Annual Report 2011
Protection of Minors
on the Internet
Stefan Glaser, Thomas Günter, Kristina Hammann,
Katja Lichtenstein, Friedemann Schindler
Designgruppe Fanz und Neumayer
Partners and supporters of jugendschutz.net:
1 jugendschutz.net Jahresbericht 2007
More consideration for children and young persons
– the protection of minors on the Internet faces
The Internet has changed substantially: The discussions about a sustainable protection
jugendschutz.net observed an accelerated of young persons are currently pushed aside in
concentration of the medium towards global favour of debates on data protection and
platforms. From the perspective of youth copyright. However, youth protection might
protection, this development reduces the general benefit from all this. Data privacy activists now
level of protection, because standards already take up long-standing demands like a safe
achieved in Germany become more and more default configuration. In order to improve their
obsolete. At the same time, focusing on the precautions in terms of youth protection,
deficiencies of major platforms and demanding platform operators could implement technical
better precautions from platform operators solutions that are already well established when
has a great potential to improve the protection it comes to copyright infringements.
of minors online.
The failed amendments to the youth protection
The way the Internet is used has changed as well. laws in Germany opened up an even wider
With their smart phones and tablet computers, gap between the legal provisions and the trends
many young persons are online almost anytime on the Internet.
and anywhere. Since these devices can mean-
However, this failure could also be seen as
while be controlled by a multitouch display
a chance to have intensive debates on effective
even small children can access the Internet. The
ways to protect minors online, to develop
level of protection is low, because there is
new forms of cooperation and find non-legislative
no adequate control of apps and easy access to
solutions on the basis of a culture of shared
harmful content in stores all over in the world.
responsibility among all stakeholders.
At the same time, operators are very much under
pressure to meet the needs to protect children
and find appropriate solutions to do so. It
is obvious that children are not able to protect
Focus of research in 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Sexual exploitation of minors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
• Child pornography: mainly disseminated via download portals
• Depictions of minors in sexually suggestive poses:
breeding ground for sexual abuse
Political extremism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
• Right-wing extremism: Web 2.0 agitation targeting youngsters
• Islamism: propaganda incites hatred and violence
Promoting self-harm behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
• Eating disorders: still numerous websites glorifying anorexia
• Suicide and self-harm: supporting intentions to commit suicide
Interactive platforms and potential dangers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
• Online games: wide range of risks
• Chat rooms and communities: Facebook undercuts protection of minors
• Cyber bullying: iShareGossip encourages public exposure
Positive online content for children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
• Advertising: exploiting the inexperience of children
• Social Media: implementation in kid sites increases risks
Technical protection measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
• Filtering software: solutions for Web 2.0 content are necessary
• Mobile Internet: no parental control software so far
Action taken . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
objecting to illegal content and involving supervisory bodies . . . . . . 15
• Contacting content providers: successful in four out of five cases
• Forwarding to supervisory bodies: 120 procedures opened
• Social Media: German communities become less important
Abroad: contacting providers most effective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
• Law enforcement: child pornography is quickly removed
• Partner hotlines: intensified exchange
• Host providers: 78 % of all illegal content quickly removed
• BPjM: putting illegal content on the index reduces availability
• Google and Facebook: bad complaints handling
Cooperation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
National . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
• Law enforcement: demand for expertise of jugendschutz.net
• Forensic medicine: determination of age of abused children
• Dialogue Internet: risk management strategies online
International . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
• INHOPE: central network against child sexual abuse
• INACH: calling for social responsibilities of providers
• SIP-Bench: European study on filtering software
• Safer Internet Forum: leading children across Europe to good websites
Media education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Positive content for children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
• klick-tipps.net: recommended websites for children
• meine-startseite.de: ‚my own homepage‘
Support for parents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
• Mobile safety: update on use of mobile phones
• Leaflets: detailed information and tips
• surfen-ohne-risiko.net: online support for parents
Content and concepts for multipliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
• Train-the-Trainer: successful in out-of-school settings
• Media scouts: learn from peers
Numbers and figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
• 50,000 Internet destinations checked for illegal content
• Action against 10,000 illegal cases
• Focus on sexual abuse
• Illegal content quickly modified or removed in four out of five cases
• Around 7,000 reports processed
Focus of research in 2011
jugendschutz.net controls the Internet for illegal and harmful content
and looks closely at platforms and topics of specific attraction to
youngsters. This is how problematic developments can be recog-
nized early enough to take swift action. The knowledge and
expertise gained from this work is also the basis for giving
advice to content providers and to develop educational
concepts and handouts concerning Internet safety.
