Comparing Qualitative & Quantitative Methodologies by nvrhI6Ex


									CHAPTER 6
Qualitative and Unobtrusive Measures
Qualitative Measures
   Qualitative research is any research that relies
    primarily or exclusively on qualitative measures
   Qualitative research (i.e., measures) used to:
     Generate new  theories or hypotheses
     Achieve a deep understanding of an issue

     Develop detailed stories to describe a phenomenon
Qualitative and Quantitative Data
   Qualitative data consists of “words”
   Quantitative data consists of “numbers”
   All qualitative data can be coded quantitatively
   All quantitative data is based on qualitative
Qualitative Data
   Includes any information that can be captured that
    is not numerical in nature (Miles & Huberman,
   In-depth interviews (individual and group)
   Direct observation (respondent is not queried)
   Written documents (existing documents)
Qualitative Traditions
   Ethnography
     studying a    phenomenon in the context of its culture
   Phenomenology
     studying how     a phenomenon is experienced by
   Field Research
     researcher observes    a phenomenon in its natural state
      (“in situ”)
   Grounded Theory (Glaser & Strauss, 1967)
     to develop a theory (“grounded” in observation) about
      a phenomenon of interest
Qualitative Methods
   Participant observation
       researcher becomes a participant (i.e., member) in the
        culture being observed
   Direct observation
       researcher not a member of the culture being studied but
        remains unobtrusive
   Unstructured interviewing
       direct interaction between the researcher and respondent;
        no structured interview or set direction
   Case studies
       intensive study of a specific individual or specific context
Table 6-3 Criteria for Judging Research Quality
from a More Qualitative Perspective

  Traditional Criteria for Judging    Alternative Criteria for Judging
           Quantitative Research      Qualitative Research

                  Internal validity   Credibility

                 External validity    Transferability

                        Reliability   Dependability

                       Objectivity    Confirmability
Quality of Qualitative Research
   Credibility
       establishing that the results are credible from the perspective of the
   Transferability
       degree to which results can be generalized to other contexts
   Dependability
       description by the researcher of changes within the context that the
        research occurs and how these might affect conclusions
   Confirmability
       degree to which others can confirm or corroborate the results
Unobtrusive Measures
   Indirect Measures
   The researcher collects data without the
    participant being aware of it
   Attention must be paid to ethical considerations
     Possibilityof deception
     Invasion of privacy

     No informed consent
Unobtrusive Measures (cont’d)
   Content Analysis
   Systematic analysis of text in order to identify
     Thematic   analysis of text
     Indexing

     Quantitative   descriptive analysis
Unobtrusive Measures (cont’d)
   Content Analysis (cont’d)
   May involve sampling from the population of
    potential texts
   Identification of units of analysis
   Coding of units of analysis
   Limitations
Unobtrusive Measures (cont’d)
   Secondary Analysis of Data
   Re-analysis of quantitative data
   May involve combining information from multiple
    data sets
   Can be used for replication or to subject data to
    other, more sophisticated analyses
   Limitations
Qualitative Research – some issues
Not everything that can be counted counts, and
not everything that counts can be counted
Albert Einstein
What do you know about
Qualitative Research?
    What have you heard or read about qualitative
     Easy to do
     Not scientific

     Subjective
What do you know about
Qualitative Research?
    What have you heard or read about qualitative
     Inductive: Finding a theory to explain one’s findings
     Interactive research compared to quantitative:
      spending time with respondents versus “drive byes.”
       Data collection   methods can be somewhat involved
Credibility of Qualitative Inquiry
   Dependent on three distinct but related inquiry
       Rigorous methods
         fieldwork = yields high quality data – which are
          systematically analyzed with attention to issues of
     Credibility   of the researcher
         Dependent on    training, experience, track record
     Philosophical     belief in the value of qualitative inquiry
                                         methods , inductive
         naturalistic inquiry, qualitative
          analysis, purposeful sampling, holistic thinking
Comparing Quantitative &
Qualitative Methodologies
   Which research methodology is represented by
    these characteristics (Qual. or quant.)?
     Purpose  of the study
     Pose problem/ raise Questions

     Define research population

     Develop time frame

     Collect & analyze data

     Present outcomes
Data Collection
   Once you have identified that a qualitative
    methodology best fits your research question,
    there are numerous data collection strategies to
    select from….
   Some considerations:
     Full & unqualified consent
     Site selection: Can be difficult. Knowing someone can
      help get you in
     Should have more than one way of collecting data –
     Establishing trust
Data Collection
   Some considerations:
     Access:
         Unqualified access = total access to the research site
         Qualified access = might need to select another research
         Informants: insider who knows environment/politics
         Gate keepers (e.g. principal; dept chair, Ad)
         Negotiating: Notes/data belong to you/respondent = confidentiality
         What will you deliver??? Drafts of research writing, final paper,
         Entering with a problem statement does not mean that it will
          remain the same throughout the data collection
               Emergent possibilities
   Possibilities & Pitfalls
     Anxiety producing

     Safeplaces
     Being unobtrusive
       Researcher wants   to be sure not to call attention to
        self…blending in is important…those observed should not
        even know your are there after a while
     Did   you come in with preconceived opinions?
   Possibilities & Pitfalls
     Establishing   & Maintaining rapport
       Rapport:  Appearance, speech, behavior, must be
        acceptable to research participants
       Know the others’ language
       Nonjudgmental
       Inoffensive
       Patient
       Sense of humor

     Subjectivity
   Observations
     How long are you going to be in the field?
     Field notes?

