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					                                 Time Recording Log
Student         JD Veloper                                  Date        7/1
Instructor      Humphrey                                    Program #   1A

Date    Start   Stop    Interruption   Delta   Phase        Comments
                        Time           Time
7/1     7:58    8:45    3              44      Plan         Phone call
        8:47    10:29   2              100     Design       Create and review
                                                            design
        7:49    8:59                   70      Code         Coded main functions
        9:15    9:46                   31      Compile      Compiled and linked
        9:47    10:10                  23      Test         Ran tests A, B and C
        4:33    4:51                   18      Postmortem
                 Defects Injected in Design

               250

               200
Defects/KLOC




               150

               100
                                                                                    Defects Injected in Code

               50                                                             160
                                                                              140
                0




                                                               Defects/KLOC
                                                                              120
                     1   2   3    4   5   6   7   8   9   10
                                                                              100
                                 Program Number
                                                                              80
                                                                              60
                                                                              40
                                                                              20
                                                                               0
                                                                                    1   2   3    4   5   6   7   8   9   10

                                                                                                Program Number
   Defect Types
   10 Documentation     60   Checking
   20 Syntax            70   Data
   30 Build, Package    80   Function
   40 Assignment        90   System
   50 Interface        100   Environment



                                           Table C18 Defect Recording Log
Student                                                             Date
Instructor                                                          Program #
Date               Number            Type         Inject   Remove    Fix Time   Fix Defect

Description:


Date               Number            Type         Inject   Remove    Fix Time   Fix Defect

Description:


Date               Number            Type         Inject   Remove    Fix Time   Fix Defect

Description:


Date               Number            Type         Inject   Remove    Fix Time   Fix Defect
             6000



             5000



             4000
Time (min)




             3000



             2000



             1000



               0
                    0   100   200   300     400     500   600   700   800

                                          C++ LOC
             14000



             12000


             10000
Time (min)




             8000


             6000



             4000


             2000



                0
                     0   200   400   600   800   1000   1200   1400   1600   1800   2000

                                           Pascal LOC
               120



               100
Time (hours)




               80



               60



               40



               20



                0
                     0   5   10   15   20   25   30   35   40   45

                                       Pages
               60



               50
Time (hours)




               40



               30



               20



               10



               0
                    0   100   200   300    400   500   600   700

                                    Script LOC
               100

               90

               80

               70
Time (hours)




               60

               50

               40

               30

               20

               10

                0
                     0   500   1000   1500   2000   2500   3000   3500   4000

                                        Screen LOC
                       Table C14 PSP0 Project Plan Summary
Student                                            Date
Program                                            Program #
Instructor                                         Language
Time in Phase (min.)            Plan     Actual    To Date     To Date %
 Planning
 Design
 Code
 Compile
 Test
 Postmortem
  Total

Defects Injected                         Actual    To Date     To Date %
 Planning
 Design
 Code
 Compile
 Test
  Total Development

Defects Removed                          Actual    To Date     To Date %
 Planning
 Design
 Code
 Compile
 Test
  Total Development
 After Development
              Table C3 PS P0.1 Project Plan S ummary Example
Student           Student 11                                           Date             2/1/94
Program           Object LOC Counter                                   Program #        3A
Instructor        Humphrey                                             Language         C
Program Size (LOC)                     Plan                     Actual                  To Date
Base(B)                                                                       87
                                                                (Measured)
 Deleted (D)                                                                   0
                                                                (Counted)
 Modified (M)                                                                  6
                                                                (Counted)
 Added (A)                                                                   113
                                                                (T -B+D-R)
 Reused (R)                                                                    0                     0
                                                                (Counted)
Total New & Changed (N)                       90                             119                   315
                                                                  (A+M)
Total LOC (T)                                                                200                   396
                                                                (Measured)
Total New Reuse                                                                0                     0

Time in Phase (min.)               Plan            Actual                 To Date        To Date %
 P lanning                              10              11                      36                  6.4
 Design                                 25              21                      63                 11.2
 Code                                   75              97                     249                 44.2
 Compile                                20                4                     35                  6.2
 Test                                   45              39                     105                 18.7
 P ostmortem                            20              33                      75                 13.3
  Total                                195             205                     563                100.0