In 2011, the focus of the work was on the sexual
exploitation of minors, right-wing extremism
and self-harm behavior. Additionally,
jugendschutz.net assessed risks for minors
on international platforms like Facebook
and YouTube, specifically in terms of cyber
bullying. For the first time, jugendschutz.net
also did research on distribution channels
of online games.
Considering the plenitude of Internet
content and the dynamic changes,
technical protection and a safe online
environment for children become more
and more important. This is why
jugendschutz.net also tests popular
parental controls and evaluates positive
content for kids.
6 jugendschutz.net annual report 2011
Sexual exploitation of minors
jugendschutz .net combats child sexual abuse images and content
stopping well short of crossing the line and trying to break the taboo
of abuse . It is essential to have a sustainable overall concept to
permanently hinder the distribution of such content .
• Child pornography: mainly disseminated • Depictions of minors in sexually suggestive
via download portals poses: breeding ground for sexual abuse
Depictions of child sexual abuse are on the Depictions of minors in sexually suggestive poses
increase. The vast majority involved single items and so-called boy/girl lover forums blur the
like images and videos, available via download borders between acceptable behavior and abuse
platforms. Only one in five cases of child sexual downplaying the sexual exploitation of minors.
abuse was located on traditional websites, in They provide the perfect breeding ground for real
forums or on link lists. sexual abuse.
Half of the close to 3,000 child pornographic jugendschutz.net’s research in 2011 revealed that
cases in 2011 were forwarded from partner specifically so-called no nude photos of children
organizations and reported from Internet users. serve commercial purposes and address a mass
On average, every report assessed led to one market. Very often, such content also provides a
further child pornographic case. link to the pedosexual scene with a worldwide
jugendschutz.net traced the majority of child
sexual abuse content to three countries: 44 % In many cases and through direct contacts with
were distributed from the USA, 21 % from the providers, jugendschutz.net achieved removal
Netherlands and 20 % from Russia. In 8 % of the of this content in the shadow areas of child
cases German Internet service were involved. sexual abuse. However, it is essential to establish
a comprehensive strategy against child sexual
abuse that also combats the depictions of minors
in sexually suggestive poses at international
Focus of research 7
high number of hits
Right-wing extremists try to recruit youngsters via the Internet and
increasingly make greater use of Web 2 .0 services . In a new project,
jugendschutz .net has started a systematic research of Islamist and
left-wing extremist websites aiming their propaganda at youngsters .
• Right-wing extremism: Web 2 .0 agitation • Islamism: propaganda incites hatred and
targeting youngsters violence
The problem of right-wing extremism on the jugendschutz.net receives more and more reports
Internet has worsened. Whereas the number of on other forms of political extremism and
relevant websites has dropped slightly (1,671; recorded harmful content specifically in the area
2010: 1,708), extreme right-wing postings in of Islamism.
Web 2.0 services are further on the rise; e.g. the
In 2011, jugendschutz.net took various actions
number of right-wing extremist Twitter accounts
against the website of the Islamic Hacker Union
has almost quadrupled.
which incited violence against heretics and attacks
The far-right political party NPD (National Demo- against ISAF soldiers. After an attack on US soldiers
cratic Party of Germany) makes the interactive at the Frankfurt Airport the assassin referred to
Internet part of their strategic plan to recruit videos on this website. Already before the attack
youngsters. In 2011, all NPD associations registered took place jugendschutz.net achieved deletion
by jugendschutz.net were active in social media. of the website.
Even regional neo-Nazi groups having a very
Since December 2011, jugendschutz.net analyzes
modern appearance promote their events on pop-
Islamist and left-wing extremist content on the
ular services like Facebook and YouTube – this is
Internet in order to assess the risk this content
where 94 % of all Web 2.0 mobilization took place.
poses for young persons and to identify potential
Right-wing extremists often disguise their counter measures. The project is funded by the
inhuman ideas to reach out to young persons German Federal Ministry of Family (BMFSFJ).
outside the scene. The fact that individual
postings receive up to a million clicks proves this
strategy is successful.
8 jugendschutz.net annual report 2011
• Encouraging each other
to engage in
Promoting self-harm behavior
There still is a persistent problem of Internet content promoting self-harm
behavior and encouraging young persons in their life-threatening activity .
jugendschutz .net investigates this phenomenon und takes action in order
to reduce the risks .
