Shin by ajizai

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									Korea Bicycle Transportation:
       Trends and Safety

            April 7 , 2011




                                       Shin Ph D
                             Hee Cheol Shin, Ph.D.
              Contents

1   Bicycle Transportation Situation


2   Korea Cycling Promotion Policies


3   Trends of Cycling Safety in Korea
                                                                                                                  Bicycle Transportation Situation


            Bicycle Infrastructure of Korea
                 Bicycle paths : 1,427km
                     Separate from Vehicles and Pedestrians
                 Bicycle lanes : 189km
                      lane at th right side of th road
                     Al     t the i ht id f the      d
                 Bicycle –pedestrian mixed ways: 9,770km
                                                          pedestrians
                      Separate from vehicles but mix with p
                        p

                                                                                                             85.8%




                                      12.5%
                                                                      1.7%


                               Bicycle ways                  Bicycle lanes              Bicycle-Pedestrian ways
                                                                                                                                               3
Source: data obtained from Korea Ministry of Public Administration and Security, 2009
                                                                                                    Bicycle Transportation Situation

        Comparison of Bicycle Mode Share
                 by Countries
                                                                                                                         27%




                                                                                                                   18%


                                              KOREA 1.2%
                                                                                                             11%
                                                                                                   10% 10%
                                                                                              8%
                                                                                         6%
                                                                                    5%
                                                                               4%
                                                                     3%   3%
                                                           2%   2%
                                 1%    1%     1%     1%




                                                          Bi   l h       fti
                                                          Bicycle share of trips (%)

                                                                                                                                 4
Source: data quoted from Pucher and Buehler (2008)
Policy                                                                    Korea Cycling
History                                                                   Policies

                  The 1st National Plan
          Formulated the campaign plan for cycle use (April 1993)

           Ministry responsible: Ministry of Home Affaires
           Origin of Ministerial Directives for development of cycle infrastructures



          Promulgated the Law for Cycle Use Activating (Jan. 1995)

           Ministry responsible: Ministry of Home Affaires
           O i i of implementing ordinance and enforcement regulation
           Origin f i l       ti     di         d f        t   l ti


          Announced national cycling use activating plan

           Ministry responsible: Ministry of Home Affairs
           5 years plan focused on infrastructures




                                                                                          5
Policy History                                                               Korea Cycling
                                                                             Policies

                       The 2nd National Plan
             Announced the Second national plan for cycling use activating

                 Ministry responsible: M. of Government Administration and Home Affairs
                 Based on the assessment of 1st national plan


             Some briefs of the Assessment of 1st national plan

                 Modal share increased: 1.85%for 1995, 2.4% for 2002
                 Total budgets used: 478 billion won (
                           g                                     %,         %)
                                                     (National 30%, Local 70%)
                 Infrastructures: Bikeway 4,419km / Cycle parking for 190,000 cycles


             Objectives of 2nd national p
               j                        plan

                 Budgets: 500 billion won (National 40%, Local 40%, Other 20%)
                 Infrastructures: Bikeway 4,000km, cycle parking for 80,000 cycles
                 New: National campaign, education for safety


                                                                                             6
Policy History                                                                   Korea Cycling
                                                                                 Policies

                 New National Initiative Plan
             Lee Myung-bak administration announced new era

                  Announced green growth strategy (Aug. 2008)
                  National Initiative plan was released (Jan. 2009)


                 New national initiative plan

                  Modal share target: 5% for 2012
                  Total budgets: 1.2 trillion won (national only, local independently)
                  Infrastructures target: Bikeway17,000km for 2019


                 Bicycle master p a
                   cyc e aste plan

                  Comprehensive master plan was finalized last year
                  Central government focuses on bike for urban transportation use
                  Includes not only infrastructure but also campaign, education etc.


                                                                                                 7
Institution                                                          Korea Cycling
                                                                     Policies
 Who is in charge of bicycle matters?

