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  • pg 1
									                                          PEHCEIVING OTHERS
                                                                                                      ,',               lrn.I"'ilt: II •. \,! dJijert:!Jl
                                          Suppose )'<H) \.voke up tUfTl01T\JW !II ,11l( I tl ler pc. r~"' I '' J'n'!, ' " h '
                                                                                                               .J \ ,

                                          the world wIHlid S<.'em if you ,,"cre fifteen years olde f ()I ; U\lJlgcr,;1 uwml Wf (>t Ihe
                                                                ,               gf(H1P, .If " ,
                                          opposite sex or a dlffcnnt ('[hlll<.' f ' fll()l~ ,I I "'''S IlItt'liI)'ell! v"'.llv Illort'
                                                                                                                l'~'"                           "

                                          attrJ.Cllve or ugly, more wc;!Ithy or pOVt , Iy S'I f'keD It , l(
                                                                                                                  doe\n 1 (,11,'<' much mu~i'      ,
                                                                                                                                                              ,       >c

                                          nAtion to understAnd tlu r I be 	      ( <. " I , ') ·Jitkrent qjlt" '" .11 l; of liS, tic
                                                                            war II i t t ,I" I'kc' . ,                t   '

                                          ~'l,,.fjnq " r j " · · r o-~I."""'·;·,'(li f
                                                                                                                    on<htHHl as                               'I' ,
                                                                                                                                                      \\..'«.'1 .1S tll.n ' 0 t...               III an'!
                                                                                                                                                                                                  <   - \.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             "(,'f,d i);I(Kl.;f1)lI11ds,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              -   ".
                                          i~-"'"   •....,. .. 'n   '.II        ',1..1   ,,)1   J),'      •    ~

                                          Narratives and Perception
                                          We all h:lve our own stor r 0,t' t I' Ie '" 01 I ( I " 'Inti otten ('IAr story I ' '1"H(, ddktCIlI Irom
                                                                                    ..                         .
                                                                  , lIJnniJer or rOOIllII1:1,
                                          those of orhers, A hrnlly                     "                   te mig·hl (~l1nk V,'ll! S{'Ilse of hu,
                                                                                                                                "     '
                                          mol'is inappropriate, whneas you 111£1 k you " l l(l l ' t , clever, '''Oil (ntght bl:lme an
                                                                                        I·               Ie           ,', '         'y'

                                                                                                           ' k is
                                          unsatisfying class on the pr<'i('sSO!, Wh {) you I t1111, a leng WIIl!ktl t){)re, On the
                                                                            .                                         "         '
                                                                          ,         , " t(f1ze Iti e " ,
                                          other hand. rhe profcssor ITl!g.\1t ll"llC~(           .'              \lHknt~ as <dIKJf](rll ,1n<1 i.lzy

                                                                                                                                                                                         CHAPltH 2                Hfj.         U'"U'I TIlF SELF. ANO COMMUNICATION   35

                            "I know what j.5u're thinkirg, bu~ ler                                                          11/.e      "f!"¥ " cotnpeting -narratil'e­
                        ~: CThe New Vot1utr CoIoe-c:tion 2004 Harry Bfis.s                                          trO!'-t. t ·.ar'lo.)v. "'_ .!.".{• . A.a       RNJht5    Aes.erYed

    and bl;une rhe cl:J5s environment on them (Ch'i'(t, -) will I:llk about the sen ')1
    n:lrnc<:alhng emlx:dded in tile prt:"vious senl('n, r
        So.:I.!1 scientists -:all the personal stork, ii,,,! ',", and others cre2.te to n1Jk.,
    sense of our pCl'sonal world narratives.' III ,~ If ,\' pages we will look at how"
    tool (ailed "perception checking" can help bnd~r: the gal' between different
    narr,Hives. For now, though, the impoS":lllt pdld '" \ hat differing narratives can
   lead to problematic communicltion
        After they take hold,narratlves offer a tCdJ},.,,',,(k for explalIllIlg behavi:lf
   ;JIlU shaping future cOlllmwljcatio~ One study               'e'l.'>(' ! ill ()rganiz;ltion~                                ,.f
   illustr"tcs how rhe process opef3tes on the ),A) , R( searchers located employ
   ees who had p~rticipat('(j in office discllssion,s at ..., 'I ,;J.'>(·S where a feUow worker
  l1:1.d recelved "differential Ircatmellt" tronl lnan,'gCl"''',.r about matters such as rime
  off, pay, or work :J5signmellts [l,e rcS( d. u'\crs I h, II '''LII?,zed the c< ,n;:crs;itions thaI
  cOlplo)'ces held with fellow wuckers abollt 11)(' ,1;rrllTntial tre:1tmerlt Ill/" analy­
  SIS rcyc,lkd (hat these COllversallOllS 'sere the 'H" ,,',11'11 111 which "vorkers created
  ;lnd reinforced the meaning of the employee's h'h:,vlor and 1l13nagernellt's re'
 ,'POIlSC For example,consider the way w(Hkcrs m,de q'llse nf!;l/Ic Doc's hahit oj
 LIking late lunches, As Jane's coworker:, dlSn!'>s I\n beh.IVII)1 s, thev mIght de
 lick tlLlt 1I"r \;1[e Illnches Jren (fair -o[ ttiCI ,,,,,,I,, agree ( L!te Illn.-)H',
 ,lrCll'!;J hlg dc,    Eilherwa\',thc «)',\OrKC[, 1);\11,1(;1, t (,nice (,"(,llts ,1.'fi)I"S thos,'
 eV(,llts (JIl«(, 'ley ;1[(' definc,l (<,",vorkers (('iii! t. , I t k rClntCJl( ('11lt'lll 1,,1' It!<',r
 perceptiolls 'v keeping a lllellul"                                                                         Ofl'(          ,Inl        r,l,ing I h " l f                         fell,,\\' C1npl,,\'('('\
:llId IlI:lllag('1I1                   III    ("I):d               \'1."\1 nlltlc(' rlul                           1'" ,I, (       ,II""         In        I,I<' Ir~:llil                 l"d:II'           I   iI'! \. II

