ANIMAL FARM, 1945
Aim of the novel: to write a satire
of Russian Revolution
Genre: animal fable
INITIAL SITUATION: The oldest pig
on the farm reports dreaming of
an animal revolution.
DEVELOPMENT: The pigs, regarded
as the most intelligent animals, create
a new system called animalism and
chase Man. The animals write seven
commandments and a national
and conflict ensue between
two leaders, SNOWBALL and
The latter takes CONTROL
The seven commandments
are BETRAYED and so is the
END: the pigs behave like
human beings and it is
impossible to tell the
Whatever goes upon two legs is
Whatever goes upon four legs, or
has wings, is a friend.
No animal shall wear clothes.
No animal shall sleep in a bed.
No animal shall drink alcohol.
No animal shall kill any other
All animals are equal
FOUR LEGS GOOD, TWO LEGS BAD
No animal shall sleep in a bed with
No animal shall drink alcohol to excess.
No animal shall kill any other animal
Final and only commandment:
All animals are equal but some animals
are more equal than others.
FOUR LEGS GOOD, TWO LEGS BETTER
Napoleon=Stalin: not a great speaker, no active role in the
revolution, power-thirsty with the help of the dogs.
Snowball=Trotsky: charismatic speaker and leader, caring and
Squealer: loyal to Napoleon, excellent speaker and manipulator
Boxer=Stachanov: embodies both qualities and problemsof the
Old Major=Marx/Lenin. He has the premonition of a new
system, he can be considered a middle class pig, due to his
Clover: good and motherly horse ,symbol of the working animals.
All the action is seen from her point of view.
Moses: symbolizes religion and is the favourite of Mr Jones.
Mr Jones: the drunk owner of the farm, represents the Czar.
Mollie: the mare who pulls Mr Jones’s carriage. She is vain and
represents the bourgeoisie loyal to the Czar.
The dogs: the secret police.
Other farm owners:
Mr Pilkington= England/ USA
Minimus: a poet
THE WINDMILL= the means through which Napoleon
exerts control. It stands for purposeless effort.
THE ALTERATION OF THE Commandments =
manipulation of history and of individual memory.
EMPTY SYMBOLS = Mirror the emptiness of the
animals’ life and of the false promises made by
The skull of the Old Mayor (the frame of the
revolution) with the flesh and the brains (the
theory, the spirit of the revolution) which have
decayed. The theory is dead as is the head of its
The green flag with a horn and a hoof (Animals
conquering the green fields of England) is
replaced by a totally green flag, becoming another
hollow symbol(the fields of England).
Beasts of England an anthem taught by Old
Major, foreseeing a better society, is replaced by
one celebrating the beauty of animal farm.
Orwell was a socialist but his view of Socialism differed from Marx’s.
-Animalism is based on the theories of old major, a prize winning boar,
who had a longer and better life than the majority of the animals.
-Marx believed in an educated proletariat,
-Moses represents the church: he spreads ideas of a better life after
death, he goes away with the revolution then returns when Napoleon
has gained power. Unlike Marx, Orwell believed some people will always
turn to religion.
-Orwell criticized the violent methods with which the revolution is
-Men will always be attracted to private property
-He wanted revlutionary change to occur and revolution to spread, but
he didn’t believe revolution would ever succeed