          • Ministry of Public Administration • Ministry of Culture, Sports and
          and Security: General bicycle       Tourism: Promotion of bicycle
          matters                             atheletics

                        Land,
          • Ministry of Land Transport and    • Ministry of Knowledge Economy:
          Maritime Affairs: Infrastructure    Bicycle industry


          • Ministry of Environment:         •National Police Agency: Bicycle
          Environment matters of bicycle(air safety
          pollution)


                      No integrated policy


                                                                                     8
Masterplan                                                      Korea Cycling
                                                                Policies

    Policy Direction
        Objectives




         Modal share             Infrastructure                   p
                                                          Ownership


         Strategie
            s
     Legal / Institutional      Infrastructure         Public awareness
       Mandate facilities       Bike facilities         Campaigns
       Safety and regulations   Utility bikeways        Education & promotion
       Bi   l insurance
       Bicycle i                National bik network
                                N ti      l bike t k


                                                                                9
Masterplan                                                                                     Korea Cycling
                                                                                               Policies
  Bicycle Master Plan
          Visions and Objectives (target year of 2019)
        Vision 1. Easy & safety                                   Vision 4. Environment
       Build safe bikeways                                         Improve bike environments

       • decrease 30% of bike accidents                            • decrease 30% of air pollution

       • build 30,000km of bikeways

      Vision 2. Efficiency
                                                 VISION
                                                                          Vision 5. Economy
      Increase bike mode share
                                                  2019
                                                                          Stimulate regional economy
      • achieve 10% of bike mode share

      • achieve 30% of commuting ratio
                                                    6E                    related with tourism
                                                                          • achieve 20% of bike tourism among total



                         g
         Vision 3. Exchange
                                                               6.
                                                        Vision 6 Experience
         Integrate with other transit modes
                                                        10 pilot cities chosen, and
         • secure central government subsidies of 50%
                                                        expands the experiences to
                                                        other cities
          increase 100% t
         •i                  f i       ti
                        transferring ratio              • achieve 15% of bike mode share for
                                                        pilot cities (2012)

                                                                                                                  10
Masterplan                                                                      Korea Cycling
                                                                                Policies
Contents and Objectives of the Master Plan
                                  Urban       Objective 01 _ connected with urban development
                               development    Objective 02 _ promote pilot cities

                                              Obj ti 03 _ i t
                                              Objective          t   ith t    it
                                                          integrate with transit
             Infrastructure      Facilities   Objective 04 _ supply safe bike stations
                                              Objective 05 _ supply Public Bike System

                               Management     Objective 06 _ manage high quality bikeways


                                              Objective 07 _ provide education standard
                                Education
                                              Objective 08 _ develop education program
      Safety and Stimulation
                                              Objective 09 _ marketing
                                Stimulation
                                              Objective 10 _ planning related with tourism


                                              Objective 11 _ revise acts related with bicycles
                                Legislation
                                              Objective 12 _ refine roles of ministries


      Legislation and Policy   Coordinative   Objective 13 _ consultative group for implementation
                                committee     Objective 14 _ expert group for guidelines

                               Evaluation
                                              Objective 15 _ evaluate and monitor bike policies
                               & monitoring

                                                                                                     11
Masterplan                                                                        Korea Cycling
                                                                                  Policies
                National Bicycle Policy Framework
    Central         National land use plan          Bicycle master plan
  government


                  Metropolitan transportation                                 Environmental assessment
                             plan                   Transportation plan

  Master plan                                                                  Landscape Master plan
                           City plan            Comprehensive Bicycle plan
                                                                              Green space master plan




    Local                                       Local area development plan      Bicycle Master plan
  government




                    City management plan
                                                   Bicycle Infrastructure

    Urban            Urban development
  development             Projects                      Incentives
                                                                                  Bicycle model city
                                  Transport
                   City plan                            BTL, BTO
                                    plan




                                                                                                         12
Masterplan                                         Korea Cycling
                                                   Policies
             Public Transport and Bicycle
      Integrate with transit   Safe bike station   PBS




                                                                   13
U-Bike                                                                   Korea Cycling
                                                                         Policies

             Deployment of PBS in Korea
         Changwon                                   Goyang
    Nubija t t d in Oct.       ith    t ti      d
  • N bij started i O t 2008 with 20 stations and
                                                    • ‘FIFTEEN’ opened in March 2010
    430 bikes
                                                    • Now 125 stations and 3,000 bikes
  • Now 119 stations and 2,030 bikes
                                                     • Used by members 2 times a day
  • Used by 43,000 members 4 times a day




                                                                                         14
U-Bike                                                                      Korea Cycling
                                                                            Policies