Def ects Injected                                  Actual                 To Date        To Date %
 P lanning                                                  0                       0                 0
 Design                                                     1                       3              11.5
 Code                                                       8                      23              88.5
 Compile                                                    0                       0                 0
 Test                                                       0                       0                 0
  Total Development                                         9                      26             100.0

Def ects Removed                                   Actual                 To Date        To Date
                                                                                            %
 P lanning                                                  0                       0                 0
 Design                                                     0                       0                 0
 Code                                                       0                       0                 0
 Compile                                                    2                      13              50.0
 Test                                                       7                      13              50.0
  Total Development                                         9                      26             100.0
 After Development                                          0                       0
             Table C27 Process Improvement Proposal (PIP)
Student          Student 11                                     Date          2/1/94
Instructor       Humphrey                                       Program #     3A
Process                                           Elements

PIP Number
                                         Problem Description:
1              Discovered a missing string parsing library function in the string libraries at
               test. Had to do extensive redesign of program in test to use
                existing library routines.




PROPOSAL
PIP #                              Proposal Description
1        Add a step to the design process to verify the existence of a library routine
         before incorporating it into the design. This will require printing a list
         of library routines in alphabetical order.




Notes and Comments:
       Purpose:       To guide you in developing module-level programs.
                      Problem description
                      PSP0 project plan summary form
    Inputs Required   Time and defect recording logs
                      Defect type standard
                      Stop watch (optional)
                      - Produce or obtain a requirements statement.
                      - Estimate the required development time.
1      Planning
                      - Enter the plan data in the project plan summary form.
                      - Complete the time log.
                      - Design the program.
                      - Implement the design.
2    Development      - Compile the program and fix and log all defects found.
                      - Test the program and fix and log all defects found.
                      - Complete the time recording log.
                      Complete the project plan summary form with actual time,
3    Postmortem
                      defect, and size data.
                      - A thoroughly tested program
                      - Completed project plan summary with estimated and actual
     Exit Criteria
                        data
                      - Completed defect and time logs
    Size Estimating Error Range

          500

          400

          300                           Max
% Error




          200                           Class

          100                           Min

            0

          -100
                 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

                   Program Number
    Time Estimating Accuracy - %
               Error

                   500
% Estimate Error



                   400

                   300                           Max

                   200                           Class

                   100                           Min
                     0

                   -100
                          1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

                            Program Number
        180

        160

        140

        120
Hours




        100

        80

        60

        40

        20

         0
              0   200   400   600    800   1000   1200   1400   1600   1800

                                    Object LOC
               120



               100
Time (hours)




               80



               60



               40



               20



                0
                     0   5   10   15   20   25   30   35   40   45

                                       Pages
New&Changed   0  1 * BA  NO  M 
yk   0  1 * xk
Ranges
                          n        n      n
                       n xi yi   xi  yi
r  x, y               i 1     i 1   i 1

                n 2  n 2   n 2  n 2 
               n xi    xi   n yi    yi  
                i 1
                        i 1    i 1
                                           i 1  
                                                     
Range  t  / 2, n  2 1  
                             1    x  x 
                                         k       avg
                                                       2



                                   x  x 
                                   n
                             n                             2
                                             i    avg
                                  i 1
            n
     1
         yi   0  1xi 
                            2

   n  2 i1
The Double-Sided t Distribution
                                 Estimated Object LOC vs. Actual New &
                                             Changed LOC

                           250




Actual New & Changed LOC
                           200

                           150

                           100
                                                           y = 0.7953x + 37.694
                           50                                   R2 = 0.8147

                            0
                                 0      50      100       150        200          250
                                             Estim ated Object LOC
                                  Table C39 Size Estimating Template
                      BASE PROGRAM LOC                                          ESTIMATE        ACTUAL
  BASE SIZE (B)      => => => => => =>                    =>    => =>      =>          0
  LOC DELETED (D)            => =>      =>   => =>        =>    => =>      =>             0
  LOC MODIFIED (M) => =>                => =>    => => => =>               =>             0
   OBJECT LOC
  BASE ADDITIONS                   TYPE         METHODS             REL. SIZE     LOC             LOC




