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					Chapter 4: Packing of Goods

       商品的包装



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  A: Function of Packing
 Function of Packing
   Protect the goods in the circulation field
   Convenient for storing, taking care of,
    transporting, loading, unloading and calculating
   Strong packing can prevent the goods from being
    stolen and damaged
   Reasonable packing can lessen shipping space and
    save freight
   Marketing packing(销售包装) makes it convenient
    for consumers to select, carry, or use the goods
   Marketing packing can also beautify the
    commodity        School of International Economics
B: Kinds of Packing
 3 kinds of Cargoes:
 1. Nude Cargo
 2. Cargo in Bulk
 3. Packed Cargo




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B: Kinds of Packing
1. Nude Cargo (裸装货)
 Refers to those kinds of cargoes whose
  qualities are more stable. They are not easy to
  be influenced by outside circumstances and
  they become single pieces of their own. They
  are difficult to be packed or do not need any
  packing.
  Example: such as steel products, lead ingot(锭铁),
            timber(木材), rubber(橡胶), etc.
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B: Kinds of Packing
2. Cargo in Bulk (散装货)
 Refers to those cargoes which are
  shipped on the conveyance (运输工具) in
  bulk.
 Example: such as oil, ore (矿石), grain,
           coal, etc.


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B: Kinds of Packing
3. Packed Cargo (包装货)
 Refers to those which need shipping
  packing, marketing packing or both.
    Shipping Packing
    Marketing Packing




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B: Kinds of Packing
3.1 Shipping Packing (运输包装)
 Shipping packing is also called big packing
  (大包装) or outside packing (外包装).
    Single Piece Packing
    Collective Packing




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  3.1 Shipping Packing
 Single Piece Packing (单件包装)
 The cargoes are packed as a single unit, i.e., a
  measuring unit, in the transportation process.
   According to style: Cases, drums, bags, bales(大
    包), bundles(捆), etc.
   According to material: Cartons, wooden cases,
    iron drums, wooden casks(木桶), plastic casks,
    paper bags, gunny bags(麻布袋), plastic bags,
    etc.
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  3.1 Shipping Packing
 Collective Packing (集合包装)
 Collective packing is also called group shipping
  packing by which a certain number of single
  pieces are grouped together to form a big
  packing or are packed in a big container.
    Container
    Pallet
    Flexible Container

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Collective Packing
 Container (集装箱)
 A kind of tool used for transportation which
  can be thought of as a particular shipping
  packing of the cargo, and can be regarded
  as a component part of the conveyance as
  well, usually provided by the ship company
  to go around.
    8`x 8`x 20` feet container
    8`x 8`x 40` feet container
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Collective Packing
 Example of 20` Container (20英尺集装
  箱)




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  Container
 8`x 8`x 20` Feet Container (20英尺集装箱)
   Loading capacity: 18 M/T (max.)
   Volume: usu. 31- 35 cubic meters
   TEU (Twenty-feet Equivalent Unit)集装箱计算单位
      When calculating the circulating quantity of
       container, we often take the 20-feet
       container as a measuring unit, i.e., TEU to
       indicate it, it means “being equal to a 20-feet
       unit”.

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Collective Packing
 Example of Container (40英尺集装箱)




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 Container
 Kinds of Containers
 Dry Container: (普通集装箱,又
  称干货集装箱)
   Used for carrying general cargoes.



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Container
   Example of Dry Container




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 Container
 Kinds of Containers
 Refrigerator Container:(冷冻集
  装箱)
   There is freezing equipment in the
   container. The temperature can be
   adjusted from -28℃ ~ +26℃.

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Container
   Example of Refrigerator Container




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 Container
 Kinds of Containers
 Frame Container: (框架集装箱 )
   There is no top part and two flank walls on
   the container. Cargoes can be loaded into or
   lifted out of the container through the two
   side-frames.


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 Container
 Example of Frame Container: (框架集装箱 )




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 Container
 Kinds of Containers
 Open Top Container: (开顶集装箱 )
   The open top container does not have the
   top part. Cargoes can be loaded or unloaded
   through the top of the container by
   elevating equipment. It is suitable for
   carrying extra-big cargoes.

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Container
 Example of Open Top Container




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 Container
 Kinds of Containers
 Pen Container: (牲畜集装箱 )
   The two sides of this kind of container
   are covered by metal nets, which
   makes it convenient to feed the live-
   stock and ventilate (通风) the
   container.

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 Container
Example of Pen Container (牲畜集装
 箱)




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 Container
 Kinds of Containers
 Tank Container: (罐式集装箱 )
   The tank container is suitable for
   carrying liquid cargoes such as oil, etc.




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Container
Example of Tank Container




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 Container
 Kinds of Containers
 Platform Container: (平台集装箱 )
   Suitable for carrying extra-long and
   extra-heavy cargoes. The length can
   reach more than 6 meters and the
   weight more than 40M/T.