• Eating disorders: still numerous websites • Suicide and self-harm: supporting
glorifying anorexia intentions to commit suicide
Youngsters suffering from eating disorders can Due to their still developing social, interpersonal
find many opportunities to contact like-minded and life skills children and youngsters are
users on the Internet. They specifically interact particularly susceptible to online risks. Promoting
in communities and often encourage each other suicide and self-harm behavior can be dangerous
in their high-risk activities. to children and youngsters under an emotional
and psychological state of emergency. Instructions
The number of pro-anorexia websites remains
on how to commit suicide, discussions on the
high (616). However, only half of the content could
best ways to do so and conspiracy to commit
be found on traditional websites (341; 2010: 423),
suicide are specifically problematic.
the rest shifted to Web 2.0 services. There, the risk
of a negative impact on children and youngsters In 2011, a forum where three girls arranged to
is greater than on traditional websites mostly only commit joint suicide became the focus of public
known by insiders. attention. jugendschutz.net had already took
action against this forum in 2010 and initiated
78 % of the content was in breach of youth
indexing after it moved abroad.
protection laws and in 83 % of the cases the
actions taken resulted in removal of the jugendschutz.net mainly recorded Internet
content. jugendschutz.net continues its efforts content idealizing self-harm as an extraordinary
to convince operators to integrate links to experience and encouraging copycat behavior in
counseling services on their platforms. communities. One out of three cases with
harmful content concerned individual postings
(77 out 0f 102); jugendschutz.net took action
Focus of research 9
• Austrian retailer
of indexed games
Interactive platforms and potential dangers
Direct communication and networking on the Internet play an integral
role in daily life of children and youngsters . Social Media provide
unique platforms for a lot of positive opportunities, but also dangerous
encounters and safety hazards .
• Online games: wide range of risks
There are countless games on the Internet and Using search engines to find games also showed
lots of varieties: browser games that are played that indexed games are easily available through
over the Internet without any software, just using online retailers from abroad. Specifically Austrian
a web browser (so-called mini games, multi- online shops even advertise this and disseminate
player games), social network games (apps in trailers or ingame videos. jugendschutz.net
social networks like Facebook), download versions initiated indexing of several Austrian online shops
of ‘traditional’ computer games. Online games in order to make it more difficult to find them.
are very popular among children.
Checking all games in major game collections
jugendschutz.net’s research in 2011 revealed that with thousands of games is hardly possible.
next to a lot of mostly harmless games there jugendschutz.net suggests a workshop with
are many containing illegal material: specifically self-control organizations and online games
problematic depictions of violence and porno- providers in order to inform them about youth
graphy, but also advertising and dissemination of protection issues, to win them over for an age
indexed or confiscated games, non-compliance differentiated labeling of their content and
with data protection provisions, cost traps or provide better possibilities for players to report
contact risks. problematic content or get support.
10 jugendschutz.net annual report 2011
• Community apps
• Chat rooms and communities: Facebook • Cyber bullying: iShareGossip encourages
undercuts protection of minors public exposure
Over the last two years, Facebook has become the Bullying on the Internet is an everyday problem.
No. 1 social networking site among German It is easier to dish on others online than in real life
children and youngsters. The number of young e.g. in school. At the same time, cyber bullying
users has doubled; at the same time German reaches a wider audience and has a much greater
platforms lose ground. Consequently, already impact.
achieved standards in terms of social networking
In 2011, the cyber bullying website iShareGossip
sites in Germany become obsolete.
made the front pages in Germany. The platform
Facebook does not follow the German safety operator deliberately provided users with a virtual
standards. Despite meanwhile existing safer stage for anonymous gossip and even encouraged
default settings for under aged user’s profiles, them to spread rumors and attack others with
this is not sufficient to meet the necessary safety personal insults. Within a short period of time, the
requirements. Facebook is not fast and good platform gathered a large number of defamatory
enough in terms of addressing complaints when postings with personal data of youngsters. This
they are made and does not show any proactive even resulted in violence offline. jugendschutz.net
measures concerning the removal of harmful contacted the provider and meanwhile the website
content. is no longer available.
Research of jugendschutz.net indicated that on Still, cyber bullying remains a major issue.
the most frequented platforms there is a consider- Community operators have to increase their level
able risk of stumbling across harmful content of precautions and children and youngsters
such as pornography. Insulting behavior or sexual have to learn more about cyber bullying and be
harassment often initiating a real sexual abuse aware of the consequences.
are additional risk factors as well as cyber bullying
and data protection issues.