    TOTAL BASE ADDITIONS (BA) =>                 =>   => => =>            =>              0
NEW OBJECTS                        TYPE         METHODS             REL. SIZE            LOC (New Reused*)
   InputData                       I/O                1               large          22
       List                        Data               3              medium         27*
   Calc_Mean                       Calc               1              medium          11
    Calc_SD                        Calc               1              medium          11
   PrintResult                      I/O               1               large          22

 TOTAL NEW OBJECTS (NO) =>                   => => =>          =>   =>    =>            93
REUSED OBJECTS




 REUSED TOTAL (R)            =>    =>     => => =>        => =>      =>
                                                                                  SIZE            TIME
Estimated Object LOC (E):                       E = BA+NO+M                          93
Regression Parameters:                          0 Size and Time                     38                  110
Regression Parameters:                          1 Size and Time                     .8                  1.5
Estimated New and Changed LOC (N):             N = 0 + 1 *E                       112
Estimated Total LOC:                          T=N+B-D-M+R                           112
Estimated Total New Reuse (sum of * LOC):                                            27
Estimated Total Development Time:               Time = 0 + 1 *E                                        250
Prediction Range:                               Range                             N/A              N/A
Upper Prediction Interval:                      UPI = N + Range                   N/A              N/A
Lower Prediction Interval:                      LPI = N - Range                   N/A              N/A
Prediction Interval Percent:                                                      N/A              N/A
                       Estimated Object LOC vs. Actual Minutes

                 500
                 450
                 400




Actual Minutes
                 350
                 300
                 250
                 200
                 150
                                                  y = 1.4507x + 109.8
                 100                                  R2 = 0.6869
                  50
                   0
                       0       50      100       150        200         250
                                    Estim ated Object LOC
Phase Number      Purpose:                  To guide you in developing module-level programs.
                                 •   Problem description
                                 •   PSP Project Plan Summary form
                                 •   Historical estimated and actual size and time data
               Inputs Required
                                 •   Time and Defect Recording Logs
                                 •   Defect Type Standard
                                 •   Stop watch (optional)
                                 • Produce or obtain a requirements statement.
                                 • Estimate the total new and changed LOC required and the prediction
                                   interval..
     1            Planning       • Estimate the required development time and the prediction interval.
                                 • Produce a schedule plan (if more than a couple days).
                                 • Enter the plan data in the Project Plan Summary form.
                                 • Complete the Time Recording Log.

                                 •   Design the program, using design templates where appropriate.
                                 •   Review the design and fix and log all defects found.
                                 •   Implement the design.
     2          Development      •   Review the code and fix and log all defects found.
                                 •   Compile the program and fix and log all defects found.
                                 •   Test the program and fix and log all defects found.
                                 •   Complete the Time Recording Log.

                                 Complete the Project Plan Summary form with actual time, defect, and
     3          Postmortem
                                 size data.

                                 •   A thoroughly tested program
                                 •   Completed Project Plan Summary with estimated and actual data
                                 •   Completed design templates
                Exit Criteria    •   Completed Design Review Checklist and Code Review Checklist
                                 •   Completed Test Report Template
                                 •   Complete PIP forms
                                 •   Completed Defect and Time Recording Logs
Defect Removal Rates - Class

               25

               20
Defects/Hour




                                           CR Def/H
               15
                                           C Def/Hr
               10
                                           T Def/Hr

               5

               0
                    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

                     Program Number
                    Cost Per Error Vs Where Error Found

       $90,000.00                                         $80,000
       $80,000.00
       $70,000.00
       $60,000.00
Cost




       $50,000.00
       $40,000.00
       $30,000.00
       $20,000.00                               $15,000
                                  $6,500
       $10,000.00     $1,000
            $0.00
                      Design       Code          Test     Release
                                    Development Phase
                              Yield vs. LOC/Hour - Student 12

                             80
Yield - % of Early Removal



                             70
                             60
                             50
          Defects




                             40
                             30
                             20
                             10
                             0
                                  0   200      400      600     800
                                             LOC/Hour
                                       Yield vs LOC/Hour - Student 20

                             100
Yield - % of Early Removal



                              90
                              80
                              70
                              60
          Defects




                              50
                              40
                              30
                              20
                              10
                               0
                                   0        100     200      300        400
                                                  LOC/Hour
                        Compile vs Test Defects - Student 1