rlidh'("               rh~lt the hll,'->_\           ch(l'-.e )alle tIl                         l~I'         ti'       ,.I[ trlj1             t·!     ',,'(           \      ')'()rk          ),\Jtl\()l!\~11            flll",[

(){ IL'-.11kc              f(\    think \\'(' fl'ukc'                     ]lldi'il:( ;:(" ,!l)t)!l[                         I"rj)(

,1 :C" '-,   r ">   t Ii, i r ',(' I) ',( fl\,1 k I: 1,L: I"              I! 1 : l.'    tf.       i \   ! " "I       i': \ \                                      f   j 11   r \\',    H t.       I (   llit\          i!i   r!:(
\\   \'fk~li.Jl { ,:r),I· j )(-\\~lf'l('                                  11
                 f {r.   ,,

                                                    Hc,~<:;tn!J ()Il lUll}.: terlll 'l.IPPY IIUrf!.IL;l" dCIIHlIlo-tr:!tes ,~11:Ir("d n:IIT;t[I\C,
CULTURRL !OWN                                 dont havc to hI' ;]Cl'LJr;lIc to he pownllli ' (,ollpk', who rep,)rt I)('illt-: lLlpplh
yardsticks: standards of                       married after :ilty "lmOft: \CafS 'iCC!ll 1(1 (oll1ldc ill ,I fchlion:l! Il:Irr.lti\T tint (Incs
comparison,                                   lI't alw;IY, Jibt with the [;lltyThe, ,igWC Ihat thcv Llft'ly h:l\,(' lllJ1t1ict"t1t/H)IIt-:!J

botch: destroy, ruin                          ()b}Cdivc ;l/U!\,<;h nv(:'als llLIl Ihn ILl\<, Il:ld !lll'ir "h,lIl "ftlisagr<TIIlt'"Jlts ,llHJ tlLlI
                                              iengl" \Vith()l!! ,,\'ert!y :tgh l'1tlg [(, de> "", Illey cil<J"SI' Ir) hl;lrJlt' ()lHs!,!" tc,'c('s
!ashes out: attacks with words
                                              or lIflllSU;l! (i:-, umsU[]<.cs flil prohlnlls 1'1't('.ld uf .l!tLhlltlllg rc"p()!lsihililY!(J unc
blow [)ft !:tram: miease excess
                                              anotheL'T11ev (lite! tllC Ill"sl < h.HlL!l'k Pill rprctatl<:ns of Ollt' :!Il,)tllt'f" hell,I\"
energy or anger
                                              I'){' bdit'nng tint tlll'ir 'I"Jlist' ,II h '.'i ,It I i"o!)(lllItn]\H'IlS whell thillgs dOll t gIl

                                              well The} S('('Jll \\Iillllg til j,:I'>'.!', t' i" ; • en t(lfL;t'i. tr:III',grTO',SIOll,S FX:IITliIlITlg {his
                                              ITsc;lIch "nt' ~l h\!br Uillt IIII,jC-'

                                                 <...,IHHlld   \V( C()fHjl.,dc tlU[   h:q"'IJ}' (\~iq'~('" h~',('   ,1 p(H)r   grq>   (If)   I(',-din';   I'crh:lp" thc:   l!\)

                                                 hilt is Ihe realilY "t ,'oc, i1L!JIlag( be!?, r ~_;-','\n hv UUI.'Hl<' ,)tll()ok,'f'> rhan hy Ihe
                                                 pL1\t"r.s thClllSCi\-C";; I lit: Li,)lh!U~H;n h \ ,:if ;li ()l1C kt"v ttl ,t j(IJlg hdPPY Inarn;lge b                       l\)

                                                 tell vouf,dfand         Llh,'[s '/1;11 ';"11].\"     "'''ii'',llhlJ1 10 hch;J\'t' as though rOll do"