     Videotape?
         Can   be highly problematic in schools
Data Collection Types/Aspects
   Participant-Observation (wide range of
     Helps researcher develop “trusted person” status
     Allows researcher to observe how observed person’s
      actions correspond to observed person’ words
     Allows researcher to see the unexpected

     Assists in the development of interview questions –
      connecting to known behaviors you have observed
Data Collection Types/Aspects
   Continuum of Participant-Observation:
     Mostly  observation to mostly participation
     Where on the continuum you place yourself is directly
      related to the questions you are asking, context of
      study, and your theoretical framework
   Main Goal of Participant-Observation: To
    understand the research setting, participants and
    their behaviors
Data Collection Types/Aspects
   Participant-Observation Process:
     Systematic observation & detailed recordings of
     Constant analysis of observations – “What’s
      happening here?”
     Evidence of personal bias: Am I being judgmental?
Data Collection Types/Aspects
   Observation
       General methods…
         Studying  the setting
         Describing it in detail
         “Making the familiar strange.”
         What do you notice about the participants in their natural
         interactions? Comparing their words/beliefs to their
         Non verbal feedback? Gestures?
Field notes
   Notebook form
   Needs to be detailed & thorough
   Time consuming when done correctly
   Descriptive and analytic
Field notes
   Field notebook – primary recording tool (confidential)
   Describes environment, people, events, activities,
    interactions, researcher ideas, reflections, questions,
    exploring researcher bias
   After observation, researcher returns to notes to complete
    detailed summaries and expand upon observations
   Descriptive and analytic:
       Accuracy without being judgmental
       Such detail that you can visualize the moment a year later
Field Notes
   Poor example of Field Notes:
     “The class   was disorderly and noisy”
   Good example of Field Notes:
     “The 5th   grade class contained 15 girls and 12 boys.
      When I entered they were in groups of 6. One group
      of 4 girls were trying to see who could blow the
      biggest bubble with their gum. A group of 5 boys
      began imitating a martial arts movie they had seen on
Field Notes
   Analytic Notes:
     Observer comments
       Observer Comments  to researcher – informal statements
        the respondent makes
     Daily   reflection
       Thoughts, concerns the researcher has with the setting,
        study, emerging themes, etc.
     Researcher acknowledges      feelings, problems, ideas,
   Questions:
     Should   be reflective of observations
       What did   you learn as a participant-observer?
     Developing questions     - Where should your questions
     come from?
       Format?
       RAPPORT
       Structured?
       Open  Ended?
       Probing?
       Non- Verbal Messages from respondent
   Requires skill and practice
     Types of   questions asked (Patton, 2002)
       Experience and  behavior interview questions: What
        respondents do or have done
       Opinion and value questions: How respondents think
        about their behaviors and experiences
       Feeling questions: Questions that elicit how respondents
        react emotionally to or feel about their experiences and
       Continued…
  Types of   questions asked (Patton, 2002)
    Knowledge   questions: What respondents know about their
    Sensory questions: elicit descriptions of what and how they
     see, hear, touch, taste, smell the world around them
    Background and demographic questions: Quest. That elicit
     respondents’ descriptions of themselves
   Other aspects of interviews
     Key   informants: possess special knowledge
       May add  information that researcher would otherwise not
        have access too.
       Can sensitize the researcher to aspects of the particular
        culture being investigated
     Possibilities ofinterviews: rich data, etc.
     Possible pitfalls:
       Interruptions
       redirecting
       poor questions
       researchers inability to follow up/probe
   Sequencing of Questions
     facilitates   completeness/comprehensiveness
   Interviewing is not for everyone
     Nature of interactions will change
     Strengths/weaknesses

     Need to be a good listener

   Documents
   Where will interview occur?
       A convenient location for respondent?
       When will you meet? Time of day is important- tired /rushed
       How long do you anticipate it will last?
       How often will you meet?
       Audiotaped?
       Interruptions?
       Transcribing interviews-long , but meaningful process
   Documents:
       Curricular guides, newsletters, transcripts – corroborate
        observations/findings LEADING TO trustworthiness
Data Analysis
   Organizing what you have seen, heard, and read,
    so that you can make sense of what you have
   Ongoing throughout study:
     permitsresearcher to focus and shape the study as it
   Rudimentary Coding Scheme
     Counting  or enumerating items means they must
      defined and located within data records
     Categorizing; dividing & subdividing

     Field notes are coded, audiotapes are coded
Data Analysis
   Voluminous
   Computer programs
   Trustworthiness (Reflect on data –What is data
    telling you?)
     TRIANGULATION of      data sources
       Use of  multiple data collection techniques = data collected
        in 1 way can be cross checked for accuracy with another
       Prevents researcher from accepting to readily the validity
        of initial impressions
       Assists in correcting biases that occur when the researcher
        is the only observer
Data Analysis
   Trustworthiness (continued)
     Observations, interviews,documents, etc.
     Researcher bias – continual alertness

     Peer debriefer
       someone   who reads your field notes, transcriptions,
     Member Checks
           sources provided to participants for their review,
       data
        comments, expansion of thoughts
Telling the Story
   Maintaining confidentiality – Highest priority
   “Writing is a political act” (Glesne & Peshkin):
     Intended and  Unintended consequences
     Can respondents be subjected to unwanted publicity?

     Keeping at it….

   Include…Narratives/vignettes/direct quotations …
    support the claims one makes in their findings

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