   U-Bike System
         • Public Bike System (PBS)
           - PBS has been validated worldwide, so is popular in Korea
           - Every Korean city is trying to introduce Velib-style smart PBS
           - Central government is building standards to make adjacent PBS compatible
         • AND what else?
           - Because of short distance characteristics, we are focusing on transfer
             system to transit
           - How to increase? PBS and U-Bike System
         • U-Bike System
           -K      h       ll    i
             Korea has a well-equipped transfer system between transit
                                     dt     f      t   b t      t     it
           - T-money system is a transfer system without extra charge using RFID tech
           - We want to apply T-money system to bicycle; transfer without extra charge
           - And green mileage or eco-mileage will be applied
             And,                  eco mileage


                                                                                            15
U-Bike                                                                 Korea Cycling
                                                                       Policies

                    U Bike
                    U-Bike City for BTOD/BOD
            U-Bike City
         • Apply ubiquitous technology to link bicycle and transit system
         • Select 10 cities for pilot program and focus national efforts

                                                                                Work




               Personal                    Subway                 Public Bike
               Bike

         Transfer
                          Transfer                          Transfer            School


               Public Bike           Bus              Bus          Walking
                                           Bus Stop




                                                                                         16
BOD                                                                            Korea Cycling
                                                                               Policies
Bicycle Oriented Transportation System

      Build effective urban transportation system by inducing bicycle travel
      whenever it is possible or preferable




                Source : German National Cycling Plan 2002-2012, 2002.
                                                                                               17
BOD                                                              Korea Cycling
                                                                 Policies


  BTOD& BOD
  Category              TOD                     BTOD                   BOD
                  Transit Oriented        Bicycle and Transit     Bicycle Oriented
  Concept
                   Development           Oriented Development      Development

      Focus            Transit            Bicycle and Transit         Bicycle


      Center   Transit Transfer Center    B-T Transfer Center      Bicycle Node

   Urban
               Central B i    A
               C t l Business Area       Central B i
                                         C t l Business Area
                                                        A        Multi-Community
                                                                 M lti C     it
  Structure
  Landscap
     e
       Size      Big and/or medium        Big and/or medium     Small and/or medium



      Model


                                                                                     18
BOD                                                               Korea Cycling
                                                                  Policies
 Relation among TOD, BTOD and BOD

 Use of
 Transit
                              Bicycle and Transit
                              Bi   l    dT     it     Change from TOD to BTOD by
           Transit Oriented        Oriented           strengthening bicycle
             Development         Development
                (TOD)                (BTOD)           Change from BOD in small town
                                                      to BTOD for medium sized city
                                                      when we focus more on transit




            Car Oriented        Bicycle Oriented
            Development          Development
                                     (BOD)




                                     Use of Bicycle


                                                                                  19
Information                                                    Korea Cycling
                                                               Policies
    Bicycle Portal Information
                        (Web + App )
      Non-location based             Location based
         information                  information


    • General information of
                               • Access and update bicycle             Smart-phone
      bicycle use
                                 infrastructure information
    • Bicycle policies
                               • Real time weather condition
    • Online community
                               • Guide public bike system
    • Bicycle news and
                                 Station
      issues
                               • Route information
    • Bikeway maps
                               • Navigation
                               • Guide travelers




                                Webpage                                          20
Information                                                             Korea Cycling
                                                                        Policies


              Smart Phone Based Service
       Bicycle route navigation

                                                 • Bicycle routes guidance with GIS map
                                                 • Mobile Augmented Reality Techniques




                                                     PBS information Application




          Now Biking (I-phone app)
        • Guide PBS Station
          (distance, direction,
          (distance direction capacity
           and inventories)
        • Guide public transportation stations
                                                                                          21
Infrastructure                                                                                    Korea Cycling
                                                                                                  Policies

                          Types of Implementation
                  Type                            Context             Responsibility             Purpose
                                            Near
                                            N DMZ and     d             Mi i
                                                                        Ministry of
                                                                                  f         F connection and
                                                                                            For         ti    d
               National                                                Public Admin
                                          along coastal lines                                 utility/leisure
          4 Rivers Route                  Along the 4 rivers          Ministry of Land   For connection and leisure
                                                                        Ministry of
         Regional Route                  Community border              Public Admin
                                                                                         For connection and leisure
                                             Urban and
        Municipal Route                                                Municipality            Utility/leisure
                                          metropolitan areas




