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The Garland Handbook Of Latin American Music Part Three: Nations and Musical Traditions, South America, Bolivia Overview Cultural Heritage Primarily Indigenous and European • Indigenous Both Inkan and pre-Inkan (various ethnic groups) • Quechua, Aymara, and Guaraní spoken in Bolivia today Little archeological evidence of pre-Colombian musical activities (unlike Peru) Missionary and chronicler accounts • Suggest the predominance of song and dance • Connection between music and beliefs (as seen elsewhere) • European Significant Influence on contemporary Bolivian musical traditions • Introduced instruments, song forms, dances, • Impact of the Roman Catholic church and of missionary activities on indigenous traditions great Contemporary Bolivian Music Musical instruments Great diversity of instruments • Vary with region, cultural group, time of year, and ritual function • Names for instruments also vary Introduction of European instruments spurred development of new instruments • Imitations and hybrids i.e., the charango Indigenous instruments also incorporated by Jesuit missionaries i.e., the bajones Contemporary Bolivian Music Typical musical instruments Idiophones • Cencerro (bronze llama bells) • Matraca (cog rattle) • Paichochi (seed pod rattles) Membranophones • Various double headed drums Wankara Bombo Tambora Contemporary Bolivian Music Musical instruments (cont.) Aerophones • Various panpipes Julajula Siku (or zampoña) • Flutes Quena Flauta or pífano (transverse flute) Pinkullus (duct flutes) Musiñu (mohoceño) Tarka (or anata) Pututu (horns) Bajón Chordophones • Musical bows (lowland indigenous groups) • Charango (small, four or five double course stringed instrument) • Mandolin like instruments • Guitarilla Contexts and Genres Contexts and genres Intertwined as elsewhere in Latin America • Close association between instruments, genres, and even tunings with specific regions, seasons, and ritual occasions • Music an integral part of many rituals Musical contexts often mark life-cycle or seasonal events • Close relationship between music and dance Dance of great ritual significance • Social identity (i.e., age, gender, class, and ethnic identity) also typically marked by particular instruments and genres Include • Music for healing rituals • Music for social and religious celebrations (fiestas) • Music for courtship • Music for dancing Music and Social Structure Music as social process Henry Stobart makes several references to the relation between music and social identity, noting that music (or sound) and musical performance is “essentially a socializing activity” (p. 432). Consider the various examples Stobart provides illustrating this relationship • Consider contexts and genres, uses of music, and the relation between music and beliefs (ideologies and aesthetics) Questions for discussion • How do Bolivian highland aesthetics concerning sound production, compositional process, and performance practice reflect local notions of community and individuality? • How are age, gender, and ethnic identity differentiated and expressed through music? • What role does music play in the expression of group solidarity and difference, especially in the festival context? • How is the notion of duality expressed in Bolivian musical traditions? Consider musical instruments, performance practice, and the ritual activities of the fiesta context • How might lowland Amerindian traditions, discussed by Dale Olsen and Anthony Seeger, similarly reflect particular ideologies concerning social identity?
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