                                             Common Perceptlal Tenr1encjes
                                L--~'~~l'    "hared nan~ltives IIU)' he l'esE,iLk, hUi 11.,', (.Ill be !Llfd t() achieve, Some (If the
                                t,~~j'f'"    higgt'<;t pr()hlem~; that lllterft','e wirh ';"d,; -,LIllLling and ;'greeOlent arise fn'1l1
                                             ('[r()rs in ,vh:.t PS,diologisls I-,ll aitnf'i([l"tI ,the procL'~s of ,lltaching !1'f:llling
                                             t() hehavior, \Ve atl "hutc nlcanll1g 10 ! ),.( h ,,'jf own actiol1s :Inl; to the act lOllS \ If
                                             (lthef", hut we oftt n lise ,hfl(' run Y'I. d,"IICk~ [{csc'rch has uncoy( rt'd~e\'er,J/ flIT
                                             <.eptllal errors (Iut \,.Hl lead til LnaCC'iii'''' ,1J(rtbuti()l\.~,--;jncl tl) troublesome
                                             Ci):nmllnicJ~i()n ' By becomIng alVei r" ni .ht'''!: err()rs we ClI' glLHd ag,lltl'f
                                             them .1no avoid ll:,flt'(T~sar\' ('()llflH (,

                                            WE OFTEN JUDG!: 0URSHVES MORE GHAH! U\BLY THAN WE JUDGE OTHERS In
                                            an Jnempt to convince PlIIsdves and "Ihn~ 111;1( ihe positive face we sho\v to tile
                                            w()dd is true, we tend 10 judge ,Hllsch,> 111 itH~ !£lost genefPlIS terms possible So­
                                            (I;\! ..wlentists have labeled thi,i telldenn 'hI" ~~Ifst>rvirtg bias.6\~fhen oth'-rs "lif­
                                            ter, ',e often blame the prcblem 011 their pnvlll;:[ qualities On tne other h:lnd,
                                            \vhen we suffer, we find explanatiolls U\I'-,:dC'\I\',t'\vcs, Ccnslder a fnv examples

                                            .. 	 \Vhtn they botch:J jet>, we migllt 11111,1< Ih,y weren-t ij,renll1g \vell Of trying
                                                 hanl enollgh, whell we botLIJ :[ It,ll I:it f\r, ,hkm \vas IIIH k,tr directions l1r
                                               not enough time
                                            • 	 \Vllen he lashes out ;,ngl'iJ)', we,;I! lit:             ',I,tlll'; ,IIOOely       ()r too ';ensltive; whcn wc
                                               bi<)vV off steam, It'S because ut the pre-',IjH                       IVii'VC    heen under,
                                            • 	 W'hen she gets caught "peedillg, hC ",.\ ,I" ,i1<luld have been JIlore cardul
                                                whel1 we get caught. we l;,-m' \\T \Vt I',,' drt\'lng tl)() last "r say,' ",-'Crvll.,,:\,
                                                dll':s it "

                                                rhe cguccntflc tende't y II) r;J1e                   ()Il!   ,;,lq"   11l.'le    /;1\'uL,hly 11];111 uthers           StC

                                            liS lIa,s been dt'1l10I1st<'t'ed eXpefll'lenLllh                    ''11',1<'      stlldv, 1Ill'11Ibcc; of a random
                                            sample of rne~ were asked to r,lllk them:-, I\'c~ "II their ability ro get 3!c'ng ''-'lIh
                                            O1hel'< " Defying mathematical laws, all "I;t '1"< t, i: \ ery last O!1C'- put themseln's
                                            I!l the top half uf the puplJlatiun Si:-;Iv pi I I ,:,,1 ,;u;,:d tltemsehes in the (UP I.)

                                            percent (If the popul;ltl()n, Jnd ,Ill afllalll'l~ /'i f>trt't'nt hllJevt'll rllt'\' were 111
                                                                                                                                                              ? ./

  Ihe I(lP I IH It ('IH                     III     tIl!     ',!Ill( ,rllth        -()   P,T' ( Ii!    III Ille Illl II UII!-;tll        [Iwif leu]­
  t-f~I1IP III           >11<          [.)(',~    '-)   jll ; lTJlI '      f   [iJe jl<> 1"11, whell'.I' ()!liI                   ~ pefC (,Ilt
  thotJglll tl!n                 \'.Tn'    hcill\\ ,1't'1'I~t ,"IXT> ['t"l< t'll! '"lid                    rllcy   \\(Tl' III   thl' l<>p.2,) \,el­
  ('t'1l1 ill                    (I(    _Iirriltl( '" \\'IHTC;IS               ('111,;. jlerlll)1       \,(",\,.1 1!J'lll.'t'!W·S ;1'     helD",
        h-idclllT            lik· till',      '(I,(~)~('''':--   11",\     llll< 11;11 :1.11>1(' .1!tlf\llit' 1\1",     ,lid !)thef,'     C;lll ,rllell

  ,'()llltnllfl'(,]ll',J! 'l"Il' 1:11[,11 (\Plllltll1, td <)rII(T' (til It ,Itl I,! i\ld(~;n(,lll.1i Ill'"

 ~agt'S, :iIHI ,t It ,',,cf\ illg dcl(,fl"C~                         i   It YOllr ()\\'I1      ,I< 1]( ill" {:111 JT'->l!ll lIt .1   ,jclcl'l ..... n-c fC­
 .... P()!l,'"'C \ \ t l l l i    j,lh"r:-,·11()J1 \()tlf hC;Ll\'it,r