       National Circular Route   4 Rivers Route     Municipal Route   Regional Route




                                                                                                                      22
Infrastructure                                                                           Korea Cycling
                                                                                         Policies
     Examples of Cycle-friendly Plannin
                    g



                    Road-diet (City of Incheon)      Compact and NMT-friendly development (Cheonggye Stream)




                 Traffic calming (Insadong Street)   Bicycle-friendly city (City of Changwon)

                                                                                                          23
Bicycle Safety Stats                                                   Trends of Cycling Safety in Korea


    Traffic Accidents

         Traffic  id t f K        h    k td        i    i
         T ffi accidents of Korea have kept decreasing since 2000
         Deaths from traffic accidents: 10,236 (2000) ⇒ 5,870 (2008)
Bicycle Safety Stats                                               Trends of Cycling Safety in Korea


                       Bicycle Accidents

         Number of bicycle accidents (2001 ~ 2007)


       9,000
       9 000
                                                                            8,790
       8,500
       8,000                                                   7,976
       7,500
       7 500
       7,000
                                                    6,753
       6,500
                   6,235
       6,000
       6 000                             6,024
                                         6 024
       5,500                  5,560
       5,000
                2001       2002       2003       2004       2005        2007



                                                                                              25
Bicycle Safety Stats                                                                      Trends of Cycling Safety in Korea


            Features of Bicycle Accidents
               Fatality trend

            • 29 Higher fatality than other accidents
            • deaths per 1000 accidents (2008)

             Deaths/injured ratio
            • Much higher than other accidents – high fatality
            • 34 deaths per 1000 injured (2008)
            • Compared with 17 deaths per 1000 injured for total traffic

                    Fatality comparison between                  Deaths/Injured ratio of Total accident and Bicycle accident
                 Total accident and Bicycle accident                              0.037
                  0.037                                         0.040                                        0.034
     0.04                          0.035
    0.035                                              0.029    0.030
     0.03
    0.025                          0.029                                          0.018                      0.017
                                                       0.027    0.020
     0.02
    0.015
                                             Total Accident     0.010
     0.01                                                                                                     Total Accident
    0.005                                    Bicycle Accident                                                 Bicycle Accident
       0                                                        0.000
                  2006             2007                2008                       2007                       2008
Bicycle Safety Stats                        Trends of Cycling Safety in Korea

               Comparison of Bicycle Traffic
                 Fatalities by Countries
                 F li i b C          i
        Fatalities/1,000,000 bicycle trip




                                                                       27
Institution                                                        Trends of Cycling Safety in Korea

 Who is in charge of bicycle safety?

              • National Police Agency
                                                                                safety.
                                               is responsible for every traffic safety


              • Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs
                                              is responsible for safety facilities.


              • Ministry of Public Administration and Security
                                               is responsible for safety promotion.


                         Need coordinating institute



                                                                                              28
Institution                                     Trends of Cycling Safety in Korea

 Bicycle Accident Data Flow
              Raw data    Accident database     Fatality database


         Police Station         TAMS                   TAAS


        Each li
      • E h police
                          • National Police
         station                                • Road Traffic
                             Agency
                                                   Authority
      • Registered
                          • Every registered
      traffic                                   • Fatality traffic
                             traffic accident
         accidents                                 accident data
                             data
      • Very details                            • 35 items
                          • 65 items
         (paper sheets)
                                                  O    t    bli
                                                  Open to public
          Confidential    Not open to public      taas.koroad.or.kr
                                                                           29
Goal and Strategy                                           Trends of Cycling Safety in Korea



                                  or            pe ea
                              180 o less deaths per year




     Land Use              Integrated land use with transportation


     Transport           Integrated bicycle policy in transportation




                    Infrastructure                             Education
      Bicycle                              Institution
                                                               /Marketing



                                                                       30
Goal and Strategy                                      Trends of Cycling Safety in Korea




          Strategy

        S f t f      d infrastructure planning and management
        Safety-focused i f t t         l   i     d          t
       - Monitoring system and feedback procedure
          pg
       - Upgrade infrastructure standards
       - Build more infrastructure


        Integrate transportation and land use
       - Reduce speed limit
                       g
       - Traffic calming


        Promote bicycle culture for safety by legal, institutional and marketing
Thank you




            32

								
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