Protection of Minors on the Internet - by zhouwenjuan


									                Annual Report 2011

Protection of Minors
          on the Internet
Edition notice

Stefan Glaser, Thomas Günter, Kristina Hammann,
Katja Lichtenstein, Friedemann Schindler

Friedemann Schindler

Jennifer Lopes

Druckerei Fortmann

Graphic Design:
Designgruppe Fanz und Neumayer

Partners and supporters of

1 Jahresbericht 2007
                           More consideration for children and young persons
                           – the protection of minors on the Internet faces
                           new challenges

The Internet has changed substantially:             The discussions about a sustainable protection observed an accelerated            of young persons are currently pushed aside in
concentration of the medium towards global          favour of debates on data protection and
platforms. From the perspective of youth            copyright. However, youth protection might
protection, this development reduces the general    benefit from all this. Data privacy activists now
level of protection, because standards already      take up long-standing demands like a safe
achieved in Germany become more and more            default configuration. In order to improve their
obsolete. At the same time, focusing on the         precautions in terms of youth protection,
deficiencies of major platforms and demanding       platform operators could implement technical
better precautions from platform operators          solutions that are already well established when
has a great potential to improve the protection     it comes to copyright infringements.
of minors online.
                                                    The failed amendments to the youth protection
The way the Internet is used has changed as well.   laws in Germany opened up an even wider
With their smart phones and tablet computers,       gap between the legal provisions and the trends
many young persons are online almost anytime        on the Internet.
and anywhere. Since these devices can mean-
                                                    However, this failure could also be seen as
while be controlled by a multitouch display
                                                    a chance to have intensive debates on effective
even small children can access the Internet. The
                                                    ways to protect minors online, to develop
level of protection is low, because there is
                                                    new forms of cooperation and find non-legislative
no adequate control of apps and easy access to
                                                    solutions on the basis of a culture of shared
harmful content in stores all over in the world.
                                                    responsibility among all stakeholders.
At the same time, operators are very much under
pressure to meet the needs to protect children
and find appropriate solutions to do so. It
is obvious that children are not able to protect
Focus of research in 2011                                             .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .   6
Sexual exploitation of minors  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .                               7
•     Child pornography: mainly disseminated via download portals
•     Depictions of minors in sexually suggestive poses:
      breeding ground for sexual abuse

Political extremism  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .                    8
•     Right-wing extremism: Web 2.0 agitation targeting youngsters
•     Islamism: propaganda incites hatred and violence

Promoting self-harm behavior  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .                                9
•     Eating disorders: still numerous websites glorifying anorexia
•     Suicide and self-harm: supporting intentions to commit suicide

Interactive platforms and potential dangers  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .                                           10
•     Online games: wide range of risks
•     Chat rooms and communities: Facebook undercuts protection of minors
•     Cyber bullying: iShareGossip encourages public exposure

Positive online content for children  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .                                   12
•     Advertising: exploiting the inexperience of children
•     Social Media: implementation in kid sites increases risks

Technical protection measures  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .                              13
•     Filtering software: solutions for Web 2.0 content are necessary
•     Mobile Internet: no parental control software so far

Action taken                      .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .   14
In Germany:
objecting to illegal content and involving supervisory bodies  .  .  .  .  .  .                                                             15
•     Contacting content providers: successful in four out of five cases
•     Forwarding to supervisory bodies: 120 procedures opened
•     Social Media: German communities become less important
Abroad: contacting providers most effective  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .                                                  16
•      Law enforcement: child pornography is quickly removed
•      Partner hotlines: intensified exchange
•      Host providers: 78 % of all illegal content quickly removed
•      BPjM: putting illegal content on the index reduces availability
•      Google and Facebook: bad complaints handling

Cooperation                           .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .   18
National  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .          19
•      Law enforcement: demand for expertise of
•      Forensic medicine: determination of age of abused children
•      Dialogue Internet: risk management strategies online

International  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .              20
•      INHOPE: central network against child sexual abuse
•      INACH: calling for social responsibilities of providers
•      SIP-Bench: European study on filtering software
•      Safer Internet Forum: leading children across Europe to good websites

Media education                                   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .   22
Positive content for children  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .                               23
• recommended websites for children
• ‚my own homepage‘
Support for parents  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .                       24
•      Mobile safety: update on use of mobile phones
•      Leaflets: detailed information and tips
• online support for parents
Content and concepts for multipliers  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .                                       25
•      Train-the-Trainer: successful in out-of-school settings
•      Media scouts: learn from peers

Numbers and figures                                           .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .   26
•      50,000 Internet destinations checked for illegal content
•      Action against 10,000 illegal cases
•      Focus on sexual abuse
•      Illegal content quickly modified or removed in four out of five cases
•      Around 7,000 reports processed
Focus of research in 2011 controls the Internet for illegal and harmful content
and looks closely at platforms and topics of specific attraction to
youngsters. This is how problematic developments can be recog-
nized early enough to take swift action. The knowledge and
expertise gained from this work is also the basis for giving
advice to content providers and to develop educational
concepts and handouts concerning Internet safety.