Focus of research 11
Positive online content for children
Children have to learn how to use the Internet safely . jugendschutz .net
identifies and analyses traps and risks on the Internet and develops
concepts and strategies to lead children straight to good websites .
• Advertising: exploiting the inexperience • Social Media: implementation in kid sites
of children increases risks
Aggressive and misleading advertising is mean- Very often, kid sites provide links to major social
while very common on the Internet. Advertising is networking sites. Through integrating the most
often mixed up with other content and not clearly popular services like YouTube videos, Facebook
identified as such; it exploits the inexperience profiles and Google Ads, harmful content is just a
and credulity of children. Children do not always click away.
understand common commercial communication
Social networking has really taken off for kids.
and they often mistake pop-up ads for games.
The more kids move their online activities to social
Kid sites have to consider criteria of media
networks and video communities the more
education and should use visual elements to
they have to learn how to use these services and
clearly distinguish advertising from other content.
to communicate safely.
Privacy risks also play a major role. Too often kids
Meanwhile there are lots of kid sites allowing
are asked to display all their personal information,
children to surf the Internet safely. However, there
parents are not sufficiently involved. Privacy
is no kid-safe equivalent in Web 2.0 services.
statements are hard to find, too complicated and
Kids need their own social communities where they
too difficult for children to understand. Specifically
can have fun and communicate with friends
kid sites should follow the principle that nothing
more than those details which are absolutely
essential may be collected and stored.
12 jugendschutz.net annual report 2011
Technical protection measures
Filter software enables parents to reduce the risks for their children
online and to create different accounts for accessing the Internet
according to their age . The changes on the Internet towards Web 2 .0
and mobile services pose new challenges .
• Filtering software: solutions for Web 2 .0 • Mobile Internet: no parental control
content are necessary software so far
jugendschutz.net has tested filtering software Mobile phones and other Internet-capable
since 2007. Over the past years, their effectiveness devices like game consoles have become
has only slightly improved. Whereas filters an integral part in the lives of children and
recognize pornographic content quite well, youngsters. They are essentially handheld
the error rate in terms of violence, racism or computers with unlimited Internet access,
self-harm behavior is still high. posing a challenge for protective parents because
they are also used outside of the home. So
No software is currently able to differentiate
worries about children stumbling across
between postings in social networks or video
pornographic or violent content, being groomed
communities. With Web 2.0 content increasing
in chat rooms, or loosing personal data now
every day, workable filtering solutions become
apply equally to their phone. Specifically apps
more and more important.
carry additional risks and bypass protection
In Germany, there are two systems in place now standards.
meeting the requirements of youth protection
Research of jugendschutz.net in 2011 has shown
laws enabling content providers to label their
that there are no effective parental control
content for different age groups. However, these
solutions for mobile Internet devices so far. Still,
only become fully effective if many parents install
no operator offers child safe default settings or
the filtering software that is able to read these
sufficient filter systems for mobile Internet access
as jugendschutz.net has been urging for years.
Here, not only mobile phone operators and app
providers have a clear obligation to take action,
but also mobile device manufacturers.
Focus of research 13
In order to take effective action against illegal content direct
communication with providers has been particularly useful.
In four out of five cases jugendschutz.net could achieve
quick modification or removal of illegal content; often
without having to call in the supervisory authorities.
The increasing amount of illegal content in Web 2.0
services poses a specific problem. Meanwhile,
social media content accounts for two-thirds
of the total of 10,000 illegal cases processed
by jugendschutz.net. Specifically international
companies like Facebook and Google have
no efficient youth protection measures and
no quick reporting mechanisms to respond
to user complaints.
Improved collaboration with the German
Federal Criminal Police Office (BKA),
INHOPE partner hotlines and host providers
resulted in quicker removal of child sexual
abuse images. However, we still need
an overall concept to combat child sexual
abuse online on an effective and
14 jugendschutz.net annual report 2011
In Germany: objecting to illegal content and
involving supervisory bodies
When it comes to illegal content in Germany, jugendschutz .net calls
upon those responsible for the content to modify or remove it . If they
refuse to do so, jugendschutz .net forwards the case to the KJM for
further supervisory action .