               10
                9
                8
                7
Test Defects




                6
                5
                4
                3
                2
                1
                0
                    0          5         10          15       20
                                   Compile Defects
                        Compile vs Test Defects - Student
                                       20

               10
                9
                8
                7
Test Defects




                6
                5
                4
                3
                2
                1
                0
                    0       10     20      30      40       50
                                 Compile Defects
                         Table 8.2 Code Review Script
Phase    Purpose                To guide individuals in the code review of small
Number                          programs.
         Entry Criteria         Program design
                                Source program listing
                                Code review checklist
                                Coding standard
                                Defect type standard
                                Time and defect log forms
                                Stop watch (optional)
   1     Review                 Follow the code review checklist.
                                Check off each item as it is completed.
                                For multiple procedures or programs, complete a separate
                                checklist for each.
   2     Correct                Correct all defects.
                                • If the correction cannot be completed, abort the review
                                and return to the prior phase.
                                Record for each defect:
                                • Defect type (see standard)
                                • Phase injected
                                • Phase removed (code review)
                                • Time to fix the defect
   3     Check                  Check each defect fix for correctness.
                                Re-review all design changes.
                                Record any fix defects as new defects and, where you
                                have the defective fix number, inter it in the fix defect box.
                                If you do not have a fix number, enter an * in the defect
                                box.
         Exit Criteria          A fully reviewed source program
                                One or more Code Review Guideline and Checklist with
                                every line checked
                                All identified defects fixed
                                Completed defect and time logs
                   Table C58 C++ Code Review Checklist
PROGRAM NAME AND #:
Purpose  To guide you in conducting an effective code review.               Program Unit
                                                                               Name
General          As you complete each review step, check that item in the
                 box to the right.
                 Enter the name of the program unit in the columns to the
                 right.
                 Complete the checklist for one program unit before you
                 start to review the next.
Complete         Verify that the code covers all the design.
Includes         Verify that includes are complete
Initialization   Check variable and parameter initialization:
                 - at program initiation
                 - at start of every loop
                 - at function/procedure entry
Calls            Check function call formats:
                 - pointers
                 - parameters
                 - use of '&'
Names            Check name spelling and use:
                 - is it consistent?
                 - is it within declared scope?
                 - do all structures and classes use '.' reference?
Strings          Check that all strings are:
                 - identified by pointers
                 - terminated in NULL
Pointers         Check that pointers are:
                 - initialized NULL
                 - only deleted after new
                 - new pointers are always deleted after use
Output           Check the output format:
Format           - line stepping is proper
                 - spacing is proper
{} Pairs         Insure that the {} are proper and matched
Logic            Verify the proper use of ==, =, ||, etc.
Operators        Check every logic function for proper ()
Line by Line     Check every line of code:
Check            - instruction syntax
                 - proper punctuation
Standards        Ensure that the code conforms to the coding standards.
File Open        Verify that all files are:
and Close        - properly declared
                 - opened
                 - closed
            Table C57 C++ PSP2 Design Review Checklist
PROGRAM NAME AND #:
Purpose    To guide you in conducting an effective design review                    Program
                                                                                      Unit
                                                                                     Name
General          • As you complete each review step, check off that item in
                   the box to the right.
                 • Complete the checklist for one program unit before you
                   start to review the next.
Complete         Ensure that the requirements, specifications, and high-level
                 design are completely covered by the design:
                 - All specified outputs are produced.
                 - All needed inputs are furnished.
                 - All required includes are stated.
Logic            • Verify that program sequencing is proper:
                    ³ Stacks, lists, etc. are in the proper order.
                    ³ Recursion unwinds properly.
                 • Verify that all loops are properly initiated, incremented, and
                   terminated.
Special Cases    Check all special cases:
                 • Ensure proper operation with empty, full, minimum,
                   maximum, negative, zero values for variables.
                 • Protect against out of limits, overflow, underflow
                   conditions.
                 • Ensure "impossible" conditions are absolutely impossible.
                 • Handle all incorrect input conditions.
Functional use   • Verify that all functions, procedures, or objects are fully
                   understood and properly used.
                 • Verify that all externally referenced abstractions are
                   precisely defined.
Names            Verify the following:
                 • All special names and types are clear or specifically
                   defined.
                 • The scopes of all variables and parameters are self-evident
                   or defined.
                 • All named objects are used within their declared scopes.
Standards        Review the design for conformance to all applicable design
                 standards
                          Yield - Student 3