In 2011, the focus of the work was on the sexual
exploitation of minors, right-wing extremism
and self-harm behavior. Additionally, assessed risks for minors
on international platforms like Facebook
and YouTube, specifically in terms of cyber
bullying. For the first time,
also did research on distribution channels
of online games.

Considering the plenitude of Internet
content and the dynamic changes,
technical protection and a safe online
environment for children become more
and more important. This is why also tests popular
parental controls and evaluates positive
content for kids.

6 annual report 2011
                           Sexual exploitation of minors

                           jugendschutz .net combats child sexual abuse images and content
                           stopping well short of crossing the line and trying to break the taboo
                           of abuse . It is essential to have a sustainable overall concept to
                           permanently hinder the distribution of such content .

•   Child pornography: mainly disseminated            •   Depictions of minors in sexually suggestive
    via download portals                                  poses: breeding ground for sexual abuse

Depictions of child sexual abuse are on the           Depictions of minors in sexually suggestive poses
increase. The vast majority involved single items     and so-called boy/girl lover forums blur the
like images and videos, available via download        borders between acceptable behavior and abuse
platforms. Only one in five cases of child sexual     downplaying the sexual exploitation of minors.
abuse was located on traditional websites, in         They provide the perfect breeding ground for real
forums or on link lists.                              sexual abuse.

Half of the close to 3,000 child pornographic’s research in 2011 revealed that
cases in 2011 were forwarded from partner             specifically so-called no nude photos of children
organizations and reported from Internet users.       serve commercial purposes and address a mass
On average, every report assessed led to one          market. Very often, such content also provides a
further child pornographic case.                      link to the pedosexual scene with a worldwide
                                                      network. traced the majority of child
sexual abuse content to three countries: 44 %         In many cases and through direct contacts with
were distributed from the USA, 21 % from the          providers, achieved removal
Netherlands and 20 % from Russia. In 8 % of the       of this content in the shadow areas of child
cases German Internet service were involved.          sexual abuse. However, it is essential to establish
                                                      a comprehensive strategy against child sexual
                                                      abuse that also combats the depictions of minors
                                                      in sexually suggestive poses at international

                                                                                        Focus of research   7
                                                         • Right-wing
                                                           in disguise:
                                                   high number of hits

                                Political extremism

                                Right-wing extremists try to recruit youngsters via the Internet and
                                increasingly make greater use of Web 2 .0 services . In a new project,
                                jugendschutz .net has started a systematic research of Islamist and
                                left-wing extremist websites aiming their propaganda at youngsters .

•   Right-wing extremism: Web 2 .0 agitation                •   Islamism: propaganda incites hatred and
    targeting youngsters                                        violence

The problem of right-wing extremism on the         receives more and more reports
Internet has worsened. Whereas the number of                on other forms of political extremism and
relevant websites has dropped slightly (1,671;              recorded harmful content specifically in the area
2010: 1,708), extreme right-wing postings in                of Islamism.
Web 2.0 services are further on the rise; e.g. the
                                                            In 2011, took various actions
number of right-wing extremist Twitter accounts
                                                            against the website of the Islamic Hacker Union
has almost quadrupled.
                                                            which incited violence against heretics and attacks
The far-right political party NPD (National Demo-           against ISAF soldiers. After an attack on US soldiers
cratic Party of Germany) makes the interactive              at the Frankfurt Airport the assassin referred to
Internet part of their strategic plan to recruit            videos on this website. Already before the attack
youngsters. In 2011, all NPD associations registered        took place achieved deletion
by were active in social media.            of the website.
Even regional neo-Nazi groups having a very
                                                            Since December 2011, analyzes
modern appearance promote their events on pop-
                                                            Islamist and left-wing extremist content on the
ular services like Facebook and YouTube – this is
                                                            Internet in order to assess the risk this content
where 94 % of all Web 2.0 mobilization took place.
                                                            poses for young persons and to identify potential
Right-wing extremists often disguise their                  counter measures. The project is funded by the
inhuman ideas to reach out to young persons                 German Federal Ministry of Family (BMFSFJ).
outside the scene. The fact that individual
postings receive up to a million clicks proves this
strategy is successful.

