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Biometric Powered By Docstoc

1. Introduction
2. History
3. How Biometrics Works
4. Application
5. Classification of Biometrics Systems
6. Fingerprint Scan
7. Iris Scan
8. Retinal Scan
9. Hand Geometry Scan
10. DNA Scan
11. Voice Recognition
12. Facial Recognition
13. Signature Recognition
14. Advantages
15. Disadvantages
16. Biometrics in Automotive
17. How it Works in Automotive
18. Future Perspective of Biometrics in Automotive
19. Advantages of Biometrics in Automotive
20. Conclusion
21. References


                             Biometrics is study of methods for uniquely recognizing human
based on one or more intrinsic physical or behavioural traits. The words biometrics originates
from two Greek words bios and metron. The meaning of bios is ‘life’ and metron is
‘measure’ thus biometric is measure of traits of living beings.

Biometrics refers to authentication techniques that rely on measurable physical and individual
characteristics that can be automatically verified. In other word we can say that, we all have
unique personal attributes that can be used for distinctive identification purposes, including a
fingerprint, the pattern of a retina, and voice characteristics.

Using biometric authentication system we need not to remember any password or pin number
and also need not carry any card or token. Misuse of one’s identity and personal information
can be stopped by biometric authentication system since one’s have a unique physical trait
which cannot be copied. Thus biometric system can play a vital role in future security.
Among the first known examples of practiced biometrics was a form of member printing used
in China in the fourteenth century, as reported by the Portuguese historian Joao de Barros.
The Chinese merchants were stamping children’s palm and footprints on paper with ink to
distinguish the babies from one another.

In the 1890s, an anthropologist and police desk clerk in Paris named Alphonse
Bertillon sought to fix the problem of identifying convicted criminals and turned biometrics
into a distinct field of study. He developed a method of multiple body measurements that was
named after him (the Bertillon age technique—measuring body lengths). Police throughout
the world used this system until it proved to be exceedingly prone to error as many people
shared the same measurements.

After this failure, the police started using fingerprinting—developed by Richard Edward
Henry of Scotland Yard—after the methods used by the Chinese centuries before.
                           HOW BIOMETRICS WORKS

Working of biometrics basically involves three following steps:

   1. Enrollment:

                      The first time you use a biometric system, it records basic information
       about you, like your name or an identification number. It then captures an image or
       recording of your specific trait.

       When you use a biometric system first time it records your unique trait through a

   2. Storage:
                Captured or recorded data during enrolment does not store directly into the
       storage unit, first it analyze your unique trait and translate it into codes. Analyzing
       and translation in codes can be done using a microprocessor or a computer having
       software/programme to analyze and translating it in the language that can be
       understood by the computer or microprocessor.

   3. Verification:

                    After enrollment next time you use the system it will verify your present
       traits by comparing it with the information in the storage device and then, it either
       accepts or rejects that you are who you claim to be.

       Biometrics system uses three components:

                                                  1. A sensor that detects the characteristic or
                                                      trait that being used for identification.

                                                  2. A computer or microprocessor that read
                                                      and stores the information.

                                                  3. Software that analyze the traits or
                                                     characteristics and translate it in codes
                                                     and perform the comparison.
Biometrics systems are used for various purposes.

Some of its applications are:

                                1. Passports

                                2. Id cards

                                3. Security system

                                4. Voter Id cards

                                5. Driving licence

                                6. Time and Attendance

                                7. Secured documents

                                8. Computer network

                                9. Automotive
                            CLASSIFICATION OF BIOMTRICS

Biometrics systems can be classified into two categories:

                                                            1. Physiological Biometrics

                                                            2. Behaviour Biometrics

Physiological Biometrics:

                            Physiological biometrics can be defined as those which are related
the physical traits of humans. Some of physiological biometrics systems are:

                                 1.(a). Fingerprint scan

                                 1.(b). Hand geometry

                                 1.(c). Iris scan

                                 1.(d). Face recognition

                                 1.(e). Retina scan

                                 1.(f). DNA recognition

Behavioural Biometrics:

                            Behavioural biometrics can be defined as those which are related
the behaviour traits of humans. Some of behavioural biometrics systems are:

                             2.(a). Signature scan

                             2.(b). Typing rhythm

                             2.(c). Voice recognition

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