• Contacting content providers: successful • Forwarding to supervisory bodies:
in four out of five cases 120 procedures opened
The prime responsibility for illegal content lies Calling in the Commission for the Protection of
with the persons providing the content. Minors in the Media (KJM) for further measures
jugendschutz.net asks them to remove illegal resulted in 120 procedures under media law
content or to at least change it so that children in 2011 (2010: 113). The KJM is the responsible body
and youngsters cannot access it any longer. in Germany for controlling broadcasting and
If no responsible person can be identified - as Internet.
it usually is the case when it comes to illegal
content in Web 2.0 services - jugendschutz.net • Social Media: German communities
turns to the platform operator or host provider. become less important
In 2,737 cases jugendschutz.net took 2,918 actions Collaboration with German operators of video
against illegal content hosted in Germany. Half communities or communication services generally
of these cases concerned traditional websites, the works quite well; illegal and harmful content
other half content in Web 2.0 services. is promptly removed. Still there are some reluctant
operators who do not comply with youth protec-
jugendschutz.net could achieve removal of illegal
tion laws (e.g. insufficient control or moderation,
content in 78 % of the cases. In terms of
bad reporting mechanisms).
traditional websites two-thirds of the actions
taken were successful, in Web 2.0 services almost Considering the decreasing relevance of German
all illegal content was removed. communities in conjunction with the increasing
dominance of Facebook, German operators also
prefer to implement new and often also risky
features. This ‘competition’ conceals the danger of
leaving the protection of children and youngsters
Action taken 15
Abroad: contacting providers most effective
In terms of illegal content hosted abroad, jugendschutz .net informs
partner hotlines or asks host providers or platform operators to remove the
content . Additionally, when it comes to child sexual abuse online,
jugendschutz .net collaborates with the BKA .
• Law enforcement: child pornography is • Partner hotlines: intensified exchange
As a consequence of the debates in Germany jugendschutz.net also forwards cases of illegal
concerning ‘deleting instead of blocking’, hotlines content hosted abroad to partner hotlines within
and law enforcement have intensified their INHOPE, the International Association of Internet
cooperation. Since October 2010, jugendschutz.net hotlines and INACH, the International Network
not only forwards child pornographic cases to Against Cyber Hate.
the BKA, but also to INHOPE partner hotlines or
Operating a joint INHOPE database on child
Internet service providers abroad.
sexual abuse content online has intensified the
The follow-up of 3,000 cases showed that child close cooperation between the partner hotlines.
pornographic depictions could be deleted in In 2011, jugendschutz.net passed on 2,471 child
almost all of the cases and the time the content sexual abuse URLs to partner hotlines via the
was available online was drastically cut down. In INHOPE database. Further improvements of the
two-thirds of all cases, the depictions or videos database are necessary and in process; too
could be found on download platforms. often forwarding child sexual abuse URLs to
Platform operators are challenged to take effective partner hotlines results in no or timely delayed
precautions to prevent a reupload – which is just a removal of the content and jugendschutz.net
matter of minutes – of once removed illegal content. has to take other actions e.g. contact providers
There is a need for an overall concept with a
combination of repressive and preventive measures
to make it more difficult in the long term to
disseminate child pornographic content on the
16 jugendschutz.net annual report 2011
• Host providers: 78 % of all illegal content • Google and Facebook: bad complaints
quickly removed handling
In 2011, jugendschutz.net recorded a total of 7,366 Google has different ways of responding to
illegal cases abroad and most often contacted complaints: in their blog service blogspot, they
host providers or platform operators (55 %). 78 % only remove illegal content in exceptional
of the cases resulted in quick removal of the cases (e.g. child pornography). YouTube, on the
illegal content. other side, deleted 600 instances of illegal
content after being put on notice by jugendschutz.
Whereas the success rate of 21 % in terms of
net. Most of this content referred to right-wing
illegal content on traditional websites was
extremist content. Still, many general problems
substantially lower compared to Germany,
remain, e.g. not preventing reupload of the
Web 2.0 operators abroad almost completely
content, no proactive protection measures.
removed illegal content in their services.