8 annual report 2011
    • Encouraging each other
                to engage in
         self-harm behavior

                               Promoting self-harm behavior

                               There still is a persistent problem of Internet content promoting self-harm
                               behavior and encouraging young persons in their life-threatening activity .
                               jugendschutz .net investigates this phenomenon und takes action in order
                               to reduce the risks .

•    Eating disorders: still numerous websites          •   Suicide and self-harm: supporting
     glorifying anorexia                                    intentions to commit suicide

Youngsters suffering from eating disorders can          Due to their still developing social, interpersonal
find many opportunities to contact like-minded          and life skills children and youngsters are
users on the Internet. They specifically interact       particularly susceptible to online risks. Promoting
in communities and often encourage each other           suicide and self-harm behavior can be dangerous
in their high-risk activities.                          to children and youngsters under an emotional
                                                        and psychological state of emergency. Instructions
The number of pro-anorexia websites remains
                                                        on how to commit suicide, discussions on the
high (616). However, only half of the content could
                                                        best ways to do so and conspiracy to commit
be found on traditional websites (341; 2010: 423),
                                                        suicide are specifically problematic.
the rest shifted to Web 2.0 services. There, the risk
of a negative impact on children and youngsters         In 2011, a forum where three girls arranged to
is greater than on traditional websites mostly only     commit joint suicide became the focus of public
known by insiders.                                      attention. had already took
                                                        action against this forum in 2010 and initiated
78 % of the content was in breach of youth
                                                        indexing after it moved abroad.
protection laws and in 83 % of the cases the
actions taken resulted in removal of the       mainly recorded Internet
content. continues its efforts         content idealizing self-harm as an extraordinary
to convince operators to integrate links to             experience and encouraging copycat behavior in
counseling services on their platforms.                 communities. One out of three cases with
                                                        harmful content concerned individual postings
                                                        (77 out 0f 102); took action

                                                                                           Focus of research   9
                                                     • Austrian retailer
                                                     offering download
                                                     of indexed games

                                 Interactive platforms and potential dangers

                                 Direct communication and networking on the Internet play an integral
                                 role in daily life of children and youngsters . Social Media provide
                                 unique platforms for a lot of positive opportunities, but also dangerous
                                 encounters and safety hazards .

•    Online games: wide range of risks

There are countless games on the Internet and               Using search engines to find games also showed
lots of varieties: browser games that are played            that indexed games are easily available through
over the Internet without any software, just using          online retailers from abroad. Specifically Austrian
a web browser (so-called mini games, multi-                 online shops even advertise this and disseminate
player games), social network games (apps in                trailers or ingame videos.
social networks like Facebook), download versions           initiated indexing of several Austrian online shops
of ‘traditional’ computer games. Online games               in order to make it more difficult to find them.
are very popular among children.
                                                            Checking all games in major game collections’s research in 2011 revealed that           with thousands of games is hardly possible.
next to a lot of mostly harmless games there       suggests a workshop with
are many containing illegal material: specifically          self-control organizations and online games
problematic depictions of violence and porno-               providers in order to inform them about youth
graphy, but also advertising and dissemination of           protection issues, to win them over for an age
indexed or confiscated games, non-compliance                differentiated labeling of their content and
with data protection provisions, cost traps or              provide better possibilities for players to report
contact risks.                                              problematic content or get support.

10 annual report 2011
           • Community apps
              cyber bullying

•   Chat rooms and communities: Facebook                •   Cyber bullying: iShareGossip encourages
    undercuts protection of minors                          public exposure

Over the last two years, Facebook has become the        Bullying on the Internet is an everyday problem.
No. 1 social networking site among German               It is easier to dish on others online than in real life
children and youngsters. The number of young            e.g. in school. At the same time, cyber bullying
users has doubled; at the same time German              reaches a wider audience and has a much greater
platforms lose ground. Consequently, already            impact.
achieved standards in terms of social networking
                                                        In 2011, the cyber bullying website iShareGossip
sites in Germany become obsolete.
                                                        made the front pages in Germany. The platform
Facebook does not follow the German safety              operator deliberately provided users with a virtual
standards. Despite meanwhile existing safer             stage for anonymous gossip and even encouraged
default settings for under aged user’s profiles,        them to spread rumors and attack others with
this is not sufficient to meet the necessary safety     personal insults. Within a short period of time, the
requirements. Facebook is not fast and good             platform gathered a large number of defamatory
enough in terms of addressing complaints when           postings with personal data of youngsters. This
they are made and does not show any proactive           even resulted in violence offline.
measures concerning the removal of harmful              contacted the provider and meanwhile the website
content.                                                is no longer available.

