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Shakespearean Drama 1

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					                 Shakespeare
I.    A Brief Biography
II.   The Globe Theater
III. Dramatic Terms
Shakespeare: A Brief Biography
Born in April 1564 at Stratford-on-Avon
John Shakespeare (father)
   tanner, glover, dealer in grain
   town official (alderman, and later mayor)

Mary (mother)
   daughter of Robert Arden, a prosperous gentleman-
   farmer.
Shakespeare: A Brief Biography
Attended the Stratford Grammar School

Did not go to Oxford or Cambridge
Shakespeare: A Brief Biography
Married Anne Hathaway in 1582

Three children born: Susanna, Judith, and Hamnet
Shakespeare: A Brief Biography
By 1590, he was an actor and playwright

Leader of the Lord Chamberlain’s Men and the King’s Men

Died April 23, 1616
Shakespeare: A Brief Biography
He was buried in Stratford; the inscription on his
tombstone reads. . .
Shakespeare: A Brief Biography
    “Good Friend, for Jesus’ sake, forbear

        To dig the dust enclosed here;

   Blest be the man that spares these stones

   And curst be he that moves my bones.”
Shakespeare: A Brief Biography
Author of 37 plays and 154 sonnets
Robert Greene, a critic, attacked Shakespeare,
a mere actor, for writing plays.
He acted before Queen Elizabeth in 1594.
The exact year in which William Shakespeare
wrote Hamlet is unknown, but versions exist
from 1603 and 1604
      The Globe Theater
He wrote his plays to be performed in the Globe
Theater.
The only account we have of the Globe is from a diary
of a Swiss doctor who visited London and crossed the
Thames River to see a play in a theater with a thatched
roof.
       The Globe Theater
It was built in 1599 and burned down 14 years later in
1613.

It was an 8 sided building with a central yard.
       The Globe Theater
Spectators’ price of admissions was
   one penny - to stand in yard around stage (these were
   called the groundlings)
   two pennies - to sit in 2nd and 3rd floor galleries
   three pennies - to sit in the first floor galleries
        The Globe Theater
Stage
  1/3 of yard was filled with 6ft high platform
  no curtain
  no artificial lighting
  back wall had at least two doors
  balcony was used for hilltops, walls of cities, or
  second story scenes.
  trapdoors were used to raise or lower actors and
  props.
       The Globe Theater
Take a tour of the new Globe Theater. . . .

 www.shakespearesglobe.com/about-us/virtual-tour



There is a cross section of the Globe on page 428 of your
book
          Shakespearean Drama
Tragedy: A drama that ends in catastrophe—most often
   death—for the main character and often for several
   other important characters as well
Tragic Hero: The main character, someone who is nobly
   born and has great influence in his or her society.
   This character has weakness or errors in judgment
   (Tragic Flaws) that lead to his or her downfall. Fate
   may play a role in the course that events take.
The tragic hero as a character has become a part of
  Western and even global consciousness, an archetype.
  Common Elements in Shakespearean Tragedy

Contrast
  one idea/character or object is thrown into opposition
  with another for the sake of emphasis or clarity
  use of contrast heightens distinctions of character and
  increases interest by placing opposites side by side (e.g.
  comic scene just before a tragic scene)
  character foils (those who provide contrast, usually to
  the protagonist) are used extensively by Shakespeare
  Common Elements in Shakespearean Tragedy

Fate
   intervention of some force over which humans have
   not control
   may complicate the plot but does not bring about the
   downfall of the hero (he ultimately chooses it for
   himself by his actions)
   pathos/sympathy may be felt by the audience for those
   hurt by fate
  Common Elements in Shakespearean Tragedy

The Supernatural
  Shakespeare knew the appeal of ghosts, witches,
  premonitions, prophesies and other supernatural
  events for his audience and thus he included them
  Common Elements in Shakespearean Tragedy

