Bolivia.ppt - Routledge by fjzhangxiaoquan


									The Garland Handbook
Of Latin American Music
   Part Three: Nations and Musical
  Traditions, South America, Bolivia
   Cultural Heritage
       Primarily Indigenous and European
         • Indigenous
                Both Inkan and pre-Inkan (various ethnic groups)
                    • Quechua, Aymara, and Guaraní spoken in Bolivia today
                Little archeological evidence of pre-Colombian musical activities (unlike
                Missionary and chronicler accounts
                    • Suggest the predominance of song and dance
                    • Connection between music and beliefs (as seen elsewhere)
         • European
                Significant Influence on contemporary Bolivian musical traditions
                   • Introduced instruments, song forms, dances,
                   • Impact of the Roman Catholic church and of missionary activities
                      on indigenous traditions great
    Contemporary Bolivian Music
   Musical instruments
       Great diversity of instruments
         • Vary with region, cultural group, time of year, and ritual
         • Names for instruments also vary
       Introduction of European instruments spurred
        development of new instruments
         • Imitations and hybrids
                i.e., the charango
       Indigenous instruments also incorporated by Jesuit
                i.e., the bajones
  Contemporary Bolivian Music
 Typical    musical instruments
     Idiophones
      • Cencerro (bronze llama bells)
      • Matraca (cog rattle)
      • Paichochi (seed pod rattles)
     Membranophones
      • Various double headed drums
            Wankara
            Bombo
            Tambora
    Contemporary Bolivian Music
   Musical instruments (cont.)
        Aerophones
          • Various panpipes
                   Julajula
                   Siku (or zampoña)
          • Flutes
                   Quena
                   Flauta or pífano (transverse flute)
                   Pinkullus (duct flutes)
                   Musiñu (mohoceño)
                   Tarka (or anata)
                   Pututu (horns)
                   Bajón
        Chordophones
          •   Musical bows (lowland indigenous groups)
          •   Charango (small, four or five double course stringed instrument)
          •   Mandolin like instruments
          •   Guitarilla
               Contexts and Genres
   Contexts and genres
       Intertwined as elsewhere in Latin America
         • Close association between instruments, genres, and even tunings
           with specific regions, seasons, and ritual occasions
         • Music an integral part of many rituals
                  Musical contexts often mark life-cycle or seasonal events
         • Close relationship between music and dance
                  Dance of great ritual significance
         • Social identity (i.e., age, gender, class, and ethnic identity) also
           typically marked by particular instruments and genres
       Include
         •   Music for healing rituals
         •   Music for social and religious celebrations (fiestas)
         •   Music for courtship
         •   Music for dancing
         Music and Social Structure
   Music as social process
        Henry Stobart makes several references to the relation between music and
         social identity, noting that music (or sound) and musical performance is
         “essentially a socializing activity” (p. 432).

        Consider the various examples Stobart provides illustrating this relationship
          • Consider contexts and genres, uses of music, and the relation between music and
            beliefs (ideologies and aesthetics)

   Questions for discussion
          • How do Bolivian highland aesthetics concerning sound production, compositional
            process, and performance practice reflect local notions of community and individuality?
          • How are age, gender, and ethnic identity differentiated and expressed through music?
          • What role does music play in the expression of group solidarity and difference,
            especially in the festival context?
          • How is the notion of duality expressed in Bolivian musical traditions?
                   Consider musical instruments, performance practice, and the ritual activities of the fiesta
          • How might lowland Amerindian traditions, discussed by Dale Olsen and Anthony
            Seeger, similarly reflect particular ideologies concerning social identity?

To top