Unit 2_Molecules of Life Part 1 student by uc86

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									MOLECULES OF LIFE
      Carbohydrates and Lipids
CAPTURING CARBON
   Primary producers turn carbon dioxide (CO2) and
    water into carbon-based compounds

   Carbon links with other elements to form
    molecules essential for life
ORGANIC MOLECULES
   A cell is mostly ___________.
     The rest of the cell consists mostly of carbon-based
      molecules.
     Organic chemistry is the study of _______ compounds.
ORGANIC MOLECULES
   Hydrogen and other elements _________ bonded
    to carbon

     Carbohydrates
     Lipids
     Proteins
     Nucleic acids
CARBON CHEMISTRY
   Carbon is a very versatile atom
     It has 4 electrons in an outer shell that holds 8
     Can covalently bond with up to 4 atoms
CARBON CHEMISTRY
   Carbon can use its bonds to:
     Attach to other carbons
     Form an endless diversity of carbon skeletons
   CARBON CHEMISTRY




       Carbon skeletons vary in length           Carbon skeletons may have double bonds,
                                                        which can vary in location




Carbon skeletons may be unbranched or branched   Carbon skeletons may be arranged in rings
HYDROCARBONS
   Simplest _________compounds
     Contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms
     Simplest hydrocarbon is methane
HYDROCARBONS
   Larger hydrocarbons
       Main molecules in gas burned in cars as fuel


   Hydrocarbons of fat molecules provide energy for
    our bodies
    MOLECULES
   Each molecule has a specific 3D shape
     Defines function in body
     Molecules in your body recognize one another by
      their shape
   Both carbon skeleton and atoms attached to the
    skeleton determine unique properties
FUNCTIONAL GROUPS
   Atoms or clusters of atoms attached to the carbon
    backbone

   Give organic compounds their different _______
FUNCTIONAL GROUPS
FUNCTIONAL GROUPS
    Functional Groups

Do they make you who you are?
FUNCTIONAL GROUPS:
THE IMPORTANCE OF POSITION
    PROCESSES OF METABOLISM
   Cells use energy to grow and maintain
    themselves

   Enzyme-driven reactions build, rearrange, and
    split organic molecules
BUILDING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
   Cells form complex organic molecules
     Simple sugars → carbohydrates
     Fatty acids → lipids
     Amino acids → proteins
     Nucleotides → nucleic acids


   Condensation combines monomers to form
    polymers
BUILDING POLYMERS FROM
MONOMERS
SPLITTING MOLECULES
BIO MOLECULES PART 1:
CARBOHYDRATES AND LIPIDS
 BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES

 MONOMER                POLYMER
Monosaccharides   Carbohydrates = Polysaccharides
                  (Starch, Glycogen, Cellulose)

Fatty Acids       Complex Lipids (Glycerides,
                  Phospholipids, Steroids, Wax)
      CARBOHYDRATES

• Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
  in a ratio ?
  – General formula is ?
  – Names of sugars end in –ose
     • Glucose C6H12O6
     • Sucrose
     • Ribose
CARBOHYDRATES
Monosaccharides: simple sugars

Disaccharides: 2 sugar
 carbohydrates

Polysaccharides: complex
 carbohydrates
        MONOSACCHARIDES
   Monomer units of carbohydrates
       Simplest “single sugar”
       Most are sweet tasting


           Glucose (6C)           Fructose (6C)

           Ribose (5C)            Deoxyribose (5C)
MONOSACCHARIDES
   Monosaccharides are
     Very soluble in water
     Good energy sources
     Important substrates for adding onto proteins
     Often part of other molecules
           DNA = deoxyribose
MONOSACCHARIDES

          Glucose




                    Glucose

  – In aqueous solutions, monosaccharides form rings.
  – Monosaccharides are the main fuel that cells use for
    ____________________.
ISOMERS
   Glucose, and fructose are
    isomers
     Same ______, different
      _____
     C6H12O6
SIMPLE SUGAR CLASSIFICATION

Three characteristics
determine classification:

1. Location of the carbonyl
   group (orange)

2. Length of the carbon
   skeleton

3. Spatial arrangement of the
   hydroxyl groups around the
   asymmetric carbons of the
   structure (purple)
DISACCHARIDES
 Two monosaccharides
  covalently bonded
 Condensation Reaction
       Examples
         Maltose
         Lactose

         Sucrose
POLYSACCHARIDES
 Complex carbohydrates
 Consist of 2+ monosaccharides linked together

