Moral - Ethics – Communities Sociological Perspectives of

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					:: Moral - Ethics – Communities ::
Sociological Perspectives of Moral Dimensions
       inside the Globalisation Process
         Moral – Approaches I
The Philosophical Approach:
Social Coherence and Individual Subjective Utilities
and Egoismn (Thomas Hobbes)

Unvisible-Hand-Explanation (The Scottish Moral
Philosophers, Adam Smith and David Ricardo),
individual benefit will lead to general welfare

Contracts, Convention and Constitutions, The
French Line (Montesquieu)
         Moral – Approaches II
The German Classics: Kant categorical
imperative, Hegel (Bewusstsein -> Sein;
Marx, Sein-> Bewusstsein)


The relevance of the German Philosophy about
Moral is the inclusion of the French tradition of
enligthenment and literacy to more social aspects
of social communities (sociology Spencer et al.,
constructivsm Schütz, Husserl et al.)
• The sociological Approach
  Social Systems and construction of
      Moral Beliefs and Systems

• Social Systems needs individual restrictions by
  shared common rules (values and norms)
• These restrictions have to legitimated by all
  involved people (democracy)
• Moral is a social construction, depends of
  culture and socialisation (civilization)
         Definition Approaches
• Definition of Moral: Conventions about
  common rules of living together in one society
• Definition of Ethics: Individual Belief in these
  Moral Standard(s)
• Best moral is, when people internalized the
  societal moral beliefs as their own beliefs
  (socialisation)
       Differentiation of Moral
• Modern Societies hold different Moral
  Standards in the Subsystems with different
  codes:
• Society (law)
• Community (Religion, Sexuality, Subcultures)
• Politics and Professions (Ethos)
• Science (Truth)
• Economy (common welfare, benefit)
      The Process of Civilisation
• First moral standards were performed by
  religion. „Moral is God“ and „Follow your
  leader“
• Moral get more and more individual and more
  self-responsible
• Moral subsystems appears on the scene
  (Human rights, social rights, political rights)
   The Process of Rationalisation
• Progress in science delegitimated moral
  mythos and historical standards (Max Weber)
• Science will substitute moral
• Discussion: Rationalisation will going back to
  individual egoism or is moral rational?
• Process of globalisation bring in competition
  between different moral standards
           Civic Society




4th Samara Winterschool >>>>>>>>>
                Civic Society
• Rationalisation and Civilisation will lead to
  Civic Society (Habermas)
• Civic Society means participation will get new
  moral standard in individual value orientation
• The way to Civic Society are discourses and
  deliberative democracy, i.e. civic culture
  (Nie+Verba, Lazarsfeld) in partizipation
  (highest level of direct democracy)
        Analytical Deliberation
• Definition of Deliberation:
• Common public discourses with the following
  properities: transparent decision making, all
  arguments on the top, fair discussion of
  advantages und disadvantages, risks and
  benefits, open-mind process
• Examples: america speaks, GM Nation, Nano-
  Nation, Future, Citizen Panels a.s.o.
www.americaspeaks.org
     University of Stuttgart
      Department for Social Sciences
Institute of Technological Assessment and
        Protection of Environment
          Chair Dr. Uwe Pfenning

				
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posted:10/29/2012
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