        100
         90
         80
         70
         60
Yield




         50
         40
         30
         20
         10
          0
              0   1   2    3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10

                           Program Number
                      Yield - Student 20

        100
         90
         80
         70
         60
Yield




         50
         40
         30
         20
         10
          0
              0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10

                          Program Number
                           Yield vs. A/F Ratio - Student 3

                     100
                      90
Removal Defects
Yield - % of Early




                      80
                      70
                      60
                      50
                      40
                      30
                      20
                      10
                       0
                           0          1        2        3          4

                               Appraisal to Failure Ratio - A/FR
                               Yield vs. A/FR - Student 20

                     100
                      90
Removal Defects
Yield - % of Early



                      80
                      70
                      60
                      50
                      40
                      30
                      20
                      10
                       0
                           0             1           2             3

                               Appraisal to Failure Ratio - A/FR
                           Yield vs. A/FR - All Students,
                                   All Programs

                     100
                      90
Removal Defects
Yield - % of Early



                      80
                      70
                      60
                      50
                      40
                      30
                      20
                      10
                       0
                           0        1      2      3       4        5

                               Appraisal to Failure Ratio - A/FR
                              Test Defects vs. A/FR -
                                    Student 3

                    35
Test Defects/KLOC


                    30
                    25
                    20
                    15
                    10
                    5
                    0
                         0        1         2        3         4

                             Appraisal to Failure Cost Ratio
                              Test Defects vs. A/FR -
                                    Student 20

                    40
Test Defects/KLOC


                    35
                    30
                    25
                    20
                    15
                    10
                    5
                    0
                         0    0.5    1     1.5    2     2.5    3

                             Appraisal to Failure Cost Ratio
                              T est Defects vs. A/FR - Class

                    180
                    160
Test Defects/KLOC



                    140
                    120
                    100
                    80
                    60
                    40
                    20
                     0
                          0       1       2      3       4       5

                               Appraisal to Failure Cost Ratio
                 Productivity Trend - Student 3

           100
            90
            80
            70
LOC/Hour




            60
            50
            40
            30
            20
            10
             0
                 1   2   3    4   5   6   7   8   9   10

                             Program Number
                     Productivity Trend - Student
                                  20

           100
            90
            80
            70
LOC/Hour




            60
            50
            40
            30
            20
            10
             0
                 1    2   3    4   5   6   7   8   9   10

                              Program Number
                          Yield vs. Productivity -
                                 Student 3

                 60

                 50
Productivity -
 LOC/Hour



                 40

                 30

                 20

                 10

                 0
                      0    20     40     60     80    100

                      Yield - % of Early Removal Defects
                            Yield vs. Productivity -
                                   Student 20

                 40
                 35
Productivity -



                 30
 LOC/Hour



                 25
                 20
                 15
                 10
                 5
                 0
                      0        20     40     60     80     100

                          Yield - % of Early Removal Defects
                           Yield vs. Productivity - All
                            Students, All Programs

                 100
                  90
                  80
Productivity -
 LOC/Hour


                  70
                  60
                  50
                  40
                  30
                  20
                  10
                   0
                       0      20     40    60    80       100

                       Yield - % of Early Removal Defects
                          Productivity vs. A/FR -
                                Student 3

                 60

                 50
Productivity -
 LOC/Hour



                 40

                 30

                 20

                 10

                 0
                      0      1       2        3     4

                                 A/FR Ratio
                          Productivity vs. A/FR -
                               Student 20

                 40
                 35
Productivity -




                 30
 LOC/Hour



                 25
                 20
                 15
                 10
                 5
                 0
                      0         1                2   3

                                    A/FR Ratio
                       Productivity vs. A/F Ratio - All
                          Students, All Programs

                 100
                  90
                  80
Productivity -
 LOC/Hour



                  70
                  60
                  50
                  40
                  30
                  20
                  10
                   0
                       0     1     2     3     4      5

                                  A/FR Ratio
                                                                                                                        Defects Found in Test - Range