 WE ARE INFl. UFNCH) 8'1 WHAT IS MOST OBVIOUS                                                                 1\('[ \   tJIllt- \\l' t"rh lHlllier

 .lflothCf          Pt'l,'UlJ           ,\.t' .IIT   [l(lnlb:lnkd \'.'1111 1T10fC Illf('fJII;IIIUII lh;rn we (;Ill P"'~'I
 hly     mal];lV t ' '1">11" ,ill                J{'!)(,(L\tI' thiS ]'Y '{wnding 1\\ ') ill' Il1n'(' flllJ1lil,', 11I~t j'C
 P<lrtilJ,I',     ('ll   ",fl.!! r,al         (,Ill, ,Ih(']'\(' ,lh"lJt             :I[]<]tl]('j' PCf"ill thruligh "'llir II\c                 '-,t'Il'C'.

 (";\low I         sec d'i1 hl,mkll1,1; \;)Iir                     C\t'S            ;'\J()\\   111')'1«' Y()l1 '.IJlrlill,l;           :',)\V 1 herr
 YOUl3Ughilld 111,'11 <,igh                                    ,'J,)\V   I Ilotlcc       V(J,IIT w('.I(lJ)g:l       fnj ,11Ir!       ) YOll '-vill
 find that the: Irq 'tun:, ,lil;I()..,t t'lHJIe,'-, ;ll1d rir:1l ('Yen' tnlle                                        ,(lIl   s('em to Ileaf dll'
 ('Il(L a IlCW O»SU\;ltlun I)rt'st'nts Il>dl
      l:aced Wilh li!l', ,,(LII \vave of '-,C!l:'>(' data, we: need tl) whlltk down thc
  amount oj m/nrnUll()1< w,' wrll lise to In,lke :,(,!l~e ()f ()lher~ Then: :rre three fac­
 tors th:ll (,III'" Ii, It) niltl< t' 'OIllt' fnt'ssagcs ;Jlld IgIl()re oth,-rs, F()r t'x:1l111Jic, WC
 pay atlnllH>ll t·, ~;nn\1l. rhai ,III' IIltense (loud lllll'-,I(, I'['igntly dresscd pcople J, rep,
 l'titious (tinpP'ng btl! ('l s, pn:-'lstC-llt PCtlple), or COl/frlls/iI'e (a 1!()rlll:Jlly happy
 person who M,Le. gnnnpy "r vice \Trsa). ,Uofh'es illso deterlllrne ,vhat information
 ''Ie select trom '.'10;- (-'!lVitOnmcnt If you're anxiolls abollt 1'( 11lg late for a (/;1 1 " ,
you'll notice wl\·;r('H'1 -locks flU), be af(,und ~-Oll, if rOlll<' hungrY, VO:I 11 he
corne :J\\.lL' "j an,,- iL-,;,lIiUr,'" nUfkc(:"and hillho;lros "dH'rti~lI1g f<)('d in Y()lIr
path_ 11-1 ( ,t, "- i"; ,11.,,1. der, r IlJ; ill' how we peTl CI\C pe(lple For exam pie, somcone
on the l()('~"i)l for" itHr,'nlle adventure will he c-~peCl;dly a'''i1[e of attractive
poterHi;,( j"H1I1ef) "/IWf·..• ~, lhe same pcrson at a different tune might he ohlin­
,)ll-; to anyone b,.l polll t' or medical personnel in an emerge ncy

     It intt'n,~,e, ff'tWilllldl' f),- contrastive infofmation werc the most imp,JfLln!
thing to \",,,,v .lbilll! '-'HI,-r" (heTe wuuld be no p;'oolem Hut ;he lllost notice­
able behh1<'( ilf .,(pe,-', ""ll I 1hvays the most Iflllxllunt. For t:xall1ple

• 	 \'\IhcII "'" (tlll<inf\ '.ll "_I,Jit,, for that nUlter) tight,!r )ILlY he ,1 mistal<e t()
    hlame ilie olle 'x;. , i _ hllt ")lJl tlr'l Peril,IF" the other (lIlt' '-V,IS ,I( least eqll,dly
    re~poJl~!l>k, b\ 'Ccl"':)', "'f ['ef1lsing to (oopera'('
• 	 You mi)-(llt ('\In" Ii '''I ,'h,'ut an acqll:ltnt:lI1ce \Vh()~e maliCll)lIS gossiping or :If­
    guing In', twc (Hll< ,\ bl '. hn, F(lrgettUlg tInt, hy preYioll~ly [Okl:lIlIlg th:lt kllld (.f
    behan, '1_,- (] h;j\{· ht'('(1\i 11.'" partially fC'I'OIl,!hle
• 	 Yo II m IlJ It b 1:1111< - ,l/1 \Ii"" 'I 'l'v \\ ()rk ing sit ua t to 11 Oil til t' bo.,-;, 0 \ , r Ion k!ll g U(he r
    f;lct"r~ I 'C)" ,tid ilt'J ,.),,' ,,,I 'I}( h as a c h;!I1ge 111 I he C«()110IlH, I hi' !,olic \ (If

    hlghcr          rn;II1;If.[.CHIt. I,i               ,"   d"oland" (If l'lIstlllllers or              olhcr     workers