 Functions:
    1.   Energy storage
    2.   Structural support
POLYSACCHARIDES: ENERGY STORAGE




  Glycogen in mouse     Starch in plant cell
    liver cell (400x)     (bar is 500nm)


      Both are glucose polysaccharides
POLYSACCHARIDES: STRUCTURAL SUPPORT




     www.evolution.berkeley.edu

      Chitin exoskelton           Cellulose fibrils (plant)
   (arthropod) or cell wall
           (fungi)
POLYSACCHARIDES
CELLULOSE
   Cellulose is the most abundant organic compound
    on Earth.
     Forms cable-like fibrils in the tough walls that enclose
      plants
     Major component of wood
     Known as dietary fiber.

   Most animals cannot derive nutrition from fiber
CHITIN
CARBOHYDRATES
   Most abundant biological molecules

   __________function as transportable forms of
    energy or as quick energy sources

   __________are structural materials or energy
    reservoirs
     What 2 polysaccharides are used for energy storage?
     What 2 polysaccharides are used for structural
      support?
REVIEW
Condensation reactions:
   a)   Put two polymers together to make a monomer
   b)   A polymer and water are products in this reaction
   c)   Put two monomers together to make a polymer
   d)   Water is a reactant in this reaction
   e)   Both b and c
   f)   Both a and c
BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES

 MONOMER               POLYMER
Monosaccharides   Carbohydrates = Polysaccharides
                  (Starch, Glycogen, Cellulose)

Fatty Acids       Complex Lipids (Glycerides,
                  Phospholipids, Steroids, Wax)
LIPIDS
 Built with fatty acids.
 Contain mostly carbon and hydrogen linked by
  _________ covalent bonds
 Defined by their solubility properties rather than
  by structure
    ____________
    Greasy, oily materials
FUNCTIONS OF LIPIDS
  Energy  storage molecules (typically in the form of
   triglycerides)
  Components of cell membranes

  Waterproof coverings around cells

  Insulation and cushioning

    of organs and tissues



                            http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Noaa-walrus12.jpg
FATS

 Lipids   with one, two, or three fatty acid
 tails
     Saturated
     Unsaturated (cis and trans)

 Triglycerides    (neutral fats )
     Three fatty acid tails
     Most abundant animal fat (body fat)
     Major energy reserves
FATTY ACIDS
 Acidic fats
 Hydrocarbons

 Long carbon backbone
SATURATED FATS
MONOUNSATURATED FATTY ACID
POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACID
CIS VS. TRANS
HYDROGENATION
PARTIAL HYDROGENATION
TYPES OF LIPIDS
  1.   Triglycerides and Oils
  2.   Phospholipids (membrane components of cells)
  3.   Steroids (vitamins, hormones, cholesterol)
  4.   Waxes (beeswax, earwax)
LIPIDS AS ENERGY STORAGE
  1.   Triglycerides (bacon fat, lard, butter, adipose tissue)
  2.   Oils (corn, coconut, olive)
TRIGLYCERIDE FORMATION
TRIGLYCERIDES




 Solid or liquid at room temperature?
 OILS




Solid or liquid at room temperature?
TYPES OF LIPIDS
  1.   Triglycerides and Oils
  2.   Phospholipids (membrane components of cells)
  3.   Steroids (vitamins, hormones, cholesterol)
  4.   Waxes (beeswax, earwax)
PHOSPHOLIPIDS
PHOSPHOLIPIDS AND WATER
PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYER OF CELLS
TYPES OF LIPIDS
  1.   Triglycerides and Oils
  2.   Phospholipids (membrane components of cells)
  3.   Steroids (vitamins, hormones, cholesterol)
  4.   Waxes (beeswax, earwax)
STEROID STRUCTURE
STEROID EXAMPLES
TYPES OF LIPIDS
  1.   Triglycerides and Oils
  2.   Phospholipids (membrane components of cells)
  3.   Steroids (vitamins, hormones, cholesterol)
  4.   Waxes (beeswax, earwax)
WAXES
 One fatty acid chain linked to an alcohol
 Most hydrophobic

 Insoluble in water
       Waterproof coverings
         Leaves
         Fruits

         Feathers

         Ear canal
LIPIDS REVIEW

Complex lipids function as ?
a) Energy reservoirs
b) Structural materials of cell membranes
c) Signaling molecules
d) Waterproofing or lubricating substances
e) All of the above

								
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