                                                                                                                        250

                                                                                                                        200




                                                                                                         Defects/KLOC
                                                                                                                        150

                                                                                                                        100

                                                                                                                        50

                                                                                                                         0
                                                                                                                                  Total Defects - Range
                                                                                                                              1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9 10
                                                                                                                        250

                                                                                                                        200




                                                                                                         Defects/KLOC
                   Time Estimating Accuracy - %
                              Error                                                                                     150

                                                                                                                        100
                   300
                   250
% Estimate Error

                                                                                                                        50
                   200
                   150                                                                                                   0
                   100                                                                                                        1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9 10
                    50
                                                                                                                                      Program Number
                     0
                                                                            Yield - All Students, All
                    -50
                   -100
                                                                                   Programs
                          1 2    3 4   5 6   7 8   9 10
                                                                  120
                                Program Number
                                                                  100

                                                                  80

                                                          Yield   60

                                                                  40

                                                                  20

                                                                   0
                                                                        1    2 3   4   5   6 7   8   9 10 11

                                                                               Program Number
                       Compile Time Range

                  30

                  25
% of Total Time




                  20                                           Max

                  15                                           Avg

                  10                                           Min

                  5

                  0
                       1   2    3   4   5   6   7   8   9 10

                               Program Number
    Defects Found in Test - Range

               180
               160
               140
Defects/KLOC




               120                                          Max
               100
                                                            Avg
               80
               60                                           Min
               40
               20
                0
                     1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9 10
                         Program Number
                 Productivity Range

           100
            90
            80
            70
LOC/Hour




                                                         Max
            60
            50                                           Avg
            40
                                                         Min
            30
            20
            10
             0
                 1   2    3   4   5   6   7   8   9 10

                         Program Number
                 Actual Time Range

        20
        18
        16
        14
                                                      Max
        12
Hours




        10                                            Avg
         8
                                                      Min
         6
         4
         2
         0
             1    2    3   4   5   6   7   8   9 10

                      Program Number
      Q uality Me asure                                De scription
            Total defects/KLOC      the number of defects found in development, per
P roduct                            1000 lines of code
Q uality    Test defects/KLOC                                            pe r
                                    the number of defects found in test, per 1000
                                    lines of code
            Yield                   the percent of defects found before compile
            Appraisal COQ           the percent of total develoment time spent in
P roce ss                                               code
                  (Cost of Quality) design review and code review
Q uality    Failure COQ             the percent of total develoment time spent in
                                    compile and test
            Total COQ               Appraisal COQ + Failure COQ
            A/F R                      Appraisal COQ
                                        Failure COQ
            Review rate             the number of lines of code reviewed per hour in a
            - LOC/hour              review (code review or design review)
            Defect removal rate     the rate at which defects are removed in a defect
            - defects/hour          removal phase (design review, code review,
                                    compile, test)
 Defects    Defects    Design    Code    Compile   Test    Total
 Injected   Found      Review   Review

            Tot. Fix     21       5         3      109     138
            Time
Design      Tot.         17       4         1       6       28
            Defects
            Avg. Fix    1.24     1.25     3.00     18.17   4.93
            Time
            Tot. Fix              32       52       75     159
            Time
Code        Tot.                  29       42       15      86
            Defects
            Avg. Fix             1.10     1.24     5.00    1.85
            Time
            Tot. Fix     21       37       55      184     297
            Time
Total       Tot.         17       33       43       21     114
            Defects
            Avg. Fix    1.24     1.12     1.28     8.76    2.61
            Time
                              Test Defects vs. A/FR - Class

                    200
                    180
Test Defects/KLOC




                    160
                    140
                    120
                    100
                     80
                     60
                     40
                     20
                      0
                          0       1         2          3         4   5

                                   Appraisal to Failure Cost Ratio
                             Without PSP   With PSP
Defects
   Total Defects                1,000        500
   Found In Code Review           0          300
   Defects Remaining            1000         200
   Found In Compile              500         100
   Found In Unit Test            400         80
   Defects Remaining             100         20
Time (hours)
   Code Review Time               0           50
   Compile Time                   40          10
   Unit Test Time                200          40
   Personal Defect Removal
   Time                          240         100

   Integration And System
   Test Time                    1000         200
Total Defect-Removal Time       1240         300

				
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