Research of indicated that on          Still, cyber bullying remains a major issue.
the most frequented platforms there is a consider-      Community operators have to increase their level
able risk of stumbling across harmful content           of precautions and children and youngsters
such as pornography. Insulting behavior or sexual       have to learn more about cyber bullying and be
harassment often initiating a real sexual abuse         aware of the consequences.
are additional risk factors as well as cyber bullying
and data protection issues.

                                                                                             Focus of research   11
                                                                          • Advertising
                                                                         interferes with
                                                                             content on
                                                                                kid sites

                                 Positive online content for children

                                 Children have to learn how to use the Internet safely . jugendschutz .net
                                 identifies and analyses traps and risks on the Internet and develops
                                 concepts and strategies to lead children straight to good websites .

•    Advertising: exploiting the inexperience              •   Social Media: implementation in kid sites
     of children                                               increases risks

Aggressive and misleading advertising is mean-             Very often, kid sites provide links to major social
while very common on the Internet. Advertising is          networking sites. Through integrating the most
often mixed up with other content and not clearly          popular services like YouTube videos, Facebook
identified as such; it exploits the inexperience           profiles and Google Ads, harmful content is just a
and credulity of children. Children do not always          click away.
understand common commercial communication
                                                           Social networking has really taken off for kids.
and they often mistake pop-up ads for games.
                                                           The more kids move their online activities to social
Kid sites have to consider criteria of media
                                                           networks and video communities the more
education and should use visual elements to
                                                           they have to learn how to use these services and
clearly distinguish advertising from other content.
                                                           to communicate safely.
Privacy risks also play a major role. Too often kids
                                                           Meanwhile there are lots of kid sites allowing
are asked to display all their personal information,
                                                           children to surf the Internet safely. However, there
parents are not sufficiently involved. Privacy
                                                           is no kid-safe equivalent in Web 2.0 services.
statements are hard to find, too complicated and
                                                           Kids need their own social communities where they
too difficult for children to understand. Specifically
                                                           can have fun and communicate with friends
kid sites should follow the principle that nothing
                                                           without risk.
more than those details which are absolutely
essential may be collected and stored.

12 annual report 2011
                            Technical protection measures

                            Filter software enables parents to reduce the risks for their children
                            online and to create different accounts for accessing the Internet
                            according to their age . The changes on the Internet towards Web 2 .0
                            and mobile services pose new challenges .

•   Filtering software: solutions for Web 2 .0         •   Mobile Internet: no parental control
    content are necessary                                  software so far has tested filtering software         Mobile phones and other Internet-capable
since 2007. Over the past years, their effectiveness   devices like game consoles have become
has only slightly improved. Whereas filters            an integral part in the lives of children and
recognize pornographic content quite well,             youngsters. They are essentially handheld
the error rate in terms of violence, racism or         computers with unlimited Internet access,
self-harm behavior is still high.                      posing a challenge for protective parents because
                                                       they are also used outside of the home. So
No software is currently able to differentiate
                                                       worries about children stumbling across
between postings in social networks or video
                                                       pornographic or violent content, being groomed
communities. With Web 2.0 content increasing
                                                       in chat rooms, or loosing personal data now
every day, workable filtering solutions become
                                                       apply equally to their phone. Specifically apps
more and more important.
                                                       carry additional risks and bypass protection
In Germany, there are two systems in place now         standards.
meeting the requirements of youth protection
                                                       Research of in 2011 has shown
laws enabling content providers to label their
                                                       that there are no effective parental control
content for different age groups. However, these
                                                       solutions for mobile Internet devices so far. Still,
only become fully effective if many parents install
                                                       no operator offers child safe default settings or
the filtering software that is able to read these
                                                       sufficient filter systems for mobile Internet access
                                                       as has been urging for years.
                                                       Here, not only mobile phone operators and app
                                                       providers have a clear obligation to take action,
                                                       but also mobile device manufacturers.

                                                                                          Focus of research   13
Action taken
In order to take effective action against illegal content direct
communication with providers has been particularly useful.
In four out of five cases could achieve
quick modification or removal of illegal content; often
without having to call in the supervisory authorities.

The increasing amount of illegal content in Web 2.0
services poses a specific problem. Meanwhile,
social media content accounts for two-thirds
of the total of 10,000 illegal cases processed
by Specifically international
companies like Facebook and Google have
no efficient youth protection measures and
no quick reporting mechanisms to respond
to user complaints.

Improved collaboration with the German
Federal Criminal Police Office (BKA),
INHOPE partner hotlines and host providers
resulted in quicker removal of child sexual
abuse images. However, we still need
an overall concept to combat child sexual
abuse online on an effective and
sustainable basis.