W F. eLI NG r () f I HS! j MPH ~ SSI tJ NS, EV E;~ IF W ~ 0 NG
Ing to our hI,' 1111]'(",';1";);, is ,m ine\ itable part of the ptTctptioll proccss.Thc't'
lahels      ilfe.1       \-Yay ->I        "",kill>;           intf'rplcratiolls "',t:e seems (I1t'l'rfuL""l!e ,(,(,IllS :--in·
«-re --    "n:t·\,        ~()1II1l11,,"t1"lv Q'lHTlled'
off-base: a mistake
a front: a pretense "

                             If rheyre :l' l "r:I'" "!i('rr'\\k'f-'~ liKe these elf} be useful \vav:; of deCiding
                         11,)',v i" ll'spond he~1 III [,(J'pk 111 rhe futllle Problems ;\TL'ie, however. wly>n 110<>
                         labels we alta, h :lrc in:\( , Uf'!e, hC',':I11Se afH.:r we fonn an opinion of sonJCone \VC
                         tend 10 liang ().J 1;\ it ,\11(\ 11,:ikc any conflicting informali"11 fit (Jur Image,
                             Suppuse, for ill,·,tan', (' Hjlj (IlCllt!(Jn the n:W1e cf your new neighbor tv a Inend
                          'Oh, I know hllll," \ VIII f( I. j ,01 replies" I Ie StTnlS lIice at firsl, but its all :m act.- Per·
                         haps thiS appraisal IS 1'1/ 1,;,,( nw l)c'lghbor flldY have chJnged since your friefld
                         kne\v him. or IK! Inps )' ':1I "!( nd'~ JlHlg;nent is simply unfair. \'I;'hether the jt:dg­
                         men! i~ .Iccur:.te ur !lIlt ,fl .. ' \LtI '\clept your friend's ev;lluatiol1, It \vill proba­
                         bty influence the W<ly )011 I( -punt! HI the neighbor, You'Ulook for ex.lJTlp!es of :he
                        IDsinceriry you 'v.' t,(,Md "r·"u! 'JnL! YOU I) probably f'ind t!leITl, FVf'll if the
                        neighbor were a saml, Y">I v,,·lid )")t· likdy to iOlf'f[Jrct his h",havlor in way~ that
                        tit your expccLltion~""Il:c i ''ieeql.< nice," you mighr th1l1k,"bot it's prob;lbl~'
                        Just a front" (If cuurse, ill,:> ",',i T ('t suspicion can create a self-fulfilling prophecy,
                        transfonning a gC"l1uincly .t!1 < ,)('1,(,11 mlo someone who Irllly hecl)nlcs an '111,
                        desirahle ncighbor .IS he H.'· '" ; () )' >tlr suspiciolls beh;l\lor,
                            Givt'll the :IJrnost ullannd1i·j.," I .. "dellcy to t(Jrrn first illlprCssiul<s. the beer "d­
                        ~ H'I: we CIf} offer i" [() ktT~1 ,Iii "perl mind and be willing [0 cha:\ge your "pill'
                        Ion as even's proy,' that Ihe i'1; -,\ 1I11l'fcssions werc nllstakcn

                        WE TEllO TO ASSUME THAT OfHEHS ARE Str.:Il.I\!1 TO US                                  Pcol'!c C'oPlII1I)llly
                        1I11:lgine tlut others posse'." Tt:/·,am'· :lttitlldes ,lIld J1I0!l\TS lh:lt fhey du For e,X,
                        ;trnpJe, rest'arch ,h(1\\", 1h;n 1\(" i lit' WJl" low ~dfl'qeem i:lugine th,;! ut hers ,'iew
                        tllerl! lIpbvorahly, wh~'r(,:I~ l'i ,'pil' ' \ lin hke themselves Hn:lglne tint olliels like
                        tiJelIl, tno'The t'rC<jlwlltly flllq ,k""11 :;'~lIf1lpli()J1 that others' vie'w' :ire ~lInibr to
                        (lllr 0\'\."1 JPplic'-, In ;1 WIde ",.11);1 f ~illi;ltl()nS, For cxample:

                        • 	 )"u\,'l' ht'Jnl.1   LIlJll<   tly   ,(,kl   i!,;JI \()l1     lound lunny, You ITlIght .I"-Ulll,· that II
                           \vun't o;Tend:1 '>"Jllt:,,,ILIt        II "".,   f\';lll\t:   trwnd It does
 113 	 YlillVt" !llcn b(Jtllefed 11\ :!lllll'tllil t"I~ kndc                    IlC) [<I   get ull t11C,1I11W' t during
       ketu ("l> S I f you we rc :t p r( ,fe' ", If, \ , , ut! \\'.111 t I ( , k 1l<J \\. II: Ill) ( 1111 ; g \ ( 'II \\ l'rc II (l­      CULTURRL loloM­
      ing was creatlllg pn)hlnll~ Jur ,lllil ~[ll\kI1I~, .,() 1()1I dClllit' tiLl! ,(Ill! Illqp.l<.tor                                    putting others down: degrarling
      will prohahly he grateful for '()Tllt' (')flqnlcti\".' criric i"l] ! nl()rlllll:!tcly,                                              others
      \uu'rc wrollg
 II 	 Ynulosl )'(Hlr temper \\jlll,1 fr;clld,1 \', (t'k ;!go and ~,lId S()Il](' lilll,g, \')\1 wglTI
      ill f:lct, if SOiiit'Oj1C ''),iid th(;',(' thii;,:<"\!{) \'(~~I, '.;~u \\'(~~dd (){l>)(J('I 11;(" rcLlri~;r~
     .... hip lilll,lwd Im;lgillll1g Ih:ll \()1II lrililli Inh tIW';IIIIt' \\.1\''11 .1\ (Id III,I}.;·
     ing cont:lct In lac·t, YOllr frinli\ fecI', Ihat lH \\:1,' 1',lrfly rc'pull'"'lIld 11:1.,
     :Iyoidnl YOII hn:au,t' he thinks Y"I,r( the OIL' wh() \V:lIlts to "I,d Ildlh'.'

