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Misug Jin - Knowledge Economy Network

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					Brain Circulation : Korean Experience



                 Misug JIN
                Senior Fellow
    Korea Research Institute for Vocational
       Education and Training(KRIVET)
         <Contents>

I.     Introduction


II.    Brain Circulation in Korea

III.   Policy Direction

IV.    Strategies


                 2
Ⅰ. Introduction
      Why the issue, international mobility
        of Human resources important?

  • Advancement to knowledge-based economy->
    high skills and knowledge-> the highly Skilled in
    R&D and service area
      •


    ‘The Highly skilled HR really matter’

  • Increased the international mobility of the highly
    skilled.

                      War for Talents

                              3
The Change of perspective on the international mobility
                of the highly skilled


                  Brain Drain             Brain Circulation

                                      Advan. ↔ Advan.
Direction    Developing → Advan.
                                      Advan. ↔ developing


Benefits     Win – or – Lose          Win – Win


 Pattern     Permanent                Multiple, Transitional


             Return home / Blocking   Global Collaboration
Strategies
             Brain drain              ‘Diaspora’



                                4
        Sending countries                     Receiving countries

    Positive effect                                     Positive effect
                                          •Increased R&D/economic activity
•Brain gain by return of natives
                                           Entrepreneurship
•Increased ties to global networks
                                          •Foster diversity and creativity
•Remittances and venture capital
                                          •Export technology
 from diaspora networks
                                          •Increased enrolment in graduate
•Increased incentive for natives to
                                           programmes
 see higher skills
                                          •Wage moderation


    Negative effect                                     Negative effect

                                          •Decreased incentive of natives to
                                           train higher skills
•Shortage of HR
                                          •Crowd out native students from
•Lower returns from public
                                           best schools
 investment in tertiary education
                                          •Technology transfers to foreign
                                           competitors

                                      5
              GLOBAL EFFECTS


• Development knowledge and R&D by
  better international flows of knowledge

• Better job matches,

• Increase individual human capital
  investments.


                        6
II. Brain Circulation in Korea

  1. From Brain Gain country to Brain Circulation one

                    Foreign        Domestic           Total        % of foreign
                     Ph.Ds          Ph.Ds             Ph.Ds           Ph.D

      ‘80-’84         1,513           3,656           5,169             29.3

      ‘85-’89         3,462           9,899           13,361            25.9

      ‘90-’94         7,028           17,550          24,578            40.4

      ‘95-’99         8,167           24,964          33,131            32.7

      ‘00-’04         7,815           36,374          44,189            21.5


 • Korea: one of the brain gain countries: by sending and returning
 • Starting to receive foreign students: In 2006, 2,173 foreign students in doctoral
   program in Korea. 2% of all graduate programs
                                              7
Comprehensive Korean Policies in 1970s for
attracting expatriate S&Es: It did Work!!
 • Provided excellent job opportunities
   -Establish national research centers such as
     KIST(Korea Institute for Science and Technology)
     or KDI(Korea Development Institute) and
     KAIST(Korea Advanced Institute for Science and
     Technology)
   -Intensive Support(higher salary)
 • Provide Housing and excellent Opportunities
   for children’s education
   -best elementary schools under best universities
 • Respect for S&E as patriots by government
  -Strong Will of the Powerful President
     But not any more      8
2. The number of Korean Ph.Ds in USA



 • During last 20 years, about 1,300-1,500 Korean Ph.Ds a year

 • The second largest foreign countries

      –    3%of Total US Ph.Ds.

      –    20%of foreign Ph.Ds ( China → Korea)

 • 700-900 Ph. Ds a year in S&T-60%

 • Of total Korean expatriate Ph.D, US doctorate more than
   60%




                                  9
             The trend of Korean Ph.Ds of total US Ph.Ds

1600                                                                                                              45000


1400                                                                                                              40000


                                                                                                                  35000
1200

                                                                                                                  30000
1000

                                                                                                                  25000
800
                                                                                                                  20000

600
                                                                                                                  15000

400
                                                                                                                  10000


200                                                                                                               5000


  0                                                                                                               0
       Year 1965 1967 1969 1971 1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003
                                                   Korean          Total




                                                          10
  Characteristics of Korean Ph.D


• Selected Human Resources
  - From high family SES
  - Selective Colleges gradauated

• High Satisfaction on US Graduate
 Programs:
  - Quality of curriculum
  - Financial assistance

                  11
      Comparison of Satisfaction of
Graduate Programs of Korean and US Ph.Ds

                                                                               2.65
C o u ns e l i ng & I nf o .                                                          2.89


                                                                        2.42
         R A / T A s hip                                                                                  3.6


                                                                                2.73
        S cho la r s hip
                                                                                                         3.53