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Container
Example of Platform Container




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 Container
 Kinds of Containers
 Bulk Container: (散装货集装箱 )
  There are two or three openings on the top of this
   kind of container, which makes it convenient to load
   the cargo. There are elevating frames at the bottom
   of the container that can elevate at a sloping angle
   (倾角) of 40 degrees, which makes it convenient to
   unload the cargo.


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Container
Example of Bulk Container




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Collective Packing
 Pallet (托盘)
   A kind of single-layer (单层) or double-layer flat
    carrier which is made according to a certain
    specification.
   Certain quantities of single pieces are packed
    collectively on the flat carrier and tied up in the
    light of the requirements to form a shipping unit,
    which makes it convenient to load, unload, lift
    and pile the goods by using machinery in the
    shipping process.
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Collective Packing
 Sample of Pallet




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Collective Packing
 Flexible Container (集装袋)
  A kind of round-shaped or square-shaped
   bag woven with synthetic fibre(合成纤维)or
   compound material (混合材料).
  Suitable for powder or grain cargoes such
   as fertilizer(肥料,尤指化学肥料), ore(矿石),
   flour(面粉), sugar, cement(水泥), etc.



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Collective Packing
 Sample of Flexible Container




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B: Kinds of Packing
3.2 Marketing Packing (销售包装)
 Marketing packing is also called small
  packing (小包装或零售包装) or inner
  packing (内包装).
 3.2.1 Types of marketing packing:
    Patterns for display and sale
    Patterns for identification of the goods
    Patterns with the function of use
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   Types of Marketing Packing
 Patterns for display and sale (便于陈列展销
  类)
  Piling-up pattern:(堆叠式包装)
    There is a coinciding part at the top or bottom of the
     commodity packing. If one commodity is put on the
     top of the other, the two can tally with each other.
     This type can keep the commodities firm, and is
     suitable for super-markets to pile commodities up.
     Example: such as cans, bottles, boxes, etc.

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   Types of Marketing Packing
 Patterns for display and sale (便于陈列展销类)
  Hanging-up pattern:(挂式包装)
    The packing has a hanging hook(吊钩)or hole, or a
     pendent hand. Usually we have close-to-body
     packing(贴体包装), case-shaped packing, box-
     shaped packing, bag-shaped packing etc.
    This kind of packing can fully make use of space of
     shelves and greatly increase areas of displays and
     sale.

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   Types of Marketing Packing
 Patterns for display and sale (便于陈列展销
  类)
  Spreading-up pattern:(展开式包装)
    The goods have a special-structured cover. When
     the cover is opened, the picture on the other side of
     it sets off well with the commodity.




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   Types of Marketing Packing
 Patterns for identification of the goods
  (便于识别商品类)
  Transparent pattern and windowed pattern:
   (透明包装和”开窗”包装)
     The cargo is packed wholly or partly with
      transparent packing material or a windowed paper
      box which can make the consumers see the shape
      and quality of the goods directly.


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   Types of Marketing Packing
 Patterns for identification of the goods
  (便于识别商品类)
   Customary packing pattern: (习惯性包装)
     Using customary packing and modeling makes the
      buyers identify the quality of the commodity as soon
      as they see the packing.




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   Types of Marketing Packing
 Patterns with the Function of Use:
  (便于使用类)
  Pattern for carrying about: (携带式包装)
     The modeling of this type is suitable for carrying the
      goods.
  Pattern for easily opening:(易开包装)
     This type has the characteristic of being easily
      opened.
      Example: easily-opened cans, boxes, bottles, etc.
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   Types of Marketing Packing
 Patterns with the Function of Use:
  (便于使用类)
  Pattern for spraying out: (喷雾包装)
     This packing is a liquid sprayer. When we press the
      button, the liquid will spray out automatically.
     This style is suitable for everyday consumer goods
      and medicines.
      Example: such as perfume, etc.

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   Types of Marketing Packing
 Patterns with the Function of Use:
  (便于使用类)
  Pattern for forming a complete set: (配套包装)
     The goods of different kinds and specifications,
      which are usually used simultaneously, are arranged
      into a group to form a complete set and unified
      packing.
     Example: tea set, table ware, toy, etc.
  Pattern for showing off a gift:(礼品包装)
     This packing is specially designed for a certain gift.
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3.2 Marketing Packing (销售包装)
 3.2.2 Packaging (包装)
  Packaging is the main component of
   marketing packing.
  It plays a great role in beautifying the
   goods, attracting consumers, expanding
   sales, and raising selling prices.