14 annual report 2011
                            In Germany: objecting to illegal content and
                            involving supervisory bodies

                            When it comes to illegal content in Germany, jugendschutz .net calls
                            upon those responsible for the content to modify or remove it . If they
                            refuse to do so, jugendschutz .net forwards the case to the KJM for
                            further supervisory action .

•   Contacting content providers: successful           •   Forwarding to supervisory bodies:
    in four out of five cases                              120 procedures opened

The prime responsibility for illegal content lies      Calling in the Commission for the Protection of
with the persons providing the content.                Minors in the Media (KJM) for further measures asks them to remove illegal           resulted in 120 procedures under media law
content or to at least change it so that children      in 2011 (2010: 113). The KJM is the responsible body
and youngsters cannot access it any longer.            in Germany for controlling broadcasting and
If no responsible person can be identified - as        Internet.
it usually is the case when it comes to illegal
content in Web 2.0 services -         •   Social Media: German communities
turns to the platform operator or host provider.           become less important

In 2,737 cases took 2,918 actions     Collaboration with German operators of video
against illegal content hosted in Germany. Half        communities or communication services generally
of these cases concerned traditional websites, the     works quite well; illegal and harmful content
other half content in Web 2.0 services.                is promptly removed. Still there are some reluctant
                                                       operators who do not comply with youth protec- could achieve removal of illegal
                                                       tion laws (e.g. insufficient control or moderation,
content in 78 % of the cases. In terms of
                                                       bad reporting mechanisms).
traditional websites two-thirds of the actions
taken were successful, in Web 2.0 services almost      Considering the decreasing relevance of German
all illegal content was removed.                       communities in conjunction with the increasing
                                                       dominance of Facebook, German operators also
                                                       prefer to implement new and often also risky
                                                       features. This ‘competition’ conceals the danger of
                                                       leaving the protection of children and youngsters
                                                                                              Action taken   15
                                 Abroad: contacting providers most effective

                                 In terms of illegal content hosted abroad, jugendschutz .net informs
                                 partner hotlines or asks host providers or platform operators to remove the
                                 content . Additionally, when it comes to child sexual abuse online,
                                 jugendschutz .net collaborates with the BKA .

•    Law enforcement: child pornography is                  •   Partner hotlines: intensified exchange
     quickly removed

As a consequence of the debates in Germany         also forwards cases of illegal
concerning ‘deleting instead of blocking’, hotlines         content hosted abroad to partner hotlines within
and law enforcement have intensified their                  INHOPE, the International Association of Internet
cooperation. Since October 2010,           hotlines and INACH, the International Network
not only forwards child pornographic cases to               Against Cyber Hate.
the BKA, but also to INHOPE partner hotlines or
                                                            Operating a joint INHOPE database on child
Internet service providers abroad.
                                                            sexual abuse content online has intensified the
The follow-up of 3,000 cases showed that child              close cooperation between the partner hotlines.
pornographic depictions could be deleted in                 In 2011, passed on 2,471 child
almost all of the cases and the time the content            sexual abuse URLs to partner hotlines via the
was available online was drastically cut down. In           INHOPE database. Further improvements of the
two-thirds of all cases, the depictions or videos           database are necessary and in process; too
could be found on download platforms.                       often forwarding child sexual abuse URLs to
Platform operators are challenged to take effective         partner hotlines results in no or timely delayed
precautions to prevent a reupload – which is just a         removal of the content and
matter of minutes – of once removed illegal content.        has to take other actions e.g. contact providers
There is a need for an overall concept with a
combination of repressive and preventive measures
to make it more difficult in the long term to
disseminate child pornographic content on the

16 annual report 2011
•   Host providers: 78 % of all illegal content       •   Google and Facebook: bad complaints
    quickly removed                                       handling

In 2011, recorded a total of 7,366   Google has different ways of responding to
illegal cases abroad and most often contacted         complaints: in their blog service blogspot, they
host providers or platform operators (55 %). 78 %     only remove illegal content in exceptional
of the cases resulted in quick removal of the         cases (e.g. child pornography). YouTube, on the
illegal content.                                      other side, deleted 600 instances of illegal
                                                      content after being put on notice by jugendschutz.
Whereas the success rate of 21 % in terms of
                                                      net. Most of this content referred to right-wing
illegal content on traditional websites was
                                                      extremist content. Still, many general problems
substantially lower compared to Germany,
                                                      remain, e.g. not preventing reupload of the
Web 2.0 operators abroad almost completely
                                                      content, no proactive protection measures.
removed illegal content in their services.
                                                      Facebook also removed most of the illegal content
•   BPjM: putting illegal content on the index        that reported. In 2011, this was
    reduces availability                              all kind of illegal content, e.g. child pornography,
                                                      depictions of minors in sexually suggestive initiates indexing whenever
                                                      poses, right-wing extremism. However, con-
removal of illegal content cannot be achieved.
                                                      sidering how popular Facebook is among children
Indexed content is then no longer permitted to        and youngsters, this is not sufficient. Rather than
be sold, lent or even presented in public or          just reacting to complaints, Facebook just like
advertised for in Germany. In 2011, jugendschutz.     Google, should take more measures and actively
net forwarded 89 cases to the BPjM, the               promote the protection of children and youngsters
Federal Department for Media Harmful to Young         and implement a well functioning complaints
Persons, for indexing.                                management system to respond to reports made
                                                      by users.
                                                                                             Action taken   17
Cooperation cooperates with all key stakeholders in the field of
the protection of minors in Germany and abroad.