     E:\arnpJc~,     like thc,e sll"w that            ()(I1<'[,.,   don't :liw;l),'s think ()r ICellli'''',I,' ',\C do
 and that ;h'-.lll1llllg that :-'llllii:lfllll',' c:\ ist (Ill ICIe!             t()   pruhkms. i, 'i'       ,'"   ,(111PIc-   "tll'

",tudy revealed that men evaluate WOTlICn who il'ltiatc tJf~t liate,'i .1.' ilt'IJlg 1IV'[(' Ill·
tCfcstnllli sex rhan do the \\IIIllCI1 \\ lIo illiri;ltnl the darc~ i "
    11(l\V Clli )'oulind out the u:hcr pr-r:,()11 \ ,11' >()[)1l'lllllC' I:., ,I:-klllg dl'
rcetl)',';ornetimes by checking with Olhtf':and .'0 llIC t lines lw lllaklflg:lII tdllcltnl
guess aftn )"u\C"thUlight tIlt' matt, [ Ol)t .\11 tl]l'~l' :i1tcrll.ltivc\ 1ft' I ,·It .. r riull
,'iimply assllming that eyeTVone w()lJ!d [(,let thc \":IY \()ll do

 you think about Jlaryey' lit'S hand:-'()Tllt' h.mlw('lklllg IIltcJlignlt,;lJld IHln,q lIe',
 aiso verY i. (Incnted
     Did the List qua:;ty melltloned lll;J!(C .1 Jltlc[t'I)ce If) your ~:\alll;]tl()n) If ,t ,lId,
 you're not :ll(lne. Research ~how" th,1l wilt 11 rWdpk;lle ,[ware ()fhplh tile positive
and ncg;ill\(- tr:!lts of an()ther. they r, IHI to he mort' inf!lwnced hy til, lleg;l1l\T
traits. in Ollt' 'tlHly, for eXdllJple. rCSG1It. hefs found tlLlt joh Il1tenlc,\.ers \\Tre
likely 10 reject cilldidatc,; wh() fcve:dcd !lcg;llive Iflf()rnLIIJllll "veil wh(,l1 the k>­
ral amOllll1 (,f in/onllalion was highly j)",llive I!
    SomctmH', this attitude makes sen~e It the llt'gatlYc quality ckarty mIt weighs
ally' positj, " ones, VOIJ'eJ be fo()li,~h to Igl'(He it A surgeon \Yltl~ ~h;l~;y h.lllt:S and :l
teacher ""'htl hates childrcn, for cxample, would be ilJl.SUllable for tlltlr jobs
wh;ltcver Iheir other yirtues Bllt mud] ()f the ti:lll' I:'S a had idel to pay exee,">­
sive atter.llon to ct:,I!dtive qualities :md I)vnluok posllive ones. 'nu~ is the mistake
sOllie people :nake when screeniJ1g potenl ial friends or dates They f.nd some who
are too OlJlg'l1ng or tou reserved, other,; who aren't intelliger)t enough. and still ,)tll­
efS whu havr- the wrong sense of hurnol Of course, it's important to fmd people                                                        ~
YOIl truly rllj( ))1, hilt expcctmg redect). ,n tan lead to mllch unlleCl:ssary loneliness.                                            ! have he3rj students    say thillgS like,
                                                                                                                                         It was John's fault, his speech was
     D:Ill', Hll'iunderstand:\X'c dont .l\;,v:ljS L'(mlllllt the kllld of perceptllal errors                                           so coofusing r..Jbody could have em­
(k~cril'cd In     Ihis section. SOlllCtin'es, it'r instance, pCI ,pic <Ire re"pollsible for thcir                                      (lc:lstood It' Then, two mintltes later.
rnisfonulli's, ,:nd sometinlcs (Jur pr()bknl.' .Ir-: not our f:llIit Like\vise, the rnost ob­                                          the same student remarked, "It
VlOIlS in I n pret:I1 ion of a sit u:ltion IT];l)" he the correct one Nonet tle less, a large                                          wasn't rny fault. WIl;Jt I said could Iwt
:lllltHlllt of n:;-,earcil has proved again ;md ;lgain that ollr perceptions of, lthers afC                                            have been clearer. John must be stu,
ofter. distorted ill the ways iisted here nit' moral. tIWD.IS cie;lf Don't assume that                                                 pilj," Poor Joh'll He was blamed wIlen
y()ur first )I i.!gnH'llt of a persoll IS aCU!l~it ('                                                                                  lie '.vas the sender ,lnd when he W,lS
                                                                                                                                       the receiver. JlJhn's problem WZlS thZlt
Situational Factors Influencing Perception                                                                                             he was the other perso,l, and that's
                                                                                                                                       Nho IS always at fault
Ai<>tlg Wr!J, lite :illnbution errurs ill'''. I Ihnlll1 the pin uling p:lges, we .. onsJ(ier
.1 ,-vhole ranRC ,.f additional f:Jctor., when (lYing to make 'ense of others' behaVIor                                                stcpnen W :",Ing

