Know about Windows XP _Part 8_

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Know about Windows XP _Part 8_ Powered By Docstoc
					License and media types
Question book-new.svg This section does not cite any references or
sources. (August 2008)

There are three main types of licenses for Windows XP Professional and
Professional x64: Retail, Volume (VLK), and Original Equipment
Manufacturer (OEM). Windows XP Home Edition is limited to Retail and OEM
licenses, whereas Windows XP Media Center Edition and Windows XP Tablet
PC Edition are exclusively available through VLK and OEM channels.

Each type of license has a different installation CD. For customized or
retail media, there is a small difference on each type of disc that will
allow that installation disc to accept only one type of product key.

Only retail and volume licenses include support for end-user installation
scenarios from Microsoft. OEM software is preinstalled on systems and is
supported by the system manufacturer rather than Microsoft. The price of
such software is lower. There are two important restrictions on OEM
licenses: Microsoft does not offer technical support, and the license
cannot be transferred to another computer. The cost of OEM software
products bundled with systems is not disclosed by Microsoft nor by its
partners, as each system manufacturer will define its own bundling price.

Microsoft recommends that system manufacturers have their systems tested,
for a fee, as part of the Windows Quality Online Services (Winqual) which
includes extensive testing so that no component will cause instability in
the Windows operating system due to incompatibility with the Windows
operating system or with other system components or their respective
drivers. Having a system tested and approved will allow the manufacturer
to bear the "Certified for Windows" logo sticker on the exterior of the
system, and there are additional benefits for having a tested product.
This includes the product's being listed on the Windows Marketplace.
Because of the fees and extensive requirements, Microsoft acknowledges
that smaller system manufacturers may not opt in to the program until
they produce computer systems at a modest rate and on recurring designs.
Retail

Retail licenses, those purchased from a retail store in complete
packaging, are of two sub-types: "Upgrade" and "Full Purchase Product",
often abbreviated by Microsoft as FPP. FPP licenses are transferable from
one computer to another, provided the previous installation is removed
from the old computer. Although upgrade licenses are also transferable, a
user must have a previous version of Windows even on the new computer to
which they are moving the installation. Retail licenses include
installation support for end-users, provided directly by Microsoft.
Volume License

A Volume License is the license given to a software version sold to
businesses under a direct purchase agreement with Microsoft, and is sold
as an upgrade license only, meaning that a previous license must be
available for each new volume license. Volume license versions of Windows
XP use a Volume License Key (VLK), which is a product key that does not
require product activation. The term "Volume License Key" refers to the
ability to use one product key for multiple systems, depending on the
type of agreement. Since Windows XP Volume License versions do not
require product activation, this led to leaked copies of VLK media and
product keys from businesses leading to piracy of Windows XP quickly
spreading across the Internet upon early release. Beginning with Service
Pack 1, Microsoft's active attempts to search out and blacklist known
pirated VLK product keys became well known due to the inability to
install the service pack on a system with one of the blacklisted keys.
Later, this led to the Windows Genuine Advantage program.
Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM)

Original equipment manufacturer (OEM) licenses are preinstalled on, and
sold with, pre-assembled computers from system manufacturers. There are
two types of OEM product types — those used for "direct OEMs" (major name
brands that buy through a direct contract with Microsoft and produce and
brand their own media from a Microsoft "Gold Master Copy" by using an
authorized Microsoft duplication partner), and those used for "system
builders" (local computer shops that buy generic, unbranded kits through
authorized Microsoft distributors). Direct OEM product keys will often
not activate with system builder installation media because direct OEMs
are now required by Microsoft to pre-activate their copies in the factory
using their own internal mechanism before delivery to the customer. It is
recommended that system builders also pre-activate their systems before
delivery, but this is not mandatory.

OEM installations can be customized using the Microsoft OEM
Preinstallation Kit with branding, logos, additional applications,
optional services, alternate applications for certain Windows components,
Internet Explorer links, and various other customizations. All OEM
customers must include support and contact information for the initial
installation of Windows because it is the responsibility for the OEM to
support the Windows installation, and is not provided by Microsoft to the
end-user. Direct OEMs must create their own media, but have the option of
creating their own custom recovery solution, which may or may not be
similar to a generic installation. Direct OEMs may provide a recovery
partition on the hard drive as the custom recovery solution rather than
providing disc-based media with the computer.

Some end-users have found this to be a troublesome option, because in the
event of an out-of-warranty hard drive failure, they may not have access
to any installation media in order to reinstall Windows onto a new hard
drive. System builders are not allowed the option to create a custom
recovery CD/DVD media. The only deliverable media available for a system
builder to give to the end-user is the unbranded OEM system builder
hologram media kit. Because of this, when end-users reformat their hard
drives and re-install from the installation media, they lose all the
custom branding and support information that the system builder would
have included.

As a supplemental recovery method to a CD/DVD-based installation, a
system builder may employ a fully customized recovery solution on the
hard drive. Whether utilizing a recovery partition or not, a system
builder must still include the original generic OEM system builder
hologram CD/DVD media kit. OEM licenses are not transferable from one
computer to another. Every computer sold/resold with an OEM license must
include all of the original installation media or recovery solution,
documentation, Certificate of Authenticity, and product key sticker with
the sale. Microsoft requires that all OEM system manufacturers include as
part of the configuration the Windows Out-of-Box Experience (OOBE), which
is the initial setup wizard encountered the first time Windows boots up.
It is also required that value-added resellers (VAR's), retailers, and
general resellers not tamper with the OEM's customized OOBE mechanism
unless under permission by the OEM, and it is a recommended configuration
for systems that are privately resold so that a customer will have a
like-new computer experience upon first boot-up.

OEM licenses are to be installed by professional system manufacturers
only. Under Microsoft's OEM License Agreement, they are not to be sold to
end-users under any circumstance, and are to be preinstalled on a
computer using the OEM Preinstallation Kit (OPK) before shipment to the
customer, and must include at the very least the manufacturer's support
contact information. They are, therefore, designed for installation only
on a single computer and are not transferable, even if the original
computer is no longer in use. This is not usually an issue for users who
purchase new computer systems, because most pre-assembled systems ship
with a preinstalled operating system. There are few circumstances where
Microsoft will allow the transfer of an OEM license from one non-
functioning system to another, but the OEM System Builder License
Agreement (SBLA), as well as the OEM End User License Agreement (EULA) do
not contain any allowance for this, so it is entirely up to Microsoft's
discretion, depending on the situation.[111]
Non-use by end user

In the event that an end user decides that they do not wish to use a
preinstalled version of Windows, Microsoft's End User License Agreement
(EULA) provides that the software may be returned to the OEM for a
refund.[112] Despite refusal of some manufacturers to honor the
entitlement, it has been enforced by courts in some countries.[113][114]

				
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Description: These are the documents which tells you about Windows operating systems. These will tell you about Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7 and Windows 8.