In 2011, actively supported national initiatives
like the ‘Dialogue Internet’, initiated by the German Federal
Ministry of Family. Here, was highly
involved in the discussions to develop recommendations
for a better protection of minors on the Internet. also presented its own strategies,
experiences and success stories at national and
international conferences (e.g. United Nations,
European Commission) and shared expertise
with delegations from Japan, Czech Republic,
Australia and United Kingdom.

As a member of INHOPE and INACH, participates in
international networks against child
sexual abuse and cyber hate and
is also engaged in projects of the
European Commission, e.g. the
European filter project SIP-Bench II.

18 annual report 2011

                            jugendschutz .net collaborates with Internet supervisory bodies,
                            government institutions (e .g . ministries, law enforcement, data protec-
                            tion authorities), organizations of voluntary self-control, content
                            providers and various other initiatives and associations (e .g . Klicksafe) .

•   Law enforcement: demand for expertise              •   Dialogue Internet: risk management
    of jugendschutz .net                                   strategies online

Collaboration with law enforcement is very close       The ‘Dialogue Internet’ develops recommenda-
since in many cases illegal content on the Internet    tions for policies concerning children and young
not only refers to the Interstate Treaty on the        persons on the Internet to face the challenges
Protection of Minors (JMStV) concerning illegal        of a fast changing digital media landscape.
content on the Internet, but also constitutes a
                                              co-chaired the working group
criminal offence. receives reports
                                                       on dealing with illegal and harmful content
forwarded by police (e.g. videos on YouTube)
                                                       developing recommendations for a better risk
and coordinates actions with the BKA in terms of
                                                       management on the Internet e.g. through an
right-wing extremism.
                                                       interaction of precautions that providers can take,
                                                       technical protection measures and educational
•   Forensic medicine: determination of age
                                                       training, commitments of all companies and
    of abused children
                                                       better identification of trends and new risks.
Determining the age of children in cases of
child pornography (up to 14 years) and youth
pornography (from 14 to 18 years) according
to the German legal differentiation, is often very
hard to do. In order to gain more expertise in
assessing the age of children in borderline cases, exchanged expertise with a
forensic doctor who is an expert concerning age
determination of children on images.

                                                                                              Cooperation   19
                                                              • INHOPE hotlines
                                                                 in 36 countries


                                 jugendschutz .net participates in networks against child sexual
                                 abuse (INHOPE) and cyber hate (INACH), supports projects in Europe
                                 (SIP-Bench II) and promotes more consideration for children and
                                 youngsters atinternational conferences (United Nations, European
                                 Commission) .

•    INHOPE: central network against child                •   INACH: calling for social responsibilities
     sexual abuse                                             of providers

Since INHOPE was founded in 1999, jugend-                 Together with the Dutch Magenta Foundation, has been committed to the network     founded INACH in 2002: an
of hotlines. Meanwhile, there are 41 hotlines             international network against the dissemination
from 36 countries.                                        of hate on the Internet. Today, the network
                                                          counts members from 19 countries.
In 2011, took part in a bursary
visit to one of the major INHOPE hotlines,                At the occasion of the annual conference in Paris
the British Internet Watch Foundation (IWF), to           in 2011, the participants from industry (Google,
exchange information and expertise on assess-             Microsoft), press, law enforcement and interna-
ment criteria and options for actions.                    tional organizations drafted a charter promoting
                                                          more social responsibility on the Internet. also hosted a similar visit from
                                                          Sensitizing industry to get more involved against
the Australian Communications and Media
                                                          hate online is the key objective.
Authority (ACMA). This was specifically interesting,
because both hotlines not only process cases
                                                          In 2012, INACH will celebrate its 10th anniversary
of child sexual abuse, but are also the central
                                                          with a conference in Germany.
organizations for the protection of minors in their