Nemesis
  Nemesis is the Greek goddess of vengeance, the
personification of righteous indignation; she pursues
those who have displeased the gods
  by Shakespeare’s time, the term became associated with
any agent of fate or bringer of just retribution
  Common Elements in Shakespearean Tragedy

Catharsis
  a term to describe the intended impact of tragedy on the
audience; the reason we are drawn, again and again, to
watch tragedy despite its essential sadness
 by experiencing the events which arouse pity and terror,
we achieve a purging (catharsis) of these emotions
  detached pity and involved terror that leaves the
spectator with “calm of mind, all passion spent”
  Common Elements in Shakespearean Tragedy

Suspense
 uncertainty in an incident, situation, or behavior
  keeps the audience anxious concerning the outcome of
the protagonist’s conflict
  Shakespeare uses conflict, precarious situations,
apparently unsolvable problems, foreshadowing and delay
to develop suspense
Common Elements in Shakespearean Tragedy

Comic Relief
Common Elements in Shakespearean Tragedy

Comic Relief

A humorous scene, incident, or speech that relieves the
   overall emotional intensity in the play. Comic relief
   helps the audience absorb the tragic events in the plot
   of a play.
Common Elements in Shakespearean Tragedy

Allusion
Common Elements in Shakespearean Tragedy

Allusion

A brief reference, within a work, to something outside the
   work that the reader or audience is expected to know.
   Many of Shakespeare’s allusions are to mythology or
   the Bible.
Common Elements in Shakespearean Tragedy

Foil
Common Elements in Shakespearean Tragedy

Foil

A character whose personality or attitudes are in sharp
   contrast to those of another character in the same
   work. This highlights the other character’s traits.
Common Elements in Shakespearean Tragedy

Soliloquy and Aside
Common Elements in Shakespearean Tragedy

Soliloquy and Aside
   A Soliloquy is a speech made by an actor alone on
   stage to let the audience know what is on that
   character’s mind.
Common Elements in Shakespearean Tragedy

Soliloquy and Aside:
   A Soliloquy is a speech made by an actor alone on
   stage to let the audience know what is on that
   character’s mind.
   An Aside is a character’s remark to the audience or to
   another character that others on stage aren’t supposed
   to hear. The purpose of an aside is to reveal that
   character’s thoughts.
Common Elements in Shakespearean Tragedy

Dramatic Irony

  This situation occurs when the audience is aware of the
conditions that are unknown to the character on stage or
when some of the characters are ignorant of what really is
on the speaker’s mind
Common Elements in Shakespearean Tragedy

Blank Verse
Common Elements in Shakespearean Tragedy

Blank Verse

 Unrhymed lines of iambic pentameter. Shakespeare wrote
   all of his plays in blank verse.
                   Blank Verse
Example of Blank Verse

~     /       ~    /     ~        / ~        /   ~   /

But soft.|What light| through yon|der win|dow breaks?

~ /       ~   /    ~ / ~~ /         ~    /

It is| the east|, and Jul|iet is |the sun!
                         Hamlet
Principal conflict

       When the play begins, the old king Hamlet has been killed
   by his brother, Claudius, who now sits on the throne. Claudius
   has also married the old king Hamlet’s wife, Gertrude. Young
   prince Hamlet (the son of the old king) is distraught over his
   father’s death and his mother’s hasty remarriage.
                          Hamlet
The ghost of his dead father visits Hamlet and reveals to him that
   his father was poisoned by uncle Claudius. The Ghost
   commands prince Hamlet to avenge his death. Hamlet agrees,
   but spends much of the play uncertain of whether to trust the
   ghost’s words and eager to obtain proof of his uncle Claudius’s
   guilt.
                       Characters
Hamlet: Son of a murdered Danish king and nephew of the present
  king, Claudius. Hamlet suffers great mental anguish over the
  death of his father, the marriage of his mother to the suspected
  murderer (Claudius), and the clash between his moral sense and
  his desire for revenge against his father’s murderer. To ensnare
  the killer, Hamlet pretends madness. Some scholars contend
  that he actually suffers a mental breakdown.
                       Characters
Hamlet: Son of a murdered Danish king and nephew of the present
  king, Claudius. Hamlet suffers great mental anguish over the
  death of his father, the marriage of his mother to the suspected
  murderer (Claudius), and the clash between his moral sense and
  his desire for revenge against his father’s murderer. To ensnare
  the killer, Hamlet pretends madness. Some scholars contend
  that he actually suffers a mental breakdown.