                                                                                           2.98
             F a cilit ies                                                                        3.35


                                                                                     2.84
  R es ea r ch G uid e
                                                                                                        3.49


                                                                              2.6
             T e a c h i ng                                                                        3.39


                                                                               2.64
           Cur r iculum                                                                             3.42


                                                                              2.58
                      La b
                                                                                                  3.3


                                                                                     2.82
               Co ur s es                                                                          3.37


                               0   0.5    1         1.5        2        2.5            3           3.5          4


                                         US P h.D    K o r ea n P h.D

                                                          12
  3. The     Return Plan of Korean Ph.Ds
• The proportion to plan to return home on completing degree has been decreased
• 2004, 26% of S&T; 46% of Non S&T
             (% )
            80.0


            70.0   73.0   72.6   71.7
                                        69.5
            60.0
                                                60.4    59.1
                                                                    57.3
            50.0                                                                  53.0
                   49.9   49.8                                             50.5
                                 47.2
                                                                                         45.6
            40.0

                                        37.7
            30.0
                                                29.0
                                                        25.5                             26.1
            20.0                                                                  24.6
                                                                    19.8
                                                                           17.8
            10.0


             0.0
                   1995   1996   1997   1998    1999    2000        2001   2002   2003   2004

                                               S&T     N on S & T

                          Return Plan on Completion of Ph.D
                                               13
      Stay plan rate of selected countries

      • High: China, India
      • Low: Japan, Taiwan, South Africa.
100




                                                    China
                                                    India


80




                                                    Korea



60
                                                    Japan
                                                    Taiwan



                                                    South Africa



40
      1999      2000      2001      2002     2003            2004
                           14
4. Actual Return Rate of Korean Ph.Ds

• Actual return rate : 5 years after degree completion
• 66% of 1998 Ph.D Cohort, 89% in 1992-93 cohort.
• Much higher than the return plan rate, 40%

 Stay Rates
    60%


    50%


    40%


    30%


    20%


    10%


    0%
              1yr .        2yr .            3yr .             4yr .        5yr .aft e r
                                                                            de gr e e
                                                                         c ompl e t i on
          98 c o h o r t   96 c o h o r t       94/95 c o h o r t     92/93 c o h o r t



                                               15
5. The Interpretation of the trend of
Korean Ph.Ds Stay Rates


  From Korean government perspective,
   is this return rate too low to be worried?
        Difficult to evaluate!
        Dependent on three questions;
         1) Who are staying and why?
        2) Permanent or Temporary?
        3) The quantity and Quality of
  Collaboration and
           Linkage of expatriate Ph.Ds with home
  colleagues
                         16
                Lower than other foreign countries
         One third of Chinese, Indian Ph.Ds’ stay rates
                    Not too high rate of stay


                  Stay Rates of foreign Ph.Ds in USA
            5 years after degree completion by countries                  (%)

                        1987/88       1990/91      1992/93      1994/95         1996       1998

   China                   65            88           92           91           96         90

   India                   72            79           83           87           86         86

  Taiwan                   47            42           36           42           40         47

   Japan                   17            13           21           27           24         37

   Korea                   17            11            9           15           21         34

All countries              41            47           53           51           56         61

    Sources: Finn,M(2001-2005).Stay Rate Foreign Doctorate Recipients from US University




                                            17
                  Postpone Returning:
       High proportion of Post-doc of Korean Ph.Ds



• 75% of Ph.Ds in S&T received (or plan to receive) Post-doc.

• Of Post-doc planner, 90% choose for Post-doc program in USA
  → Post-doc makes one factor to postpone the return of
    Korean Ph.Ds
  → High Proportion of Ph.Ds reveals preference to work in
    higher education




                               18
6. Factors of Returning (Staying abroad)
Complex factors :cultural, educational as well as   One out of
                                                    five Ph.Ds said
economic factor:
                                                    I have to return
           Pulling factors                          for my parent
                                                               Now, I’ d like to go
                                                               home and to do
      • Favorable Job Market                                   service for my
                                                               homeland—expatriate

      • Cultural factors: patriotism,                          scientists in his early
                                                    family-duties
                                                               fifities
           Pushing factors

      •   Research Condition facilities,
      •   Work (research) climate or environment
      •   Quality of Education for children
      •   Quality of life: environment, housing costs


                                    19
          Better working condition for Ph.Ds in USA



• The relatedness of work to                 The level of job’s requirement
  their specialty is higher

• The level of work requirement                                                                  7 .4 %

  is more relevant to doctoral           Ph.Ds stay ing
                                            in USA
                                                                     7 3 .4 %             1 9 .1 %

  degree

• Higher job satisfaction

• Especially low job satisfaction             Returned
                                               Ph.Ds
                                                                    6 7 .7 %              3 2 .3 % 0 .0 %

  for Ph.Ds employed in Korean
  companies
                                                          0%   20%      40%     60%   80%            100%