20 annual report 2011
•   SIP-Bench: European study on filtering              •   Safer Internet Forum: leading children
    software                                                across Europe to good websites

Filtering software is an important tool to protect      The European Commission has organized the Safer
children and youngsters from problematic                Internet Forum in Luxembourg as a platform for
content and to allow them to access the Internet        the exchange of information and expertise since
according to their age.                                 2004. chairs the steering board of           ‘Promoting Positive Online Experiences for
the EC-funded European Filter Test Project              Children across Europe‘ was one major topic
SIP-Bench II supervising the tests and giving           at the Safer Internet Forum 2011. At this occasion,
advice on the project organization.            introduced its new project
                                                        ‘Meine Startseite‘ i.e. ‘My Homepage‘ providing
The results of the SIP-Bench project confirm the
                                                        children with the opportunity to create their
findings of’s annual filter tests:
                                                        own homepage implementing the best kid sites
filtering software has only little effect in cases of
racism, violence, self-harm behavior and Web 2.0
content, limited abilities to differentiate between would appreciate collaboration
age groups and it fails when it comes to mobile         with European partners to develop an
phones and game consoles.                               international version integrating good websites
                                                        from all across Europe.

                                                                                              Cooperation   21
Media education
Media education forms an important part of a comprehensive protection
of minors on the Internet. conducts intensive
research and provides the information and intelligence gained as
well as practical advice on chances and risks on the Internet.

This work aims at youngsters, parents and pedagogical
experts in and out of school.

Children need safe access to the Internet and
information on how to behave safely online.
The best way to get hold of youngsters is
via the platforms they use every day. Parents
need practical help supporting them when
teaching their children media skills. has for a number of
years, also developed media education
concepts and regularly puts these on
the test with young persons, adults
and pedagogical experts.

22 annual report 2011
                                                      • On ‘Meine
                                               Startseite‘ children
                                                   can create their
                                                   own homepage

                           Positive content for children

                           Children need guidance and a safe online environment giving them
                           the chance to explore the Internet and all its advantages without risk .
                           jugendschutz .net develops suitable concepts and helps children and
                           their parents to find safe and attractive content online .

•   klick-tipps .net: recommended websites             •    meine-startseite .de: ‘my own homepage‘
    for children

With the Klick-Tipps, con-            For more than ten years, has
tributes to an important aspect of youth protection    demanded a suitable kid’s site in the browser
recommending good websites for children and            as the most important youth protection measure.
promoting these to catch the eye of a broad            Now, the German Federal Ministry of Family
public. The Klick-Tipps editorial team continuously    commissioned to develop
monitors content for children online and puts          ‘‘, the first personalized
together recommended websites on a weekly              homepage that shall guide children to attractive
basis. Providers can easily integrate the Klick-       and fun content every time they access the
Tipps on their websites. More and more providers       Internet.
do so: meanwhile, about 400 websites present
                                                       Children can create it together with their parents,
the Klick-Tipps.
                                                       choosing from the best websites for kids and
What makes the Klick-Tipps so unique is the close      actively learn how to use the Internet safely step
collaboration with a kid’s editorial group.            by step in a child-friendly environment.
Weekly workshops in schools and online tools to
rate the websites directly involve children,
include their opinions, base recommendations on
their interests and take their current preferences
and problems into account.

                                                                                         Media education   23
                                                                 • Leaflets for parents
                                                                     and pedagogical
                                                                      experts provide
                                                                 practical information

                               Support for parents

                               Today, parents require a lot of expertise and commitment to teach media
                               literacy skills to their children . They need information and tips about
                               how to use the Internet safely . jugendschutz .net offers practical help in
                               the form of leaflets, brochures or online guidance .

•    Mobile safety: update on use                          •   surfen-ohne-risiko .net: online support
     of mobile phones                                          for parents

Parents can find up-to-date and comprehensive              In February 2011, the website ‘surfen-ohne-risiko.
answers concerning a responsible use of mobile             net’ i.e. ‘surf without risk‘, went online.
phones in the brochure ‘Handy ohne Risiko’ i.e.   had developed this website on
‘Mobile phones without risk’.             behalf of the German Federal Ministry of Family.
developed this brochure on behalf of the German            The website offers clear and easy to understand
Federal Ministry of Family. It is regularly revised        information with interactive applications
and elaborates risk issues concerning the further          concerning how to navigate the Net safely, how
functions of the new mobile phone generation               to behave in chat rooms and play games.
and introduces potential protection measures.

•    Leaflets: detailed information and tips

Since 2008, has published
research results combined with practical tips for
parents and pedagogical experts in leaflets.
These are regularly updated and there still is a
strong demand.

Meanwhile, the total circulation has reached
more than 820.000 leaflets.