Claudius: The new King of Denmark, Hamlet's uncle. He killed
   Hamlet’s father, the old king, and married Gertrude.
                       Characters
Gertrude: Queen of Denmark, Hamlet's mother, and widow of the
       murdered king. Her marriage to Claudius within two months
       after the late king’s funeral deeply disturbs Hamlet.
                       Characters
Gertrude: Queen of Denmark, Hamlet's mother, and widow of the
       murdered king. Her marriage to Claudius within two months
       after the late king’s funeral deeply disturbs Hamlet.

Ghost of Hamlet’s father, old King Hamlet: The Ghost tells Hamlet
       about Claudius’s treacherous murder and commands Hamlet to
       avenge his death.
                        Characters
Gertrude: Queen of Denmark, Hamlet's mother, and widow of the
       murdered king. Her marriage to Claudius within two months
       after the late king’s funeral deeply disturbs Hamlet.

Ghost of Hamlet’s father, old King Hamlet: The Ghost tells Hamlet
       about Claudius’s treacherous murder and commands Hamlet to
       avenge his death.

Polonius: Bootlicking Lord Chamberlain of King Claudius.
                         Characters
Gertrude: Queen of Denmark, Hamlet's mother, and widow of the
       murdered king. Her marriage to Claudius within two months
       after the late king’s funeral deeply disturbs Hamlet.

Ghost of Hamlet’s father, old King Hamlet: The Ghost tells Hamlet
       about Claudius’s treacherous murder and commands Hamlet to
       avenge his death.

Polonius: Bootlicking Lord Chamberlain of King Claudius.

Ophelia: Daughter of Polonius. She loves Hamlet, but his pretended
       madness–during which he rejects her–and the death of her father
       (who Hamlet kills by accident) trigger a pathological reaction in
       her.
                          Characters
Gertrude: Queen of Denmark, Hamlet's mother, and widow of the
       murdered king. Her marriage to Claudius within two months
       after the late king’s funeral deeply disturbs Hamlet.
Ghost of Hamlet’s father, old King Hamlet: The Ghost tells Hamlet
       about Claudius’s treacherous murder and commands Hamlet to
       avenge his death.
Polonius: Bootlicking Lord Chamberlain of King Claudius.
Ophelia: Daughter of Polonius. She loves Hamlet, but his pretended
       madness–during which he rejects her–and the death of her father
       (who Hamlet kills by accident) trigger a pathological reaction in
       her.
Horatio: Hamlet’s best friend. Horatio never wavers in his loyalty to
       Hamlet.
                            Characters
Laertes: Son of Polonius, brother of Ophelia. Circumstances make him an
         enemy of Hamlet, and they duel to the death in a fencing match
         at the climax of the play. As a man who reacts to circumstances quickly,
         with a minimum of reflection on the meaning and possible outcome
         of his actions, Laertes contrasts sharply with the pensive and
         indecisive Hamlet and, thus, serves as his foil.

Rosencrantz, Guildenstern: Courtiers and friends of Hamlet who attended
        school with him. They turn against him to act as spies for Claudius and
        agents in Claudius’s scheme to have Hamlet murdered in England.
        Hamlet quickly smells out their deception and treachery.

Players: Actors who arrive at Elsinore to offer an entertainment. Hamlet asks
         them to stage a drama called The Mouse-trap, about a throne-     seeker
         who murders a king. Hamlet hopes the play will cause Claudius to react
         in a way that reveals his guilt as the murderer of old King Hamlet.
Are there any questions?

				
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