                                           Ph.D   lower than Ph.D      higher than Ph.D




                                    20
              If you had returned,
what happen to your research and quality of life…


              [Research Productivity]

   Lower        Same           Higher   Others

    71.3         22.3            2.8     3.7



                  [Quality of Life]


   Lower        Same           Higher   Others

   54.6%         34.3          8.3 %     2.8%




                         21
Reason to move to foreign countries of returned Ph.Ds


 Reason                                        (%)

 More Job opportunities                       10.3

 Higher income                                 3.8

 Better working (research) environment        46.2

 For professional development                 14.1

 For children’s better education              19.2

 To live permanently                           6.4

                    Total                     100.0




                              22
III. Policy Direction


        Brain Gain              Brain Circulation
                            • Open, global sourcing
 • Closed, nationalistic    • Utilization as well
 • Recruiting only
                            • Quality
 • Quantity
                            • long-term and
 • Short-term and             comprehensive HR
   disparate policies
                              policies
  -Buying HR
                                -Buying and Making HR




                           23
IV. Strategies


      Strengthen the competitiveness of
 1    Korean Universities
      Improving the work/research climate to utilize
 2    the globally highly skilled R&D experts
      Strengthen the foreign network
 3    to improve collaboration
      Facilitate the global cooperating
 4    for research
      Support living conditions
  5   for foreigners


                           24
Strengthen the competitiveness of
 Korean Universities

 Low Competitiveness of Korean Universities: 3 Korean
  Uni. Among 100 top universities
  -high achievement of Korean youth (PISA, TIMMS)
  -Bottleneck of Educational Development
 -quality of higher education maintain talented Korean students in
   Korea as well as inviting foreign students into Korea.
 Financial Support for higher education
-R&D Program
  Brain Korea 21:-provide research fund for universites 20 billion
   US$ during last 10years
-Enhancing Educational capacities
  Financial Support for universities of good quality of eduation
Since 2009, 30 billion KRW(9 0million US $) each year


                                 25
Improving the work/research climate to utilize the globally
 highly skilled R&D experts
  • The working and research culture
  • -closed, hierarchical, top-down
    approach
  • -> hinder creativity of global talents
  • open, free, bottom up, and long-term
    perspective
  • This is not easy one;-need training
    programs for managers and leaders in
    S&T related organization

                               26
Strengthen the Expatriate Korean network
 to improve collaboration

 • 13 Korean Expatriate Science and Engineers
   Associations
 • -> government financial Support for these
   associations
  Active collaboration and networking with KASEA
   KASEA(Korean American Scientiscts and Engeneers
   Association)
 • Young Generation Forum
 • (invite young scientists and engineers with Korean
   origin)




                           27
Facilitate the global cooperating
for research

 • Collaborative Research Funds
     -Invite Foreign Research Lab-Branch
      eg) Pasteur Research Lab
      - Establish a branch center in Europe or USA
 •   Brain Pool System
 •   Invite young scientists and engineers
 •   (Postdoc for foreign Ph.D-> mostly Ph.D from Asian
     countries
 •   Competition for brains( esp. Post doc level) with
     Japan(agressively invite foreign S&E)




                                28
Support living conditions for foreigners

  • Closed and unfriendly atmosphere toward foreigners
  • Language problem
  • Education and housing support
  • Children’s education: expensive and competitve-
    disincentive for coming to Korea
  • Housing: high costs
  • On –line and off-line One stop centers for foreign
    S&Es
  • Information, counseling




                            29
Strategies for attracting expatriate Korean S&E based
 on Career Development Stages
 • Most Effective target group;
 • S&E who have passed their peak in their
   careers
 • -> They are ready to be attracted.
 • Use their expertise for consulting or
   management.




                         30
 Opinion of expatriate Ph.Ds for global talented researchers

                                                                       average
                 Establish research cluster for global talented
                                                                        2.98
                researchers
                 Invite foreign LAB                                      2.7
Strategies for
 cooperation Establish Korean research center abraod                    2.92
               Support for expatriate Korean researcher network         3.05
                Joint project with Korean and foreign research team     3.28
                                     `
                Support for Children’s education                        3.36
                Support for spouse’s employment                         3.14
Strategies to   Improving research environ.                             3.52
  improve       Ease for immigration rules for expatriate’s research    3.01
    Work        Support for short-term, midterm staying places          3.27
Environment     Open public funded research to expatriates              3.29
                Allow combine professorship in Korea and abroad         3.38
                Dual nationality                                         3.3
                                      31
32

				
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