                                                                                                                                                          --~-. -,              '''-'-'r-:;-:
                                          1. 	 You can (Fllfl <lPPI eciallon for the W3Y perceptual prrors operate by makinq two attribu­
                    tions for each situatioll lila! follows. DEvelop your first explaniltlon for tf18 brhavior as If
                         you ',vere the person involved. Your second explanation for the behavior should be (Je­
  lIND YOIJRS[l F                              velored as if ~~nrneone you dislike WPIP tile prrSGn described
                                                  Dozing off In CLlSS

                                             !II 	Getting ilngry ~t a CllstonlPr on t~IPlob
                                             lJ 	 Dressing Sipppily In public

                                             a 	 Being insen<;it!v8 to a fricmJ's distj";ss
                                             • 	 l_aughlng at an Inappropriate or OH2osive    J(]~e

                                         2. 	 It your explanalions for these behaVior:.. dltjRr, ilsk yuur'ieil why. Are the differinq attrr­
                                              butiuns justifiable or do they suppor1 tile tendency to ili<lke the perceptual errors listed
                                              on pages 36--39 7
                                         J. 	 flow do these pcn:()ptual errors operate !:l rmklng jlJllymelits abuut others' behaVior, 

                                              especially when thlse others come from dlftert:Cit )OCJ~.tI ljmups'? 

                                        Relational SCltisladion The heL"", 'f d"..                    i 'iI:, l'dSiuIC when you are 111 ;j

                                        -;atlsf) ing rtia[j, lflqllP fl11gllt seem ;:')fI),dn, ", ,.1,ftClrnt \"hen the rcla[jollShlj'
                                        Isn'! gci1lg IVI-'Il For example, vou rnig!ll It ~.",! :r'l" ,!I;irks of a houscmatc with
                                        ,lnlllSC Ille nl IV he.'l Illlngs are going .,rn, \:)lldv. h'l' ll..,d I h~m very an'loying \vhen
                                        ~'(}1I 'lle iJIlhapp) \' UP his other beluv i .• ! i In Illl, ."fl:,('. uur willingness to tollT
                                        ale th(' p()[cntialh t·" ·thersome bch;n·!/,r "r I"-"P)( 'He like is rather like the :ll1lllSt'­
                                        !1leJlt \\T g(( wllnl 1 belovcJ cat di1Ji! .~; '.IH ( l)1i:,lilU, tree or the Jog sneaks a
                                        h~n!hurgcr \,... he1 ili Ih. )(Jy is looking)

                                        Degree of lovolvlaH':r1! with the Other P~'S(lll        \VI. ·,,,,,;,'Iimc::s view people with
                                        ,,,honl l,ve have cr seek a rel::tionship fI,(rlt' t;(y,,;,.hly ,nan those wholll we oh­
                                        serve trolll a deta,hed pen;pective.;z ()1,!" ~I udv '\'\,('.>11':<.1 how this principle ()p­
                                        crates in everyday Ide. A group of nuk ·,ui".', .,', ". .J." .,,:'ked 10 critique prest:"lHa·
                                        tlOns bj' WDmen "vhl) allegedly ow [Jed ,x,'>L'U)"lii- H~lf of these pn:sentati(llls
                                        ,vere designed te, 'It· competent and halt ill' 1i)\)P"i·Pf. rile men who were told
                                        they would he Innllg a casllal datt' \,oh ,," ;,,·\tUif.. <,peakers judged tlleir
                                        preSl'"llt;J I ions-~", het her competent (,I 'I' ,j   ITl"j ',' h I.dlly t han did those \Vh\)
                                        didn't e.xl'ec t ;lny 'I'YI)lvcment with th,~ .1'( "~.('!' ';

                                        Past Experience
                                        ~'I)ll',e been gOllgnt hy hndlords ill tlK p,.'.l '''' Illight he skeptical about .In
                                        apartrncnt m;,nager's assurances thar can fld 1'1, .\"., k •. cpll'.g wtll aSSl.rc the refund
                                        ( ) f your ckan ing dq)( ,,,it

