATION FROM HER BED FOR NEXT 25
                 YEARS
           L.SO CATHERINE LITERALLY CREATED SALON IN BOTH ITS SENSES
                 a.ROOM ITSELF - DRAWING ROOM
                 b.& INSTITUTION WHERE CONVERSATION FREELY ENGAGED IN
      2.MADAME DE MAINTENON - 1635-1719
                                                                   4
      A.BORN FRANCOISE D'AUBIGNE
      B.CARDINAL RICHELIEU HAD IMPRISONED HER FATHER
      C.SO HER MOTHER, MARTINIQUE FORCED TO RAISE HER DAUGHTER ON
             STREETS WHILE LIVING OFF CHARITY FROM HER RELATIVES
      D.MARRIED TO MIDDLE-AGED MAN, BUT HE DIED SOON THEREAFTER
      E.1 OF LOUIS XIV'S MISTRESS, MADAME DE MONTESPAN, CHOSE MISS
             AUBIGNE TO EDUCATE ILLEGITIMATE CHILDREN OF KING
      F.IN 1670 SHE GAINED TITLE OF GOVERNESS
      G.DUE TO HER DEVOTION TO HIS CHILDREN LOUIS BEGAN TO SEEK HER
             GUIDANCE & COMFORT
      H.IN 1674 LOUIS GAVE HER NEW TITLE MADAME DE MAINTENON
      I.IN 1683 6 MONTHS AFTER DEATH OF LOUIS XIV'S WIFE, MARIA
             THERESA, LOUIS SECRETLY MARRIED MADAME DE MAINTENON
      J.MORGANATIC WIFE OF LOUIS XIV
      K.HER INFLUENCE ON KING WAS TO GET HIM TO ACT MORE RELIGIOUS
      L.SHE INFLUENCED HIM TO PARTICIPATE IN RELIGIOUS CELEBRATIONS
      M.HER GREATEST ACTIVITIES IN EDUCATION OF GIRLS
             a.TAUGHT & ORGANIZED SCHOOL FOR POOR CHILDREN
             b.HIRED URSULINE NUN TO TEACH MANY OTHERS AT SCHOOL
                   SHE ESTABLISHED
             c.INSTITUTE OF ST. LOUIS (HOUSE OF ST. CYR)
                   (1)HOME TO EDUCATE 200 YOUNG LADIES
                         (a)POOR
                         (b)ABLE TO PROVE 4 DEGREES OF NOBILITY ON
                               THEIR FATHER'S SIDE
                   (2)WHEN LEFT HOUSE EACH GOT 3000 CROWN DOWRY
             d.HER NAME IDEA TO EDUCATE YOUNG WOMEN NOT GOING INTO
                   NUNNERIES
                   (1)TO MAKE THEM GOOD MOTHERS OF FAMILIES
      N.CLEAR INDICATION OF HOW LOW CLASS WOMAN COULD RISE TO
             INFLUENCE & PRESTIGE
3.SUZANNE CURCHOD NECKER 1739-94
      A.SWISS, DAUGHTER OF PASTOR
      B.AT FIRST ENGAGED TO ENGLISH HISTORIAN EDWARD GIBBON
             a.BUT HIS FATHER BROKE IT OFF
      C.1764 MARRIED JACQUES NECKER, BANKER
             a.SHE ENCOURAGED HIM IN HIS POLITICAL CAREER
             b.BUT FOR SHORT TIME FINANCE MINISTER TO LOUIS XVI
      D.SHE HAD BRILLIANT PARISIAN SALON
      E.HOSPITAL THAT SHE FOUNDED C. 1776 STILL EXISTS
      F.HER WRITINGS ON LITERARY & MORAL SUBJECTS INCLUDE
             a.REFLECTIONS ON DIVORCE - 1794
             b.ON INHUMANE PRECEPTS - 1790
      G.MOTHER OF MADAME DE STAEL
4.MADAME DE SEVIGNE 1626-96
      A.LETTERS ARE LITERARY MASTERPIECES AT TIME
5.MARIE-THERESE DE GEOFFRIN 1699-1777
      A.DAUGHTER OF VALET
      B.WIFE OF ICE-CREAM MANUFACTURER
6.MADAME DE POMPADOUR 1721-64
      A.MISTRESS OF LOUIS XV
                                                                           5
            B.IMPORTANT PATRON OF DENIS DIDEROT & HIS GRAND
                  ENCYCLOPEDIA
       7.MADAME DE STAEL 1766-1817
            A.CONSIDERED ONE OF GREATEST LITERARY FIGURES OF 18TH C.
            B.LED INTELLECTUAL & POLITICAL OPPOSITION TO NAPOLEON
                  BONAPARTE FROM HER SALON
            C.SEE MORE REMARKS ON HER UNDER FRENCH REVOLUTION
III.DEBATE ON WOMEN DURING ENLIGHTENMENT
       1.GENERAL REMARKS
            A.WRITERS DEBATED POSITION OF WOMEN IN SOCIETY
            B.AS WELL AS EQUALITY OF SEXES
            C.LEARNED WOMEN OF SALONS INSISTED WOMEN BY NATURE EQUALS
                  OF MEN
                  a.BUT HAD BEEN MADE SUBSERVIENT BY ARTIFICIAL LAWS &
                         INSTITUTIONS
            D.DENIS DIEROT AGREED TO THESE IDEAS PROPOSED BY WOMEN
                  a.HE DEMANDED REFORMS TO GIVE WOMEN SAME LEGAL
                         RIGHTS AS MEN
                  b.HE FAMOUS EDITOR OF MULTI-VOLUME GRAND
                         ENCYCLOPEDIA
                  c.ARTICLES ON WOMEN, BUT REALLY NO SERIOUS EXAMINING OF
                         WOMEN'S NATURE & RIGHTS
                  d.2 WOMEN CONTRIBUTED TO ENCYCLOPEDIA
                         (1)MADAME DELUSSE
                                (a)WIFE OR SISTER OF ENGRAVER WHO WORKED ON
                                      PLATES
                         (2)OTHER ANONYMOUS
            E.BROTHERS DE GONCOURT
                  a.AUTHORS OF THE WOMAN OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY
                         (1)FIRST PUBLISHED IN FRENCH IN 1862
                  b.BY ANALYZING REAL WOMEN THEY FOUND THEIR LIVES
                         SPIRITUALLY EMPTY
                  c.THEY SAID WOMEN IN POSITIONS OF GREAT POWER BEHIND
                         NOTABLE MEN
                  d.WOMEN WERE SEARCHING FOR DEEPER MEANING IN LIFE
                  e.& PURSUIT OF KNOWLEDGE
                  f.BUT THEN HE CONCLUDED THAT ALL THESE ACTIVITIES COVER
                         UP FOR LACK OF SPIRITUAL FULFILLMENT
                  g.SO WOMEN NEEDED FULFILLMENT OF MOTHERHOOD
                  h.ACCORDING TO GONCOURT & ROUSSEAU
                  i.THIS WOULD ALLOW THEIR TRAITS OF SENSITIVITY, LOVE &
                         PASSION TO BE UTILIZED
            F.EVEN MONTESQUIEU & VOLTAIRE ASSUMED DOMESTIC
                  SUBORDINATION OF WOMEN
                  a.ORDAINED BY NATURE IF NOT BY GOD

				
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posted:10/30/2012
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