Facebook also removed most of the illegal content
• BPjM: putting illegal content on the index that jugendschutz.net reported. In 2011, this was
reduces availability all kind of illegal content, e.g. child pornography,
depictions of minors in sexually suggestive
jugendschutz.net initiates indexing whenever
poses, right-wing extremism. However, con-
removal of illegal content cannot be achieved.
sidering how popular Facebook is among children
Indexed content is then no longer permitted to and youngsters, this is not sufficient. Rather than
be sold, lent or even presented in public or just reacting to complaints, Facebook just like
advertised for in Germany. In 2011, jugendschutz. Google, should take more measures and actively
net forwarded 89 cases to the BPjM, the promote the protection of children and youngsters
Federal Department for Media Harmful to Young and implement a well functioning complaints
Persons, for indexing. management system to respond to reports made
Action taken 17
jugendschutz.net cooperates with all key stakeholders in the field of
the protection of minors in Germany and abroad.
In 2011, jugendschutz.net actively supported national initiatives
like the ‘Dialogue Internet’, initiated by the German Federal
Ministry of Family. Here, jugendschutz.net was highly
involved in the discussions to develop recommendations
for a better protection of minors on the Internet.
jugendschutz.net also presented its own strategies,
experiences and success stories at national and
international conferences (e.g. United Nations,
European Commission) and shared expertise
with delegations from Japan, Czech Republic,
Australia and United Kingdom.
As a member of INHOPE and INACH,
jugendschutz.net participates in
international networks against child
sexual abuse and cyber hate and
is also engaged in projects of the
European Commission, e.g. the
European filter project SIP-Bench II.
18 jugendschutz.net annual report 2011
jugendschutz .net collaborates with Internet supervisory bodies,
government institutions (e .g . ministries, law enforcement, data protec-
tion authorities), organizations of voluntary self-control, content
providers and various other initiatives and associations (e .g . Klicksafe) .
• Law enforcement: demand for expertise • Dialogue Internet: risk management
of jugendschutz .net strategies online
Collaboration with law enforcement is very close The ‘Dialogue Internet’ develops recommenda-
since in many cases illegal content on the Internet tions for policies concerning children and young
not only refers to the Interstate Treaty on the persons on the Internet to face the challenges
Protection of Minors (JMStV) concerning illegal of a fast changing digital media landscape.
content on the Internet, but also constitutes a
jugendschutz.net co-chaired the working group
criminal offence. jugendschutz.net receives reports
on dealing with illegal and harmful content
forwarded by police (e.g. videos on YouTube)
developing recommendations for a better risk
and coordinates actions with the BKA in terms of
management on the Internet e.g. through an
interaction of precautions that providers can take,
technical protection measures and educational
• Forensic medicine: determination of age
training, commitments of all companies and
of abused children
better identification of trends and new risks.
Determining the age of children in cases of
child pornography (up to 14 years) and youth
pornography (from 14 to 18 years) according
to the German legal differentiation, is often very
hard to do. In order to gain more expertise in
assessing the age of children in borderline cases,
jugendschutz.net exchanged expertise with a
forensic doctor who is an expert concerning age
determination of children on images.
• INHOPE hotlines
in 36 countries
jugendschutz .net participates in networks against child sexual
abuse (INHOPE) and cyber hate (INACH), supports projects in Europe
(SIP-Bench II) and promotes more consideration for children and
youngsters atinternational conferences (United Nations, European
• INHOPE: central network against child • INACH: calling for social responsibilities
sexual abuse of providers
Since INHOPE was founded in 1999, jugend- Together with the Dutch Magenta Foundation,
schutz.net has been committed to the network jugendschutz.net founded INACH in 2002: an
of hotlines. Meanwhile, there are 41 hotlines international network against the dissemination
from 36 countries. of hate on the Internet. Today, the network
counts members from 19 countries.
In 2011, jugendschutz.net took part in a bursary
visit to one of the major INHOPE hotlines, At the occasion of the annual conference in Paris
the British Internet Watch Foundation (IWF), to in 2011, the participants from industry (Google,
exchange information and expertise on assess- Microsoft), press, law enforcement and interna-
ment criteria and options for actions. tional organizations drafted a charter promoting
more social responsibility on the Internet.
jugendschutz.net also hosted a similar visit from
Sensitizing industry to get more involved against
the Australian Communications and Media
hate online is the key objective.