                                        Expectations       Aml( ipatJ(.n ~hapcs int' rf" (-:;11 ".liI', It rOll imagine [ilat y(~llr
                                        hoss is unhappy with Yllur ,yurk, yuu 11 prnj;,lbl v !1ft Ihre;nened by ;1 request to
                                        ".~tT Ill" in my of/1c,· flr~t thing l'.londay 01' >I !lIng . I. Iq 1101.' utller hand, ifyoll im,lg­
 ,,>                   '~U[}>~r:~   r   me that your work \vlll he rewarded. yOIlf\!,- cc!<;cT.d ", iii prohably be pleas:.nt
J"U"hI~~~~hJ~W,l1,~.,,,~~~~             Social Roles    "nut. Ih, r of suci;1] rdatioll.'hil '.. , .ill 'JlllllnH t' the way we percellt'
been gouged by: was charged .);
                                        othe~s.                                       ! .. f C("lln" .. ,l( .1IHn ld tile workplace Ie·
                                                      For eX:lInpl,.,. ()ne lecent study
an excessive amOimt
                                        vealed thJ! (It''l nn·, b(ltlt men ;lIld W('flIC,i . ''',' 'j\i','( 1:1< nl c:xpre,sioJ1s <iiI·
                                                                                                                                    ~   !1 I   ;.   l: : \'   •J

 It'lelill,' liependlll l , ,'lllhe[[ ,1.1111, rcLlll',' TO lIlt'                        (,Ii,,!     i't'!"'I'        ',iI'/ltt,               ',\t/(' 

 ,ilov,:n a photo III ~(illlt'(lile ;111l1 ,l.,kl'll t() Judge h()w rlut pn"()I) \\.J.' Jcdmg,\\ hell 

 the person pICtured W;I~ ,I manager "lhJects ';i\.\ k" Ie.!r Ih,m 1\ he Il IIHy wcre 

 told th:u Ihe pt'L""1l !)!ltlJrn! \\,:1.' ,Ill t'IllI,I()\'(T (,cnder ,rho 111,lkt" I drJJerclll (' III 

h()\v     \IT pCnTi\t'           <lrllt'rs   'W,,'lil):   a   1\\111:,111 ,IIHI ,1111,1111'''''' :11/              IIL,cr ,11'1'"''                      ,I 

 the   '.Iillt   lIlf,'n,J[1 ,'III)I<'CI, ~,I\1.      IIlI    )re   ,11!,1.,:('r ;Ind   It   Co,' It',lr I!I ,I 111.11l '   ('\   J,rt     ','](111 

[lUll 111.1 IVOII1:1>]'S, pl'"h,li", het ,111',t'                    gCl1der '11'1'«(111',1(' ',I t'1l1"llt'll ,~lItdt,tI 

11]('11   intnprcl.IIJ(IJl' 

Knowll~dqe            It    I'll/ LI1<'"     ih.II.l Illelit! !J.h Ill'! heen IJiltti                  h\     .Ilt'·'([   ,)r   Il(TIIII!I<i

fr(JIll;;   j(lh,   ,()tl   Ilmlell'lt I hiS .li()of I,',dl:lvi()r ddtnt'lilll 11,.111 1<111 II (lllid                                   II Itill

,\TIT ll/l:t\V:lrc         pt   \1   h.n lud happened It               YOll   w(lrK          ill :l!l l'll\   Ironmt'1l1 \\'I:<r,· ")
ualizing 'Ii C()IlJJlI<'1l ,Ind c()lk:I,~II(,s                }};I,(' iilCIlt!ly ITI:IIl\'ll.~hIP' \"11 ilL!} 1:(                               It,,~
IIKelv II' perce'I\" ,j '('I!ll\\ \\"IKer-; rtll!.llk .l~ '1\t1,d h,lr;I','I"1111                                               Ilull "'.'IJ
\\,()tdd if YOll \Vcle 111 ;!ll illlLlIl1iil:lr ('[)I'IP)I1!lWIlI

Self-Concept \X 11(\n \t;l! Ie feding 111',(,( llre, tile world h .1 \t'!V <lUteIClI! ld,\CC
from the \\'orld ) OlJ ,'\:1"<'1 it'lKT \\'}Wll ., I'lire (()!It)(itlli For L'Ctllil ,ie, tht· 1(, 11"1'
('nt's sell (,(ll1CCpt lr:1S pI,;vcLi III he the ,'lllgle grt.llt','i Lit I()r III dt'ter'lllllmg
whethcl peopk whn ,1,(' "11 the ['n CHing (,lid (II helng It·ascd inlt:! pn;( the
(c;lser's motive~ as he Illg friendly' '1 Iwsrile alld whether riley resp()[;(1 WIth
comforl "fekfen'IV"f1(,\,' ", 'Ill',' ,~;tnlt POt'S fur happilll' ,s ;md S;tdll(,~S urany .,[her
npposillg ('rnotions 1'1.( \\,1), w(' ItTl ,Ib( )'.11 "llr~clvc' ,1[' 'ngly lntJlIt'flcLS 11IN, IV'"
illtcprC'f other" lwhasl'r

Percep1HlIl (incl Culture
I'crceptu.ll diffcnnlc", rn;lke commlllllc:ltl"n cilaJlcnging enough hl"ween
memher., of Ihe .,amc: i ,dtilre But\V!H'll tOlllmllilJLltors (ome from differen( c'll,
tures, thl' potenl'al fOI !lrJ~IIll(krsUjHIlT1gs IS even gfP,jfcr (.llltllre pro\ Ide,; :J

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