24 annual report 2011
                            Content and concepts for multipliers

                            jugendschutz .net cannot meet all the demands for support in media
                            education and therefore developed and tested concepts for cooperation
                            partners to use .

•   Train-the-Trainer: successful in                •   Media scouts:
    out-of-school settings                              learn from peers

Education and prevention are essential for          Parents often cannot keep up with the media
young persons to take a critical look at the new    world of their children. They use the Internet
forms of right-wing extremist propaganda on         in a different way and do not understand
the Internet. In addition to publications and       everything their children do online. This is why
workshops, developed media         making youngsters more media literate has
educational concepts for in and out of school.      become more important and where the project
                                                    ‘media scouts‘ fits in.
In 2011, carried on with the
training concept ‚Experiencing the world of developed this peer education
right-wing extremism‘ together with the State       concept ‘media scouts’ within an initiative of
Ministry of Interior of North-Rhine Westphalia      Rhineland-Palatinate to teach high school
and the Federal Agency for Civic Education.         students how to protect themselves when surfing
Out-of-School pedagogues had the chance to          online or when visiting chat rooms and social
look closely at the fascinating effects of          communities. They then pass on the lessons
right-wing extremist content on youngsters and      learnt to their schoolmates, parents and teachers.
to develop practical approaches for their
                                                    Meanwhile, various institutions successfully apply
educational work.
                                                    this concept in schools. In 2011,
                                                    tested it in out-of-school work for the first time.

                                                                                       Media education   25
Numbers and figures
In four out of five cases, achieves quick removal of
illegal content. The success rate in terms of illegal content abroad
has also increased significantly since there is more and more
content on major Web 2.0 platforms.

The hotline of continuously receives a high
number of reports and remains a central hotline for illegal
and harmful content and the biggest information center
in terms of the protection of minors on the Internet
in Germany: around 7,000 reports and 3,000
queries per year.

The number of reports on pornography has
dropped by 50 % during the last five years.
However, reports concerning child
pornographic or right-wing extremist
content and illegal content in
communication services have
continuously increased. has extended the
control of Web 2.0 services. The
significant increase of illegal and
harmful content in Web 2.0 services
indicates that providers have to improve
their precautions in order to avoid the
misuse of their platforms and effectively
restrict a re-upload of illegal content.

26 annual report 2011
•   50,000 Internet destinations checked               •   Illegal content quickly removed in four out
    for illegal content                                    of five cases

In 2011, checked 20,975               Contacting providers remained the most effective
websites, 2,172 search results and 521 postings,       measure. In 78 % of all cases
4,830 video clips and 21,339 profiles in Web 2.0       achieved quick modification or removal of illegal
services.’s control activities        content. For the first time,
increased by 28 % compared to 2010 which is            obtained the same success rate concerning
due to more monitoring of Web 2.0 platforms            content hosted abroad.
(plus 49 %).
                                                       •   Around 7,000 reports processed
•   Action against 10,000 illegal cases
                                                       The constantly high number of 6,891 reports processed 3,439 cases of illegal      sent to the hotline shows the significance and
content on traditional websites and twice as           relevance of as a complaints
many in Web 2.0 services (6,656). The number           bureau dealing with illegal and harmful content
of illegal Web 2.0 content has tripled during 2011.    in Germany.
In only one in four cases the illegal content was
                                                       The number of reports concerning adult porno-
hosted in Germany (27 %; 2010: 38 %). This
                                                       graphy dropped. Increases were recorded for child
reflects the process of illegal content centralizing
                                                       sexual abuse and right-wing extremism as well
on major international platforms.
                                                       as illegal content in social media.

•   Focus on sexual abuse

Depictions of child sexual abuse were the most
common type of illegal content (36 %) followed
by adult pornography (24 %), harmful and
endangering content (18 %) and right-wing
extremism. Child pornography, hate propaganda
and extreme violence were mostly hosted abroad.

                                                                                      Numbersim Überblick
                                                                                       Zahlen and figures    1
More consideration for
children and youngsters on the Internet calls for the compliance with the laws concerning the
   protection of minors on the Internet and makes sure that content providers
   modify problematic content, delete it or make it inaccessible for children
   and youngsters.

   The German Youth Ministries founded in 1997. Since 2003, is organizationally assigned to the Commission for
   Youth Protection in the Media (KJM) in order to provide for a consistent
   control of broadcasting and Internet.

Reports on illegal content on the Internet
   Internet users can report illegal and
   harmful content to:

                                                                  Wallstraße 11
                                                                  55122 Mainz

                                                                  Fon: +49 6131 32 85 20
                                                                  Fax: +49 6131 32 85 22

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