Authority (ACMA). This was specifically interesting,
because both hotlines not only process cases
In 2012, INACH will celebrate its 10th anniversary
of child sexual abuse, but are also the central
with a conference in Germany.
organizations for the protection of minors in their
20 jugendschutz.net annual report 2011
• SIP-Bench: European study on filtering • Safer Internet Forum: leading children
software across Europe to good websites
Filtering software is an important tool to protect The European Commission has organized the Safer
children and youngsters from problematic Internet Forum in Luxembourg as a platform for
content and to allow them to access the Internet the exchange of information and expertise since
according to their age. 2004.
jugendschutz.net chairs the steering board of ‘Promoting Positive Online Experiences for
the EC-funded European Filter Test Project Children across Europe‘ was one major topic
SIP-Bench II supervising the tests and giving at the Safer Internet Forum 2011. At this occasion,
advice on the project organization. jugendschutz.net introduced its new project
‘Meine Startseite‘ i.e. ‘My Homepage‘ providing
The results of the SIP-Bench project confirm the
children with the opportunity to create their
findings of jugendschutz.net’s annual filter tests:
own homepage implementing the best kid sites
filtering software has only little effect in cases of
racism, violence, self-harm behavior and Web 2.0
content, limited abilities to differentiate between jugendschutz.net would appreciate collaboration
age groups and it fails when it comes to mobile with European partners to develop an
phones and game consoles. international version integrating good websites
from all across Europe.
Media education forms an important part of a comprehensive protection
of minors on the Internet. jugendschutz.net conducts intensive
research and provides the information and intelligence gained as
well as practical advice on chances and risks on the Internet.
This work aims at youngsters, parents and pedagogical
experts in and out of school.
Children need safe access to the Internet and
information on how to behave safely online.
The best way to get hold of youngsters is
via the platforms they use every day. Parents
need practical help supporting them when
teaching their children media skills.
jugendschutz.net has for a number of
years, also developed media education
concepts and regularly puts these on
the test with young persons, adults
and pedagogical experts.
22 jugendschutz.net annual report 2011
• On ‘Meine
can create their
Positive content for children
Children need guidance and a safe online environment giving them
the chance to explore the Internet and all its advantages without risk .
jugendschutz .net develops suitable concepts and helps children and
their parents to find safe and attractive content online .
• klick-tipps .net: recommended websites • meine-startseite .de: ‘my own homepage‘
With the Klick-Tipps, jugendschutz.net con- For more than ten years, jugendschutz.net has
tributes to an important aspect of youth protection demanded a suitable kid’s site in the browser
recommending good websites for children and as the most important youth protection measure.
promoting these to catch the eye of a broad Now, the German Federal Ministry of Family
public. The Klick-Tipps editorial team continuously commissioned jugendschutz.net to develop
monitors content for children online and puts ‘meine-startseite.de‘, the first personalized
together recommended websites on a weekly homepage that shall guide children to attractive
basis. Providers can easily integrate the Klick- and fun content every time they access the
Tipps on their websites. More and more providers Internet.
do so: meanwhile, about 400 websites present
Children can create it together with their parents,
choosing from the best websites for kids and
What makes the Klick-Tipps so unique is the close actively learn how to use the Internet safely step
collaboration with a kid’s editorial group. by step in a child-friendly environment.
Weekly workshops in schools and online tools to
rate the websites directly involve children,
include their opinions, base recommendations on
their interests and take their current preferences
and problems into account.
Media education 23
• Leaflets for parents
Support for parents
Today, parents require a lot of expertise and commitment to teach media
literacy skills to their children . They need information and tips about
how to use the Internet safely . jugendschutz .net offers practical help in
the form of leaflets, brochures or online guidance .
• Mobile safety: update on use • surfen-ohne-risiko .net: online support
of mobile phones for parents
Parents can find up-to-date and comprehensive In February 2011, the website ‘surfen-ohne-risiko.
answers concerning a responsible use of mobile net’ i.e. ‘surf without risk‘, went online.
phones in the brochure ‘Handy ohne Risiko’ i.e. jugendschutz.net had developed this website on
‘Mobile phones without risk’. jugendschutz.net behalf of the German Federal Ministry of Family.
developed this brochure on behalf of the German The website offers clear and easy to understand
Federal Ministry of Family. It is regularly revised information with interactive applications
and elaborates risk issues concerning the further concerning how to navigate the Net safely, how
functions of the new mobile phone generation to behave in chat rooms and play games.
and introduces potential protection measures.
• Leaflets: detailed information and tips
Since 2008, jugendschutz.net has published
research results combined with practical tips for
parents and pedagogical experts in leaflets.
These are regularly updated and there still is a
Meanwhile, the total circulation has reached
more than 820.000 leaflets.
24 jugendschutz.net annual report 2011
Content and concepts for multipliers
jugendschutz .net cannot meet all the demands for support in media
education and therefore developed and tested concepts for cooperation
partners to use .