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 Packaging (包装)
Demand for Packaging Design
  Marketing packing should be beautiful, novel,
   scientific, reasonable, colorful, and show the
   unique style of Chinese art.
  Packaging design should highlight the
   characteristic of the commodity.
  The word description of packaging and the picture
   should be well coordinated.
  Marks and brands should be used properly.
  Pay more attention to the stipulations and
   different habits and tastes towards packaging.
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  C. Packing Mark (包装标志)
Refers to different diagrams, words and
 figures which are written, printed, or
 brushed on the outside of the shipping
 packings.
     Shipping mark
     Indicative mark
     Warning mark
     Additional mark
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C. Packing Mark
Shipping Mark (运输标志,俗称唛头)
 Shipping marks make it convenient for
  identifying and transporting the goods and
  make it easy to count them out and check
  them out .
 Shipping marks should be simple, clear
  and easy to be identified.


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 Shipping Mark
 4 Parts of Shipping Marks
   Consignee’s code:(收件人代号)
     the consignee’s codes is usually indicated by
      different geometrical diagrams, such as
      triangles, diamonds, circles, etc. with letters
      inside them as the main marks.
   Consignor’s code (发货人代号)
   Destination (目的港名称)
   Package number (件号)
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Shipping Mark
 Sample:
                                           CT
                                           ABC
                                        Singapore
                                      Nos 1up – 100
                                           No.5

 Shipping mark can also                      ABCD
  include the contract                      LC536800
  number, gross and net
  weight, origin, etc.                     Hong Kong
                                           Nos 1-200
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C. Packing Mark
Indicative Mark (指示性标志)
 We usu. make use of remarkable diagrams
  and simple words to remind the relative
  workers of the items for attention when
  they load, unload, carry and store the
  goods.




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Indicative Mark
 Sample of Indicative Mark:




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C. Packing Mark
Warning Mark (警告性标志)
 Warning mark is also called dangerous
  cargo mark, which is brushed clearly and
  definitely on the shipping packings of the
  inflammable (易燃), explosive(爆炸品),
  poisonous, corrosive(腐蚀性的)or
  radioactive(放射性的)goods, so as to give
  warnings to the workers.

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Warning Mark
 Example of Warning Mark:




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Warning Mark
 “Warning Marks for Packing Dangerous
  Cargoes” (危险货物包装标志)promulgated in
  China
 “Warning Marks for International Ocean
  Transportation of Dangerous Cargoes” (国际
  海运危险品标志) promulgated by The United
  Nations Ocean Transportation Consultation
  Organization (联合国政府海事协商组织)


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C. Packing Mark
Additional Mark (附属标志)
 Sometimes, in accordance with the
  agreement entered into by the both parties
  or the regulations laid down by their
  countries respectively some additional
  marks are needed.




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 D: Neutral Packing and Brand
 Designated by the Buyer
 Neutral Packing (中性包装)
 There is neither a name of the origin, nor a
  name of the factory, nor a trade mark, a
  brand, or even any words on the packing
  of the commodity and the commodity
  itself.
 To break through different limitations and
  political discriminations of importing
  countries and areas
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 C : Neutral Packing and Brand
 Designated by the Buyer

 3 Kinds
 Accept the neutral packing with brands
  designated by the buyers
 Accept trade marks or brands designated
  by buyers from foreign countries, but
  indicate “made in China”
 Accept trade marks or brands and origins
  designated by the buyers
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E: Packing Clause in the Contract
The packing clause mainly stipulates:
     packing manner
     packing material
     packing expenses to be borne
     the shipping mark




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   E: Packing Clause in the Contract
Packing Manner and Packing Material
 (包装方式和包装材料)
  Determine the packing manner and packing
   material used, such as the material, dimension,
   weight of every single piece, filling material used,
   etc.
     Example: Packing: In new galvanized iron drums
                       of 175 Kg each, net.
  Avoid using “Seaworthy packing” ,(适合海运包
   装) “Customary packing”,(按惯常方式包装)
   etc.
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   E: Packing Clause in the Contract
Example:
  “To be packed in new strong wooden case suitable for
   long distance ocean transportation and well protected
   against dampness, moisture, shock, rust and rough
   handling(防潮,防湿,防震,防绣,并耐受粗暴搬运). The
   sellers shall be liable for any damage to the goods on
   account of improper packing and for any rust damage
   attributable to inadequate or improper protective
   measures taken by the sellers, and in such case or
   cases any and all losses and/or expenses incurred in
   consequence there of shall be borne by the Sellers.”
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E: Packing Clause in the Contract
Example:
 “须用坚固的新木箱包装,适合长途海运,
  防湿,防潮,防震,防绣,并耐受粗暴搬运. 凡
  由于包装不良所造成的损失和费用或由于
  防护措施不妥发生锈损所造成的损失和费
  用均应由卖方承担.”



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   E: Packing Clause in the Contract
Packing Expense to Be Borne
  The packing expense is included in the price of
   the cargo
  The packing expense is not included in the price
   of the cargo or partly included.




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  E: Packing Clause in the Contract
Shipping Marks
 Shipping marks are usu. to be designated by
  the buyer
 N/M: No Marks




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