• Train-the-Trainer: successful in • Media scouts:
out-of-school settings learn from peers
Education and prevention are essential for Parents often cannot keep up with the media
young persons to take a critical look at the new world of their children. They use the Internet
forms of right-wing extremist propaganda on in a different way and do not understand
the Internet. In addition to publications and everything their children do online. This is why
workshops, jugendschutz.net developed media making youngsters more media literate has
educational concepts for in and out of school. become more important and where the project
‘media scouts‘ fits in.
In 2011, jugendschutz.net carried on with the
training concept ‚Experiencing the world of jugendschutz.net developed this peer education
right-wing extremism‘ together with the State concept ‘media scouts’ within an initiative of
Ministry of Interior of North-Rhine Westphalia Rhineland-Palatinate to teach high school
and the Federal Agency for Civic Education. students how to protect themselves when surfing
Out-of-School pedagogues had the chance to online or when visiting chat rooms and social
look closely at the fascinating effects of communities. They then pass on the lessons
right-wing extremist content on youngsters and learnt to their schoolmates, parents and teachers.
to develop practical approaches for their
Meanwhile, various institutions successfully apply
this concept in schools. In 2011, jugendschutz.net
tested it in out-of-school work for the first time.
Media education 25
Numbers and figures
In four out of five cases, jugendschutz.net achieves quick removal of
illegal content. The success rate in terms of illegal content abroad
has also increased significantly since there is more and more
content on major Web 2.0 platforms.
The hotline of jugendschutz.net continuously receives a high
number of reports and remains a central hotline for illegal
and harmful content and the biggest information center
in terms of the protection of minors on the Internet
in Germany: around 7,000 reports and 3,000
queries per year.
The number of reports on pornography has
dropped by 50 % during the last five years.
However, reports concerning child
pornographic or right-wing extremist
content and illegal content in
communication services have
jugendschutz.net has extended the
control of Web 2.0 services. The
significant increase of illegal and
harmful content in Web 2.0 services
indicates that providers have to improve
their precautions in order to avoid the
misuse of their platforms and effectively
restrict a re-upload of illegal content.
26 jugendschutz.net annual report 2011
• 50,000 Internet destinations checked • Illegal content quickly removed in four out
for illegal content of five cases
In 2011, jugendschutz.net checked 20,975 Contacting providers remained the most effective
websites, 2,172 search results and 521 postings, measure. In 78 % of all cases jugendschutz.net
4,830 video clips and 21,339 profiles in Web 2.0 achieved quick modification or removal of illegal
services. jugendschutz.net’s control activities content. For the first time, jugendschutz.net
increased by 28 % compared to 2010 which is obtained the same success rate concerning
due to more monitoring of Web 2.0 platforms content hosted abroad.
(plus 49 %).
• Around 7,000 reports processed
• Action against 10,000 illegal cases
The constantly high number of 6,891 reports
jugendschutz.net processed 3,439 cases of illegal sent to the hotline shows the significance and
content on traditional websites and twice as relevance of jugendschutz.net as a complaints
many in Web 2.0 services (6,656). The number bureau dealing with illegal and harmful content
of illegal Web 2.0 content has tripled during 2011. in Germany.
In only one in four cases the illegal content was
The number of reports concerning adult porno-
hosted in Germany (27 %; 2010: 38 %). This
graphy dropped. Increases were recorded for child
reflects the process of illegal content centralizing
sexual abuse and right-wing extremism as well
on major international platforms.
as illegal content in social media.
• Focus on sexual abuse
Depictions of child sexual abuse were the most
common type of illegal content (36 %) followed
by adult pornography (24 %), harmful and
endangering content (18 %) and right-wing
extremism. Child pornography, hate propaganda
and extreme violence were mostly hosted abroad.
Zahlen and figures 1
More consideration for
children and youngsters on the Internet
jugendschutz.net calls for the compliance with the laws concerning the
protection of minors on the Internet and makes sure that content providers
modify problematic content, delete it or make it inaccessible for children
The German Youth Ministries founded jugendschutz.net in 1997. Since 2003,
jugendschutz.net is organizationally assigned to the Commission for
Youth Protection in the Media (KJM) in order to provide for a consistent
control of broadcasting and Internet.
Reports on illegal content on the Internet
Internet users can report illegal and
harmful content to:
Fon: +49 6131 32 85 20
Fax: +49 6131 32 85 22